The Renaissance in Italy: 14th-16th Centuries Flashcards

Terms Definitions
14th Century
When did the Proto-Renaissance take place?
15th Century; The Rebirth and/or revival of Classical Antiquity (5th Century Classical Greece).
When did the Renaissance take place?
Late 15th Century through the early 16th Century (late 1480's-1520's).
When did the High Renaissance take place?
16th Century (1520's-1590's).
When did the Late Renaissance [Mannerism] take place?
truth, beauty, and nature.
Renaissance art contains what three characteristics?
Greek and Roman Antique past. Idealized beauty, order, balance, measure, stability, and calm were qualities in art and theory. Interest in Classical Anitquity signaled a renewed interest and improvement in formal techniques (naturalism, proportion, and us
Classical Antiquity
Cennino Cennini
(1370-1440) Author of "The Craftsman's Handbook," 1400; the 'how to' of Renaissance art. Provided an early and popular, but not the only, discussion of painting in oils. This was important for dispelling the myth, propagated by Giorgio Vasari, that Jan van Eyck invented oil painting.
Giorgio Vasari
(1511-1574) Biographer of Italian art, "Lives of the Artists," 1550. Vasari is often called the first Renaissance art historian. His book is the fundamental source of information for Italian Renaissance art. Vasari's philosophy of art and art history stated that, 1. art should imitate nature, and 2 progress in painting consists of the perfecting of the means (formal/technical) of representation.
Giotto (1267-1337)
Florentine painter and architect from the Florentine School. Regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his work broke free from the stylized (2-D, non-naturalistic) renderings of Byzantine and Medieval
Name the leader of the Florentine School/Florentine Style:
Duccio (1278-1318)
From the Siena School (Sienese Style). The most famous painter of the Sienese school of painting. Although Duccio drew much on the Byzantine tradition. he introduced new warmth of human feeling that gives him a role in Sienese painting
Name the leader of the Siena School/Siense Style:
Classicism and Naturalism.
What are two reoccurring trends in Renaissance Art?
A piece that is based on the direct observation of nature.
What is Naturalism?
Use of math for pictorial composition; order, balance, calm, and stability.
What are some characteristics of Classicism?
Sculptural works of Nicola (Classicism) and Giovanni (Naturalism) Pisano.
Early 14th Century Examples (of Classicism vs. Naturalism):
The Annunciation and the Nativity
Nicola Pisano
1259-1260; 13th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Marble Relief Sculpture
...
The Annunciation and the Nativity
Giovanni Pisano
1297-1301; 13th-14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Marble Relief Sculpture
...
Madonna Enthroned
Cimabue (possibly Giotto's teacher)
1280-1290; 13th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Panel Painting
Has an influence of Earlier Byzantine (Medieval) style.
...
Madonna Enthroned
Giotto (Florence)
1310; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Panel Painting
The Lamentation
Giotto (Florence)
1305-1306; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Has naturalism of human emotion.
...
Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints
Duccio (Siena)
1308-1311; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Principle panel of the Maesta Altarpiece.
...
The Annunciation
Simone Martini (Pupil of Duccio)
1333; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Panel painting
Peaceful City (The Effects of Good Government in the City)
Lorenzetti (Pupil of Duccio)
1338-1339; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Fresco Siena in the Palazzo Publico
...
Peaceful Country (The Effects of Good Government in the Country)
Lorenzetti (Pupil of Duccio)
1338-1339; 14th Century (Proto/Early Renaissance)
Fresco Siena in the Palazzo Publico
...
2-Dimensional, flat, linear shapes, shallow space, lack of spatial illusion, non-naturalistic rendering of space, static, non-emotional, austere figures.
What are a few examples of Medieval Style Characteristics?
3-Dimensional forms with volume, naturalistics use of space that includes foreground, middle and background, naturalistic movement of figures with "human" emotions.
What are a few examples of Renaissance Style Characteristics?
David
Donatello
1428-1432; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Bronze
First Freestanding nude since Classical Antiquity.
David
Verrocchio
1465; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Bronze
Use of Narrative realism.
Brunelleschi (1420-1436; 15th Century) (Renaissance)
Architectural genius, he developed and codified a revolutionary system of geometric, linear perspective. Solved the engineering problem at the Florence Cathedral that no one else could solve. No dome ha
Who is responsible for the Florence Cathedral's Dome?
Leon Battista Alberti (1435; 15th Century)
On perspective and pyramidal form (composition).
Who wrote the "Treatise on Painting"?
Expulsion of Adam and Eve
Masaccio (main person associated with the use of Chiaroscuro)
1425; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Fresco
Has human emotion and naturalism.
The Holy Trinity Fresco
Masaccio (main person associated with the use of Chiaroscuro)
1428; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Fresco
Has Classicism and naturalism with the use of perspective and solid forms.
...
Madonna and Child with Angels
Fra Filippo Lippi
1455; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Panel painting
Has naturalism and use of live model.
...
The Annunciation
Fra Angelico
1482; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Fresco
Pious devotional image.
...
The Birth of Venus
Botticelli
1482; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Oil on Canvas
Use of classicism, mythology, and neo platonic thought of the female nude.
Christ Delivering Keys
Perugino
1481-1483; 15th Century (Renaissance)
Fresco
Use of perspective, humanized biblical story.
Dead Christ
Mantegna
1501; 16th Century (Renaissance)
Oil on wood
Realistic, naturalistic study and use of foreshortening (not entirely successful).
...
The Damned
Signorelli
1499-1504; 15th and 16th Centuries (Renaissance)
Fresco
Dramatic motion, horrific vision, foreshortening is accomplished here.
...
A. Literally "light-dark," a technique which was used to great effect to create dramatic contrasts.
B. Masaccio is mostly associated with the use of Chiaroscuro.
A. What is Chiaroscuro?
and
B. Who is mostly associated with the use of Chiaroscuro?
School of thought based on Plato's idealistic and spiritual philosophy. In Western Europe, Neo-Platonism was revived in the Italian Renaissance by figures such as the Medici family, Michelangelo and Botticelli. During the Renaissance it was a major force
What is Neo-platonism?
Virgin of the Rocks
Leonardo Da Vinci
1485; 15th Century (High Renaissance)
Use of pyramidal form.
Last Supper
Leonardo Da Vinci
1495-1498; 15th Century (High Renaissance)
Fresco
Leonardo Da Vinci (1495-1498; 15th Century). Fresco.
Mona Lisa
Leonardo Da Vinci
1503-1505; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Oil on wood
Use of Sfumato.
David
Michelangelo
1501-1504; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Marble Sculpture
Use of naturalism and classicism.
Creation of Adam
Michelangelo
1508-1513; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Ceiling Fresco in the Sistine Chapel
Last Judgement
Michelangelo
1531-1541; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Fresco above altar in the Sistine Chapel
Contains seeds of Mannerism.
Marriage of the Virgin
Raphael
1504; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Oil on wood.
School of Athens
Raphael
1509-1511; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Fresco
Use of Classicism.
The subtle gradation of tone, which was used to obscure sharp edges, and creates a synergy (working) between lights and shadows in a painting.
Painting technique in which contours are enveloped in a suggestive, smoke-like haze
What is Sfumato?
Pastoral Symphony
Giorgione (and/or Titian?) (Venice, Northern Italy)
1508; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Oil on canvas
Motif of the female nude resurrected.
...
Venus of Urbino
Titian (Venice, Northern Italy)
1538; 16th Century (High Renaissance)
Oil on canvas
Motif of the female nude resurrected.
Descent from the Cross (Entombment of Christ)
Pontormo
1525-1528; 16th Century (Mannerism)
Oil on canvas
Madonna with Long Neck
Parmigianino
1535; 16th Century (Mannerism)
Oil on wood
Last Supper
Tintoretto (Venice)
1594; 16th Century (Mannerism)
Oil on canvas.
General tension of design and linear attenuated forms, arbitrary scale of proportion, unrealistic spaces implied, and the use of non-naturalistic color.
What are a few stylistic elements of Mannerism?
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