Exercise Physiology from Chapter 2 of the ACSM's Certification Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The term ______________ refers to the body's ability to acquire, convert, store, and utilize energy?
Bioenergetics
What is the immediate source of energy for all cellular activities, including muscle contraction?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
After ATP is utilized for energy, it's converted to?
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
Because only a limited amount of ATP is stored in the body, energy pathways have been developed to replace ATP. What are they?
1. Phosphagen System
2. Nonoxidative System
3. Oxidative System
What system relies on the amount of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) that is already stored in the body?
Phosphagen System
Explain how the phosphagen system works?
Through the activity of the enzyme CREATINE KINASE, Phosphocreatine yields its phosphate group so that it can be added to ADP to syntehsize ATP.
Approximately how long can the phosphagen system provide energy to the working muscles?
Approximately 30 seconds during exercise with all-out effort.
The nonoxidative system is sometimes referred to as what?
Anaerobic pathway.

Does not require oxygen to produce ATP.
In the nonoxidative system, since oxygen isn't required, what is used to produce ATP?
Carbohydrates:
-Glucose
-Glycogen
Since oxygen isn't required in the nonoxidative system and carbohydrates are used to produce ATP, what is the concern?
The breakdown of carbohydrates yields lactic acid, which can contribute to muscle fatigue as it accumulates.
Approximately how long can exercise be sustained utilizing the nonoxidative system?
30 seconds to 3 minutes.
The oxidative system for making ATP is also known as what?
Aerobic System
What is required for ATP production using the oxidative system?
Oxygen
What are the three maconutrients utilized for the production of ATP during the oxidative system?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fats (Lipids)
3. Protein
What is the byproduct when using the oxidative system?
-Oxidative Phosphorylation
a. Water
b. Carbon Dioxide
What makes the oxidative system more efficient than the nonoxidative system as far as the byproducts are concerned?
Water and Carbon Dioxide have no fatiguing effects on the working muscles like lactic acid does.
Activities lasting longer than 3 minutes in duration and in which intensity is limited, muscles rely on what system?
Oxidative System
Should inadequate oxygen be delivered during the oxidative system, your body will now depend on the nonoxidative system to help compensate. This switch that occurs is referred to as_____________.
Anaerobic Threshold or the Lactic Threshold.
Among the 3 types of muscle in the human body, what is the most abundant?
-Skeletal Muscle: Accounts for more than 50% of the human body's mass.
All tissues in the body are comprosed of individual cells. What are the skeletal muscle cells?
-Myocytes or Myofibers
The __________ is a layer of connective tissue that is wrapped around each myofiber or Myocyte?
Endomysium
A group of as many as 150 Myofibers or Myocytes lying in parallel are bundled together to form a __________?
Fasciculus
Each Fasciculus is wrapped by a layer of connective tissue termed?
Perimysium
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle is referred to as?
Epimysium
The contractile filaments ______ and ________ account for roughly ____% of the protein content of the myofiber?
Myosin and Actin

-60%
The _______ is the larger protein and is sometimes called the thick filament?
Myosin
Regulatory filaments are essential for triggering the contractile event. Thes regulatory filaments are _______and _______.
-Troponin
-Tropomyosin
How many types of muscle fibers does the human body have?
3
What are the types of muscle fibers?
Type I
Type IIB
Type IIA
This type of muscle fiber has slow-twitch properties, but have a high oxidative capacity?
Type I
This type of muscle fiber has fast-twitch properties with low oxidative potential?
Type IIB
This type of muscle fiber is considered intermediate in both twitch velocity and oxidative capacity?
Type IIA
The _______________ theory of muscle contraction explains how these proteins interact to produce a twitch of the muscle fiber?
Sliding Filament Theory
Which muscle protein contains many cross-bridges?
Myosin
The enzyme ATPase is located on what filament and where?
Myosin Cross-Bridge Heads
What is the function of ATPase?
It cleaves ATP, resulting in the power stroke that pulls Actin toward the center of the myosin molecule. This sliding action of the Actin over the Myosin results in shortening of the fiber and the generation of force.
After the Power Stroke phase of muscle contraction, a new ATP molecule attaches to the Myosin Cross-Bridge head causing what to happen?
It breaks the link between Actin and Myosin allowing the whole process to begin again should it be needed.
The ___________ is responsible for delivering cytosolic calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thus returning the myofiber to a state of relaxation?
The Calcium Pump
What is the purpose of Calcium in the muscle fibers?
It binds to Troponin, causing the associated Tropomyosin to undergo a shift and exposing the active sites on the Actin filament to be exposed to enable the Myosin heads to attach.
How does the body expose of Carbon Dioxide?
Exhalation
Inhaling through the nose has what advantage?
1. Warming the air.
2. Removing many airborne particles.
The nasal and oral passageways meet together at the ___________?
Pharynx
What is considered the vocal cords?
Larynx
What is considered the windpipe?
Trachea
Describe the Pulmonary Anatomy?
1. Enters via the nasal and/or oral airways.
2. Air than passes through the Larynx and into the Trachea.
3. Trachea bifurcates into two main Bronchi.
4. Each Bronchi enters each lung.
5. Within the lungs, the Bronchi divide to form numerous Bronchioles.
6. Alveoli lie at the end of each Bronchiole.
____________ is where gases are exchanged between the lungs and the blood traveling through the surrounding capillaries?
Alveoli
What is the function of the inspiratory muscles?
To contract during inhalation in order to expand the size (volume) of the thoracic cavity.
Explain what the diaphragm and intercostal muscles do during inspiration?
The Diaphragm contracts, moving downward toward the abdomen, whereas the external intercostal muscles pull the rib cage outward thus increasing the size of the thoracic cavity allowing the lungs to inflate.
During excercise, when depth of breathing increases, the _________ muscles also contribute to expansion of the rib cage. What are the muscles contributing?
-Accessory muscles
a. Sternocleidomastoid
b. Scalenus
Under resting conditions, expiration is a ________ process that involves relaxation of the inspiratory muscles.
Passive
The pressure within the thoracic cavity increases or decreases when the inspiratory muscles relax?
Pressure increases thus forcing air out of the lungs.
During exercise, exhalation becomes more of an active process and requires what to force air out of the lungs?
1. Contraction of the Abdominal muscles.
2. Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles.
Define Minute Ventilation (Ve)
The volume of air either inspired or expired over the course of 1 minute.
At rest, what is the approximate Minute Ventilation?
6 Liters per minute
During exercise, your Minute Ventilation will increase. Explain?
1. Two phases
a. A sharp increase in the depth of breathing occurs.
b. Rate of breathing increases.

Those two phases contribut to more air being passed in the same minute.
During maximal intensity exercise, Minute Ventilation (Ve) can increase to what?
20 to 25-fold higher than the standard 6 liters per minute at rest.
Minute ventilation increases with increased exercise intensity. There are two phases: Increased depth and increased rate. Explain the increased depth phase?
Tidal Volume: The amount of air entering or leaving the lungs in a single breath.

At rest: 0.5
Exercise: Up to 4 liters
The minute ventilation increases with excercise intensity increase. There are two phases. Explain the second phase?
Respiratory Rate increases.

Could increase from 12 to almost 50 breaths per minute.
At rest, ____% of the body's energy expenditure is accounted for by breathing, and even during maximal effort exercise, the energy used to power ventilation represents only _______% of the body's energy needs?
-3%

-5%
In untrained individuals, anaerobic threshold occurs at approximately______% of one's Maximal Aerobic Capacity (VO2 Max)?
55%
The anaerobic threshold of well-trained endurance athletes occurs at a much greater exercise intensity, perhaps _______ % of their VO2 Max.
80-85%
The heart is composed of how many chambers?
Four
What are the names of the chambers.
Right and left Atria

Right and left Ventricles
What part of the heart receives deoxygenated blood?
Right Atrium
What part of the heart receives oxygenated blood?
Left Atrium
What part of the heart pumps the blood to the lungs?
Right Ventricle
What part of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body?
Left Ventricle
The right atrium and right ventricle are known as the _________ pumps?
Pulmonary
The left atrium and left ventricle are known as the _______pumps?
Systemic
The right side and left side of the heart are separated by a thick wall of connective tissue. What is this called?
Septum
What term is used to represent the contractile phase of the myocardium?
Systole: Blood is forced out of the atria and ventricles.
The relaxation phase between contractions of the ventricles; this phase occurs when the chambers fill with blood for the next cycle?
Diastole
The ___________ is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per contraction (heart beat) of the heart?
Stroke Volume (SV)
At rest, what is the average Stroke Volume?
70ml
Under resting conditions, HR is approximately __________ bpm.
72 Beats Per Minute
_____________ is the amount of blood pumped from the heart by each ventricle per minute?
Cardiac Output
What is the formula for Cardiac Output?
Stroke Volume x Heart Rate

SV x HR = Cardiac Output
Using the resting HR of _________ bpm times the resting stroke volume of _______ ml. Cardiac Output for someone at rest equals/
72 bpm x 70ml SV = 5L/Min
__________ is the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of the resting phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle?
End-Diastolic Volume (EDV)
Describe the Frank-Starling Law?
EDV will significantly affect SV, because the greater the volume of blood in the ventricle, the greater the stretch imparted on the myocardium. As stretch increases, so does contractile force, both by elastic recoil of the muscle and by optimizing the length of the fibers composing the myocardium.
At rest, the EDV would be approximately?
125ml
The ______________ is the volume of blood remaining in the ventricles following contraction.
End-Systolic Volume (ESV)
At rest, ESV equals approximately?
55ml
The ______________ is the percentage of blood in the ventricle during diastole that is actually pumped out during systole?
Ejection Fraction
What is the formula for Ejection Fraction?
Ejection Fraction = SV/EDV
Under resting conditions, the Ejection Fraction is roughly_______%?
56 to 67%
During exercise, the Cardiac Output will increase and could reach approximately _________ Liters/Minute?
25 to 30 Liters/Minute compared to at rest: 5 Liters/Minute
Explain how the Cardiac Output will increase during exercise?
-Heart Rate increases
-Stroke Volume increases
To what extent does the Stroke Volume increase during exercise?
-Approximately 50% of the VO2 max (Aerobic Capacity) before it levels off.
After SV levels off during exercise, further elevations of Cardiac Output are accounted for by what?
Increased Heart Rate
If the blood demand for working muscles is increased, so must the return of blood be increased. What does this do to the EDV?
Increase it to approximately 160ml compared to that at rest of 125ml.
Why is it important to know the relationship between EDV and SV during exercise?
Because the increased amount of blood filling the ventricles ables the SV to increase.

The increase could be as much as 100ml versus at rest of 70ml.
During exercise, not only does the Cardiac Output increase because increased HR, SV, and EDV, but __________ also increases.
-Ejection Fraction

-Could increase from 56% at rest to as high as 70%.
During exercise, Cardiac output increases by the following adaptations of the heart? Note: There are 4 adaptations!
1. Stroke Volume
2. Heart Rate
3. End-Diastolic Volume
4. Ejection Fraction
True or False: Chronic aerobic training has little or no impact on maximal Heart Rate.
True
True or False: Resting Heart Rate decreases with a prolonged exercise program?
True
Why does the resting heart rate decrease with prolonged exercise programs?
Stroke Volume increases to counter the reduction in Heart Rate. At rest, SV may increase to 85ml.
During high-intensity exercise, SV of aerobically trained athletes may increase to ________, contributing to the elevated maximal cardiac output of ___________.
-170ml

-35-40 L/min
Why are athletes able to train at lower heart rates than those who do not workout?
Higher Stroke Volumes with less beats.
True or False: During normal upright posture, gravity affects the return of blood to the heart.
True
In the supine and/or prone position, the return of blood from the legs is more efficient. As a result of this, SV during swimming is ________ than any other form of exercise?
Greater
Why is it important to understand the postural changes in Heart rate and Stroke volume?
-Monitoring exercise intensity may be difficult because their heart rates will be lower.
What is the largest artery in the body?
Aorta
Why is the highest pressure in the arteries?
Closest to the heart.
Arteries branch off to smaller vessels named?
Arterioles
Arterioles branch off to even smaller vessels named?
Capillaries
Blood flow back to the heart starts at what vessel?
Venules
Venules branch into larger vessels termed?
Veins
To meet the demands for blood that occurs in exercising muscles, arterioles________.
Vasodilate
However, to satisfy working muscle, blood flow to other tissues, especially the viscera, is ____________ as a result of ____________ within areterioles.
-Reduced

-Vasoconstriction
As blood is pumped from the heart, the resistance imposed by the vessels to its flow is termed________________?
Afterload
The amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before contraction is termed?
Preload
What affect could an enhanced preload have on the stroke volume? Note: Preload is defined as the amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before contraction.
Increased Stroke Volume
What affect could an enhanced afterload have on the stroke volume?
Decreased Stroke Volume
The afterload is directly related to the __________ of the arterial system?
Compliance
Explain compliance of the arterial system?
The greater the compliance, the more easily the arterial walls can be stretched to accommodate the surge of blood during systole, allowing for greater SV.
True or False: Arterial compliance and a healthy arterial system can be used synomonous?
True
List one condition that can decrease arterial compliance?
-Atherosclerosis
The ___________ is the pressure exerted on arterial walls during contraction of the left ventricle.
Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)
What is the SBP in a healthy adult?
120 mm Hg.
Systolic Blood pressure of___________ mm Hg is indicative of hypertention?
140 mm Hg.
The ____________ is the pressure exerted on the arterial walls during the resting phase between ventricular beats.
Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP)
In healthy adults, the resting DBP should be?
80 mm Hg.
___________ mm Hg. DBP is indicative of hypertension?
90 mm Hg.
What is the term used for the difference between SBP and DBP?
Pulse Pressure
In healthy adults, the resting pulse pressure should be?
40 mm Hg.
The ____________ is the average pressure exerted throughout the entire cardiac cycle, and if reflects the average force driving blood into the tissue?
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
In a healthy resting person, MAP should be approximately?
93 mm Hg.
The _____________, also called the Double Product, is a rough correlate of the myocardial oxygen uptake and, thus, of the workload of the left ventricle.
Rate-Pressure Product (RPP)
What is the formula for RPP?
RPP= SBP X HR
The vascular system undergoes two major modifications during exercise. What are they?
1. Shunting
2. Vasodilation
Describe shunting of blood during exercise?
Blood is shunted away from the visceral organs to better serve the working muscles during exercise.
Shunting has a dramatic effect on the distribution of blood. For example, at rest, only approximately _________ % of cardiac output is directed toward muscle, but during high-intensity exercise, as much as ________% of the blood ejected from the heart may
-20%

-85%
The vascular system undergoes two major modifications during exercise. The first is the redistribution of blood flow. What is the second?
Vasodilation: This decreases peripheral resistance hence increases the pumping capacity of the heart.
During maximal effort rhythmic exercise, systolic blood pressure may exceed _________mg Hg.
200
During sustained submaximal exercise, systolic blood pressure is generally maintained at _________ to ________mm Hg.
140-160
What happens to the DBP during exercise?
Usually remains the same or decreases slightly.
What is the criteria for using the SBP and/or DBP to terminate exercise testing?
1. Drop of SBP greater than 10mm Hg.
2. Increase in DBP greater than 115 mm Hg.
3. A SBP greater than 250 mm Hg.
A prolonged endurance training program results in several beneficial vascular adaptations. What effect does it have on the SBP and DBP?
Under resting conditions, trained individuals display a reduced SBP, DBP, and MAP.
True or False: At any given submaximal intensity, upper body endurance exercise (arm cranking) elicits higher SBP and DBP than those values evident during more conventional endurance exercise?
True
Why does arm cranking or any other type of upper body endurance training increase the SBP and DBP?
-Smaller muscle group

-Greater resistance to blood flow.
Resistance exercise elevates blood pressure. Why?
-Contracting muscles impede blood flow through the muscle, thus elevating peripheral resistance.
Systolic Blood pressures greater than _______ mm Hg. have been recorded during maximal intensity isometric contractions?
450
Blood accounts for __% of a person's body weight?
8%
The plasma constitutes approximately __% of the blood's volume in men and __% in women.
-55

-58
The main component of plasma is water. What percentage?
90-93%
What is the most abundant of all blood cells? They account for what percentage of the blood cells?
Erythrocytes (99%)
____________ is the percentage of blood volume that is composed of erythrocytes?
Hematocrit
Normal hematocrit values:
Men?
Women?
Men: 40-50%
Women: 35-45%
The most obvious acute effect of exercise is to induce__________?
Hyperemia: volume of blood delivered to the working muscles.
Describe Cardiovascular Drift?
The movement of plasma out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This serves to prevent overheating of the body by having more water available for sweating.
Long term effects of training:
The production of _____________ significantly increases, leading to a greater oxygen-carrying capacity.
Erythrocytes
Long term effects of training: __________ volume increases to an even greater extent, and as a result, relative measures of hemoglobin and hematocrit are actually decreases?
Plasma volume
Describe runner's anemia?
The increase of plasma volume in well conditioned athletes, decreases the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit.
What are the positive benefits of an increases plasma volume? There are 4 distinct advantages?
1. Higher SV and lower HR at rest.
2. Cardiovascular Drift: better thermoregulation.
3. Since the SV is higher and the HR can be lower, most condtioned athletes can perform at a higher level with less beats of the heart.
4. Maximal SV and Cardiac Output are also more impressive, in large part because of their greater plasma volumes.
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