Nationalism, Sectionalism, Manifest Destiny Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nationalism occurred after the War of 1812. What were the people like in Nationalism?
The people were proud to be Americans and gave their loyalty to the nation rather than the state. They wanted to increase the powers of the central government and they considered problems from a national view.
Why was the West more nationalistic?
The national government supported roads and canals that helped people move west.
During what years did the "Era of Good Feelings" occur and who was the President during this time?
1817-1823, James Monroe
How did the "Era of Good Feelings" occur?
It occurred when President Monroe took a goodwill tour in New England, which was warmly accepted.
The "Era of Good Feelings" caused?
An absence of political strife, end of the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican party adopted many Federalists ideas.
What Federalist ideas did the Democratic-Republican party adopt?
Second National Bank(1816-1836), Protective Tariff of 1816, Internal improvements at federal expense.
What did the Protective Tariff of 1816 do?
It protected U.S. industries from cheap British imports that flooded the market after the War of 1812.
What internal improvements were at federal expense?
Construction to build national roads that connected states together in order to improve trade/transportation needs. (Help bind the nation together; ex: Cumberland Road, National Road, Erie Canal)
What was the main point of the Monroe Doctrine and what year was it in?
The main point was to have Europe stay out of Latin American affairs and the U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs or existing European colonies.
When _______ invaded Spain and Portugal in _____, they didn't have the military resources to maintain their Latin American colonies.
Napoleon, 1807
_______ ________ colonies revolted, kicking the Spanish and Portugal out.
Latin American
After Napoleon was finally defeated in _____, Spain and Portugal wanted their colonies back.
1815
President _______ and U.S. wanted weak Latin American nations as weak _____ ______ without European monarchs ruling over them.
Monroe, trade partners
Who was the 6th President of the U.S. and what were two traits/attributes of his?
John Q. Adams. He had a high-pitched voice and could speak 7 foreign languages.
Who were the four candidates of the election of 1824 and what regions were they from?
Adams from the North, Jackson from the West, Crawford from the South, and Clay from the West.
Between Adams and Jackson (the top vote getters), who was favored to win?
Jackson
______ was Speaker of the House and threw his support to ______.
Clay, Adams
______ won the election of 1824 and appointed Clay as ______ of _______
Adams, Secretary of State
Clay served how many presidencies until he died at 80 years old?
11
The North was becoming more _____ and the South was continuing their ______ ______.
industrial, plantation system
The people began to be more _____ to a section of the U.S. or an individual state.
loyal
In sectionalism, the people considered problems from a sectional view and believed in ______ ______.
States rights
_________ was one of the problems that led to the Civil War.
Sectionalism
What was Andrew Jackson's nickname?
Old Hickory
What Jackson portray Adams as?
An intellectual elitist
How did Jackson portray himself?
As a man of humble origins, even though he was wealthy.
What did Adams say about Jackson?
He said Jackson had married Rachel Robards while she was still married to the man she divorced after her and Jackson were married.
What is the act of slandering the other candidate in a political campaign?
Mudslinging
Jackson won the election of 1828 with ______ to ______ votes over Adams.
178 to 83
Jackson was the first _____ ____ to become President and the first President from the ______ (Tennessee)
Common man, West
What is a spoils system?
Filling federal offices with his (the President's) own party, members, and friends. "To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy.
What was another name given to the election of 1828?
"Revolution of 1828," People/Democracy vs. Privileged
What were the three problems Jackson faced while in office?
Indian Removal Act(1830), Second Bank of the United States, and Nullification
What did the Indian Removal Act state?
The federal government provided money ($500,000) to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west. 90 treaties were signed so Native Americans could maintain their way of life.
Name 3-5 states from which Indians were removed?
Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, etc.
In ______, the Cherokee were removed from their lands in _____ and sent west to Indian Territory.
1838, Georgia
In what modern day state did the Indian Territory exist?
Oklahoma
The Indians traveled upon the so-called _____ __ ______. The buried 1/4 of their people along this 800 mile trip.
Trail of Tears
The Indians ended up on land that was ______ to that which they had been forced to leave.
Inferior
The Second Bank of the United States had a ____ year charter from ______ to _______.
20 year charter, 1816 to 1836
Who was the President of the Second Bank of the United States?
Nicholas Biddle
What services were offered as a part of the Second Bank of the United States?
An official depository for government funds and sold government bonds. Held private deposits of money and provided loans for businesses. Prevented state banks from over-issuing bank notes. Issued its own bank notes(nationwide currency)
The _______'s manufacturers and businesses approved the Second U.S. Bank.
North's
The _____ and _____'s state banks, small businessmen, farmers, planters, and debtors opposed the Second U.S. bank.
West and South
For what reasons did the West and South oppose the Second U.S. Bank?
It prevented state banks from issuing large amounts of bank notes. 2nd U.S. Bank refused loans to farmers/small businessmen. Enriched wealthy Norther/foreign businessmen. Helped finance political campaigns. Not specified in the Constitution=illegal.
Jackson _______ the bill that Biddle proposed for the Second U.S. Bank.
Vetoed
What quote did Jackson say in reference to the proposed charter?
"They are trying to kill me, but I'm going to kill the Bank."
Jackson, versus Clay, won the election of 1832 with ______ votes to ______ votes.
219 to 49
Jackson interpreted his re-election as a mandate from the people to ______ the bank.
Destroy
He ordered government funds to be withdrawn and placed in state banks, also called _____ _____.
Pet Banks
______ ______(wildcat banks) made unwise loans based on speculations and without adequate _______.
Western Banks, collateral
The Western Banks printed too much _____ ____ which led to high prices and devalued money.
Paper money
In _____, Jackson issued his _____ ____ through which he instructed federal land agents to accept payment only in gold or silver.
1836, Specie Circular
After Jackson's presidency, the U.S. experienced a financial crisis known as the _____ of ______ and the ensuing economic depression.
Panic of 1837
The destruction of the Second U.S. Bank was a _______ victory for the West and South over the ______.
Sectional, North
The Sectional Victory was a victory of _______, common people over wealthy business men.
Democracy
The U.S. had no ________ banking system until 1913 when Congress established the _______ ______ ______.
Centralized, Federal Reserve System
_______ ___ _____ was blamed for the Panic of 1837 after he was elected President in 1836.
Martin van Buren
Why was Jackson not blamed for the Panic of 1837?
He was popular with the common people and he was a war hero.
After the War of 1812, ______ flooded the U.S. market with cheap goods.
Britain
In response to the flooding of the U.S. market with cheap goods, Congress passed what tariff to protect American businesses?
The Tariff of 1816
Did all sections of the United States support the Tariff of 1816?
Yes
The Tariff of _____ increased the price of imports and the South protested.
1824
The Tariff of ____ provided extremely high rates on imports of raw materials and manufactured goods.
1828
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina called the Tariff of 1828 the ______ of ______.
Tariff of Abominations
Who was the main spokesperson of the North?
Daniel Webster, Massachusetts
Who was the main spokesperson of the South?
John C. Calhoun, South Carolina
Who acted as a mediator/referee between the North and South? (Think high in power!)
Andrew Jackson, President of the U.S.
What document did Calhoun secretly write?
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Calhoun's document stated that the federal government was created by a compact among the _____ to serve as their agent.
States
Calhoun's document stated that state _______ have the power to declare laws of Congress ________.
Conventions, unconsitutional
Laws declared unconstitutional are _____ and _____.
Null and void
A state could ______ its compact with other states and ______ from the Union.
Terminate, secede
In what year did the Webster-Hayne Debate occur?
1830
The Constitution and the federal government were created by the _____ not by the ______.
People, states
The ______ _____ determines the constitutionality of the laws, not the states.
Supreme Court
No state has the right to ____ a federal law or ____ secede from the Union or else the Union would be an absurdity, aka a _____ __ ____.
Nullify, secede, rope of sand
"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable" was said by?
Daniel Webster
What quote did John C. Calhoun say?
"The Union, next to our liberty, most dear."
Who said, "Our Federal Union: it must be preserved"?
Andrew Jackson
_____ ______ was disappointed with the 1832 Tariff that provided modest relief from the Tariff of Abominations.
South Carolina
In response to the 1832 Tariff, South Carolina passed an ______ of _______
Ordinance of Nullification
What did the Ordinance of Nullification do?
It voided the new tariff and threatened secession if the Federal government attempted to collect tariff duties from South Carolina.
Jackson _____ the challenged offered from South Carolina, warning that nullification is...? (quote given on the notes)
Accepted, "Incompatible with the existence of the Union."
Congress passed a _____ ___, which empowered him to enforce the nation's tariff law in South Carolina by utilizing the Army and Navy if necessary.
Force Bill
South Carolina received ______ _____ from any southern state because neither state wanted an ______ _____.
No support, armed clash
Henry Clay introduced a _____ _____, which would reduce rates over 10 years.
Compromise Tariff
What was Henry Clay known as?
The Great Compromiser
Congress passed both the _____ ____ and the Compromise Tariff.
Force Bill
South Carolina _____ its Ordinance of Nullification but ______ the Force Bill.
Withdrew, nullified
Congress did nothing to resolve the issue of ______'s rights and nullification.
State's
With what state did Missouri join the Union with in the Missouri Compromise(1819-1820)?
Maine
What was Manifest Destiny?
The thought that there was always land to the West.
Between what two oceans did Americans believe the United States needed to stretch between in the 1840's?
Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
What were the three acquisitions of western land?
Original 13 colonies on the Atlantic Coast, Louisiana Purchase, and Florida (Adams-Onis Treaty 1819)
In what year were Americans invited to settle in a province of Mexico called Texas?
1821
What two laws did Americans have to abide by in Texas?
They had to become Catholic and obey Mexican laws
Who led the first group of 300 people to Texas?
Austin
How many more people and slaves arrived in Texas in 1830?
20,000 people and 1000 slaves
_____ ____ became the dictator and began to enforce the laws.
Santa Anna
The Texans ____ and declared independence
Rebelled
On what day and year did the Battle at the Alamo occur and were all the Texans killed?
March 6,1836; They were all killed
______ ______ defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto on what date?
Sam Houston, April 21, 1836
Texas asked to be _______ by the U.S. but they did not for ten years.
Annexed
For what two reasons did Texas not become annexed?
Fear of war with Mexico, and the Senate was balanced at this time(if Texas became a state, slave states would have more senators)
During what years did the Mexican War occur?
1846-1848
What three things caused the Mexican War?
Annexation of Texas, boundary dispute between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande, some Americans wanted more Mexican land.
Who was President when the Mexican War was declared?
James K. Polk
What General won victories in Mexico?
Zachary Taylor
Which General captured Vera Cruz and Mexico City?
Winfield Scott
In what year did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo occur?
1848
What were the three provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe?
Rio Grande was the boundary for Texas, U.S. got California and Mexican Cession, U.S. would pay $15 million for Mexico.
What occurred through the Gadsden Purchase?
U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for a small strip in southern Arizona and new Mexico. This was an easier route for the railroad.
The Alamo had how many Texans against how many Mexicans?
187 Texans to 4000 Mexicans
Who were in charge of both sides in the Battle of the Alamo?
Col. William Travis for Texans, General Santa Anna for Mexico.
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