Human Anatomy and Phisiology - Marieb - Chapter 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define matter.
Anything that takes up space and has mass
What are the three states of matter?
Gas, liquid, solid
Define energy.
The capacity to do work
What are the two most basic forms of energy -- one form is essentially stored energy, the other is active energy.
Kinetic energy and potential energy
What four forms of energy do you generally discuss in anatomy and physiology?
1) Chemical
2) Electrical
3) Mechanical
4) Radiant (electromagnetic)
Can energy be destroyed?
Nope.
When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the energy is "lost" as what kind of energy?
Heat
What do you call a unique substance that cannot be further broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods?
Element
What are the four primary elements that compose the human body?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
What's the name of the standard chart that displays all the elements, organized in such a way that elements with similar chemical properties share a column?
Periodic Table
What is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the element's physical and chemical properties?
Atom
How do physical properties and chemical properties of an element differ?
Chemical properties describe the way atoms interact with one another (bonding and chemical reactions), whereas physical properties are those that we can see, taste, and feel.
What's the term for the one or two letter symbol that represents an element?
Atomic Symbol
What are the chemical symbols for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen? How about Potassium? Sodium?
C, H, O, N.
K, Na.
What are the three basic subatomic particles?
Proton, neutron, electron.
Which is the lightest of the three basic subatomic particles?
Electron
A neutron weighs about the same as a proton. How much does one of these particles weigh?
1 amu (atomic mass unit)
Why do different elements have different properties?
This is due to different numbers of electrons, protons and neutrons.
There's a number that corresponds to the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. What's it called?
Atomic number. Also, the atomic number will tell you the number of electrons present in an atom in its natural, unadulterated state.
What does an element's mass number tell us?
the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
What's an isotope?
A structural variation on an element that contains a different amount of neutrons.
What do you call the number that is defined by the average of the mass numbers of every isotope of an element, weighted according to abundance in nature?
Atomic weight
What's a radioisotope?
It's a radioactive isotope of an element that decomposes rapidly into more stable forms. Sometimes, a radioisotope of one element can even decay into a totally different element. For example, Uranium-239 decays into a form of Neptunium, then into a form of Plutonium.
What's a half life?
It's the time it takes for a radioisotope to lose one half of its activity.
What's the term for more than one atom bound together chemically?
Molecule
When a molecule contains atoms of different elements, the resulting substance is a ____.
Compound
What do you call a combination of one or more elements or compounds physically intermixed with no chemical bond?
Mixture
What are the three types of mixtures?
Solutions, suspensions, colloids
In a solution, what are solutes and solvents?
Solute: The more abundant component.
Solvent: The lest abundant component.
What's another word for colloid?
Emulsion
What's a suspension?
A heterogeneous mixture in which the components will settle out in time.
What are the three main differences between compounds and mixtures?
1) Mixtures display NO chemical bonds, and the constituent components retain their physical properties.
2) Mixtures can be separated into constituent components by physical means (straining, filtering, etc.), compounds can't.
3) Compounds are never heterogeneous, though mixtures often are.
What is the maximum of electron shells that an atom can contain?
7
What's the octet rule?
Unless an atom only has one electron shell, it will typically react with other atoms so that its valence shell contains 8 electrons.
What's a valence shell?
The outermost shell of an atom.
What kind of bond results when two atoms completely exchange electrons?
Ionic bond
What do you call the atom that gives up an electron (is now positively charged)? And the one that gains an electron (that's now negatively charged)?
Cation, Anion
Salts are generally ____ compounds.
Ionic
In a dry state, ionic compounds generally don't exist as solitary molecules. Instead, they form ____.
Crystals
When molecules are created by atoms sharing one or more pairs of electrons, they form a ____ bond.
Covalent (single covalent, if there's one pair being shared, and double or triple covalent if two or three pairs of electrons are being shared).
When a molecule has unequal electrical charges at opposing ends, we call the resulting compound a ___ compound.
Polar
What's a hydrogen bond?
it's a weak bond resulting from the attraction between an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom being attracted by another electron-hungry atom. Too weak to form a molecule, but binds molecules together.
Whenever chemical bonds are formed, broken, or rearranged, what is the result?
Chemical reaction
What kind of chemical reaction results when two molecules combine to form a bigger, more complex molecule?
Synthesis reaction
What kind of chemical reaction results when a molecule is broken down into constituent parts?
Decomposition reaction
What kind of chemical reaction occurs when molecules are combined and both synthesis and decomposition occur, resulting in atoms "changing partners" and forming different compounds?
Exchange (displacement) reaction
In a living system, there are reactions that involve compounds combining, swapping electrons, and resulting in several products including ATP. What are they called?
Oxidation-Reduction reactions (Redox)
In a redox reaction, the "electron donor" is said to be ____, while the "electron acceptor" is referred to as ____.
Oxidized, reduced
What do you call a chemical reaction that gives off energy?
Exergonic
What do you call a chemical reaction that absorbs energy?
Endergonic
What four factors influence the speed of chemical reactions?
1) Concentration
2) Temperature
3) Presence of catalysts
4) Particle size
What is the most abundant and important compound in living material?
H20, or Water
What are the five characteristics of water that make it unique and important?
1) High specific heat
2) High vaporization temperature
3) Polar solvent properties
4) Reactivity
5) Cushioning
Salts are _____, meaning that they conduct electricity in a solution.
Electrolytes
Acids are compounds that give off ____.
Protons (in the form of hydrogen ions, which are essentially just naked protons)
____ are compounds that readily take up protons in the form of hydrogen ions.
Bases
What is pH?
A measure of acidity. Measured in concentration of hydrogen ions. The more hydrogen ions, the more acidic something is, and the lower pH it has.
When acids and bases combine and form water, it's called a _____ reaction.
Neutralization
What's a buffer?
It's a substance inside the body that maintains a specific pH by giving off hydrogen ions when the pH starts rising too high, and takes up hydrogen ions when the pH starts to fall below a certain threshold.
Why is carbon so important to organic systems?
It is perfectly electroneutral -- it always shares electrons. It can bind to a lot of different kinds of atoms!
What's an organic compound that contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and in which the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is about 2:1?
Carbohydrate
What are the three kinds of carbohydrates when classified by size and solubility?
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides.
Why are carbohydrates so important?
They provide the body with easy energy
Lipids have a much lower concentration of ____ than carbohydrates.
Oxygen
What's another name for a neutral fat?
Triglyceride
What are the two components of a triglyceride?
fatty acid and glycerol, in a 3:1 ratio.
Saturated fats are ___ at room temperature, and unsaturated fats are ___ at room temperature
solid, liquid
Trans fats are created by the addition of ____ to an oil, helping it solidify.
Hydrogen
Phospholipids contain two fatty acid chains (as opposed to the three of triglycerides), and one _____-containing group.
Phosphorous
What kind of lipid is cholesterol?
Steroid
What lipids are derived from a 20-carbon fatty acid called arachidonic acid?
Eicosanoids
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids
What kind of bond holds amino acids together to form a protein?
Peptide bond
What type of synthesis combines amino acids and creates peptide bonds?
Dehydration synthesis
How many amino acids are there?
20
What type of protein is very stable and exists in a multitude of forms that provide stability and structure to cells and tissues?
Fibrous (structural) protein
What type of proteins are generally compact, chemically active, and water-soluble?
Globular (functional) proteins
When hydrogen bonds are broken in a protein, changing its form and function, the protein is said to be ____.
Denatured
What type of protein prevents other proteins from denaturing under stress and guides other proteins in folding?
Molecular chaperons (chaperonins)
What type of protein generally acts as a biological catalyst?
Enzyme
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) and RNA (ribose nucleic acid)
What is the 'building block' of DNA called?
Nucleotide
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogen base
What are the four nitrogen bases found in DNA? And the four found in RNA?
DNA - Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine

RNA- Adenine, Uracil, Guanine and Cytosine
What molecule is the most basic form of energy in an organic system?
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
What is ATP made up of?
it's essentially an adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with three phosphate groups attached.
What term describes a high hydrogen ion concentration in the blood, or pH of the blood dipping below 7.35?
Acidosis
What term describes a low hydrogen ion concentration in the blood, or pH of the blood rising above 7.45?
Alkalosis
What term describes metals such as lead, arsenic, and mercury -- metals that can be harmful to the body?
Heavy metals
What term describes a form of acidosis caused by fat breakdown, common in diabetes mellitus and starvation?
Ketosis
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