ACE Essentials of exercise science for fitness professionals: Chapter 1 Anatomy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Refers to a person standing erect with head eyes and palms facing forward.
The anatomical position
The most basic structure in the body, they make up tissues
Cells
An organ is formed by two or more _______ combining to serve as a specialized physiologic center for the body.
Tissues
At the highest structural level the body is composed of systems. _______ that function cooperatively and have a common purpose are said to be part of a body system.
Organs
These two body systems are used to remove waste such as carbon dioxide and metabolic by-products
Cardiovascular, Respritory systems
The fluid component of the cardiovascular system, ______ links the external environment to the internal environment of the body.
Blood
The liquid component of blood is called plasma, it is responsible for carrying _______, ________, ________, ________, and ________
Hormones, plasma proteins, food materials (carbs, anino acids and lipids), ions (Na, Cl), and Gases
This category of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart
arteries / arterioles
This category of blood vessel carries blood to the heart
Veins / venules
This category of blood vessel provides a site for gas exchange between blood and tissues
Capillaries
The heart is divided into 4 chambers 2 atria and 2 ventricles. The ventricles are used to pump blood _________________________.
away from the heart
The heart is divided into 4 chambers 2 atria and 2 ventricles. The atria are used to pump blood _________________________.
into the ventricles
The period from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.
the cardiac cycle
The relaxation phase of the heart
diastole
The contraction phase of the heart
systole
This system filters air and transport it into the lungs, where gas exchange occurs within the alveoli.
The Respiratory System
Humans normaly breath 5-6 liters per min through the nose at rest, durring exercise this ventilation is increased to __-__ liters per minute
20-30
During physical activity accessory muscles of inspiration including the _________, __________, and _________________ are used to increase the volume in the thorax.
pectoralis minor, scalenes, and the sternocleidomastoid
During physical activity accessory muscles of expiration including the _________, __________,___________ and _________________ are used to pull the ribcage downward and squeeze the abdominal organs upward against the diaphragm.
rectus abdominis, internal obliques, serratus posterior, and internal intercostals.
Regular endurance exercise increases the amount of __________ in the respritory muscles which improves endurance.
oxidative enzymes
The vascular system carries food molecules through the _______ ________ _______ to the liver before distributing them throughout the body.
hepatic portal vein
after entering the cells the digested food molecules are reassembled into _______, _______, and________, or may be used in the production of ________
Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats

ATP/ energy to support body activities
This system returns excess fluid from between cells back to the bloodstream, thereby preventing swelling of the intercellular spaces.
The Lymphatic System
This body system destroyes bacteria and other forign substances that are present in the lymph nodes
The Lymphatic System
wave like contractions that move food through the esophagus
peristalses
the stomach grinds food into a thick liquid mixture called
chyme
The primary site for absorption of food, including carbs, fats, proteins and most vitamins, and minerals.
The small intestine.

more exactly: the duodenum and Jejunum
bile from the liver and gallblader aids in the digestion of ______
Fat
Pancreatic enzymes from the pancreas aids in the digestion of _______, ________ and ________
Protein, carbohydrate, and Fat
hair like projections that are directly conected to a capillary network and lymph vessel, these hair like projections pick up specific types of food particles to be directly inserted into the blood stream and lymph system.
Villi and Microvilli
the final absorption of _____ and ______ occurs in the large intestine
water, salt
This organ keeps the bodys internal environment within a range that is optimal for cellular surival by eliminating wastes such as creatine, uric acid, and urea.
The Kidneys
As blood is filtered through the kidneys proteins, electrolytes and glucose are taken out, __________ regulate the reabsorption and or excretion of these minerals into or out of the blood stream.
Hormones

Antidiuretic hormone ADH / Vasopressin- Causes reabsorption of water
Aldosterone - Causes reabsorption of sodium
The body has a total of ___ bones most of which have pairs eg left and right femur.
206
The skeleton also acts as a storage house primarily for these two essential minerals ____________ and _________, bones also store fat, sodium, potassium and other minerals.
phosphorous and calcium
The skeleton acts as a production site for ___ _____ _____
Red blood cells
Bones are composed of a dense outer layer called _______ _____ and a spongy honeycomb-like inner layer called ___________ ____
cortical bone

Trabecular bone
the trabecular network makes up __% of the skeleton whereas the cortical bone makes up __% of the skeleton
25%

75%
the shaft of a long bone is called the
diaphysis
the shaft of the long bone is called the
epiphysis
the hollow space inside the diaphysis is called the _______ ______ and is sometimes refered to as the yellow bone marrow cavity
medullary cavity
A dense connective tissue that covers the outer surface of bone is called the.
periosteum
most of the adult skeleton is replaced every __ years
10
specialized bone cells called ___________ break down the bone
osteoclasts
specialized bone cells called ____________ rebuild the bone
osteoblasts
______ law indicates that changes in bone structure coincide with changes in bone function.
Wolff's Law
how many bones make up the axial skeleton
74
the vertebral column is made of 33 bones __ cervical __ thoracic __ lumbar __ sacrum and __ fused coccyx
7
12
5
5
4
how many bones make up the appendicular skeleton
126
the three main types of joints
synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous
a type of fibrous joint, they are held together by fiberous connective tissue and allow little or no movement
synarthroidal
syn=together athron=joint
In cartilagionus joints the bones are connected by cartilage and little or no movement is allowed. One type of cartilaginous joint is a pad or disk that seperates the two bones this junction is called a _________.
symphysis
the most common type of joint in the body is the _______ joint, which is freely moveable.
synovial
when two bones move back and forth upon each other this is an example of a _______ joint.
gliding
a joint movement that increases or decreases the angle between two adjoining bones is called _________ movement
angular
A joint movement that incorporates all 4 angular movements to create one motion is called _____________
circumduction
A joint movement around a central axis is called _________.
rotation
__________ occurs when a part of the body is moved away from its relative midline.
abduction
__________ occurs when a body part is moved towards its relative midline.
adduction
__________ occurs when bones comprising a joint move toward each other decreasing the angle between them.
flexion
__________ occurs when bones comprising a joint move away from each other increasing the angle between them.
extension
The nervous system is divided into two parts the ___ and the ___
CNS (central nervous system)
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
The central nervous system is composed of the ______ and the ______ _____ and is responsible for recieving sensory imput from the PNS.
Brain

Spinal cord
The PNS is made up of ______ pairs of spinal nerves and __________ pairs of spinal nerves
twelve
thirty-one
There is two types of peripheal nerves the ________ and ________
afferent
efferent
This type of peripheal nerve carries impulses to the CNS
the afferent (sensory) nerve group
This type of peripheal nerve handles outgoing information
the efferent division
The efferent division of the PNS can be divided further into the _________ and ___________ nervous system
somatic

autonomic
The ________ nervous system is mostly under conscious control and carries nerve impulses to the skeletal muscles.
Somatic
The _________ nervous system is made up of nerves that transmit impluses to the smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and the glands.
Autonomic
The autonomic nervous system is further divided into the _____________ and _____________ divisions.
sympathetic

parasympathetic
This division of the autonomic nervous system is activated when there is a stressor or an emergency, and is referred to as the "fight or flight response"
Sympathetic
This division of the autonomic nervous system enables the body to stop storing energy and mobilize all resources to respond to a stressful event.
Sympathetic
This division of the autonomic nervous system aids in controlling normal functions when the body is relaxed.
Parasympathetic
This division of the autonomic nervous system aids in digesting food, storing energy, and promoting growth.
Parasympathetic
The most basic component of the nervous system, and is composed of a soma and one or more fiberous extensions.
neuron
Two types of fiberous extensions that come off of the neuron are calles the _____ and ________.
axon

dendrites
________ conduct electrical impulses toward the neuron, while the ______ transmits the signal away from the neuron.
dendrites

axon
A neuron has only one _______ but can have hundreds of __________ branching off of it to transmit an recieve electrical signals.
axon

dendrites
Most neurons remain seperated from each other by a small space called a ________.
synapse
To carry an electrical current from one neuron to another the neuron must release a chemical into the synapse that attaches to _______.
receptors located on the membrane of the recieving neuron.
A fatty acid that insulates the axon to keep the electrical current from migrating outside the pathway.
myelin
Motor neurons form a _____________ _________ with the skeletal muscles they supply.
Neuromuscular junction
The sense of knowing where the body is in relation to the surrounding environment is called.
proprioception
_________ receptors send sensory information regarding pressure, touch, and movement of the hairs on the skin.
Cutaneous
_________ receptors transmit sensory information regarding positions, velocities, and accelerations occuring at the joints.
Joint
_________ receptors send information about pressure changes in the joints, and is used to adjust posture and gait.
Pressure
The ________ __________ send information regarding heavy pressure applied to the skin.
Pacinian corpuscals
The _________ ___________ send infromation regarding light touch applied to the skin
Meissner's corpuscals
_____-__________ _________ send information regarding joint compression, thus any weightbearing activity stimulates these receptors.
Golgi- Mazzoni corpuscals
Connected to approximately 15 - 20 muscle fibers and located the muscle belly and its tendon this musculotendinous receptor senses tension when the muscle is stretched or contracted.
Golgi tendon organ
when the golgi tendon organ senses muscular contraction it causes an inhibition of further muscular contraction, this effect is amplified every successive repetition and will finally cause muscular failure, This is called _________ __________.
Autogenic inhibition
When the muscle is worked to failure there is a proportional decrease in golgi tendon function, which lowers its inhibitory function on the muscle it controls. This will increase the muscles __________ ________.
contractile ability
When the golgi tendon organ is activated in a muscle it results in _________ contractile ability of its antagonist muscle group.
enhanced
This musculotendinous receptor is located in the muscle belly and lies parellel to the muscle fibers. It is responsible for reflexive contraction.
Muscle spindal
The muscle spindals reflexive contraction causes the antagonist muscle group to relax, This is called
reciprocal inhibition
10 seconds of a low force static stretch evokes temporary muscle tension due to muscle lengthining, the increase in muscle tension activates a _________________ response.
golgi tendon organ
Under golgi tendon organ activation, ________ _______ activity within the stretched muscle is temporarily inhibited, allowing further muscle stretching.
muscle spindle
Because the golgi tendon organ reduces muscle spindal activity, a low grade muscle contraction for 6 to 15 seconds can be followed by a deep stretch. This is called a _________ _________,
dynamic stretch
located in the inner ear the __________ ________ is composed of three fluid containing semicircular canals that lie at right angles to each other, together they relay sensory information related to the position of the head in space as well as sudden chang
vestibular system
The stretch of the muscle spindal causes _______ __________.

Stretch of the golgi tendon organ causes ________ __________.
reflex contraction

muscular relaxation
At the end of any muscle belly are _______ that attaches the muscle to bone
Tendon
the proximal bone of a joint is normally ______ mobile than the other bone making up the joint. The tendon of ________ normally attaches to this bone.
less

origin
The distal bone from a joint is normally _______ mobile than the other bone making up the joint, the tendon of _________ normally attaches to this bone.
more

insertion
a muscle that creates a major movement is called a _______ _______, or _________ the muscle on the opposing side is called the __________ _______ or ___________.
prime mover , agonist

opposing muscle, antagonist
With this type of muscle, the muscle fibers run parallel to the long axis of the muscle, forming a long, strap like arrangement.
Longitudinal
produces considerable movement but is relatively weak.
Longitudinal
With this muscle type, the tendon runs the entire length of the muscle with the muscle fibers inserting diagonally into one side of the tendon.
Unipennate
With this muscle type, the tendon runs the entire length of the muscle with the muscle fibers inserting diagonally into each side of the tendon.
bipennate
With this muscle type, the muscle fibers have a complex arrangement that involves the convergence of several tendons.
multipennate
This category of muscle contains large amounts of mitochondria, are surrounded by many capillaries, and have high concentrations of myoglobin.
Slow twitch or Type I
This category of muscle contains small amounts of mitochondria, and have a high number of glycolytic enzymes.
Fast twitch type IIx
This category of muscle can adapt to changes in endurance training, and can adjust their oxidative capacity and glycolytic ability.
Fast twitch type IIa
_____ muslce fibers are made up of a mixture of both slow and fast twitch fibers
most
_____ muslce fibers are made up of a only slow or fast twitch fibers.
some
Muscle fiber is held in place by thin sheets of connective tissue membranes collectively called ______
fasciae
The fasciae that encases the individual muscle fibers
endomysium
The fasciae that binds bundles of muscle fibers together to create groups.
perimysium
The fasciae that encases the entire muscle is called the
epimysium
Each muscle contains several hundred to several thousand thread like protein filaments called ________ that run parallel to each other and extend length wise throughout the cell.
myofibrils
The dark bands that striate the muscle are called _ ______, and contain the protein filament ________.
A Bands

Myosin
The light bands that striate the muscle are called _ _____, and contain the protein filament ______.
I Bands

Actin
crossing the center of each I band is a dense _ _____ that divides the myofribils into a repeating series of segments called _________
Z lines

Sarcomeres
in the center of the sarcomere there is a _ ____, which is a light area where the actin does not extend into, and the myosin filament becomes thinner. A darker _ _____ crosses the center of this zone.
H zone

M line
When a muscle contracts the energy used for that contraction comes primarily from a substance called ___
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
muscle contraction occurs when the brain CNS directs the motor neurons of the PNS to release the neurotransmitter _____________ at the neuromuscular junction.
acetylcholine.
Once the muscle detects acetylcholine, ________ is released into the area surrounding the muscle fibers, this exposes the binding sites along the actin myofilament, as long as there is sufficient ATP the ___________ fibers can connect from the myosine myo
Calcium

crossbridge
A muscle can be made up of hundreds to thousands of ________, when multiple muscle fibers are stimulated, the entire muscle will contract.
Sarcomeres
The material between the cells of the body that gives tissues form and strength as well as delivers nutrients to the tissue.
Connective tissue
Connective tissue is made up of dozens of proteins including the most abundant protein in the body ________.
Collagen
Collagen has _________ tensile strength and _________ stretching ability.
very high

very low
Elastin has _________ tensile strength and ________ stretching ability
Very low

Very High
Collagen fibers may undergo an extension of about ____ until their crimp (spring like wavy bundles are taken out), if the stretch continues past this point the tissue can rupture.
3%
Elastin fibers may undergo an extension of about ____ of their original length before they will reach a rupture point.
150%
The amount of deformation that occurs in a tendon when a stretch load is applied is called the _____ _____ ______
stretch load curve
ligaments support a joint by attaching a ______ to a ______.
bone

bone
during joint movement
Tendons provide __% of the resistance
ligaments and joint capsules provide ___%
skin provides __%
and fascia provide ___%
and
10
47
2
41
This category of fascia lies directly below the skin and usually contains a collection of fat
superficial
This category of fascia lies directly beneath the superficial fascia and is tougher, tighter, and more compact than other types.
deep fascia
This category of fascia forms the fibrous layer of serous membranes that cover and support the innermost body cavities.
subserous fascia
This category of fascia is directly related to flexibility and range of motion, it provides a framework for muscles, enables transmission of forces, and provides a lubricated surface between muscle fibers.
Intramuscular fascia
To stretch effectively without risking injury the sarcomere should be elongated to a length where there is a slight overlap of the filaments with at least one cross bridge connected. This length has been found to be approximately ___ to ___% more than the
50 - 60
In general males are _____ flexible than males.
less
when a joint is _________, and then healed it will lay down extra bone in that area subsequently restricting joint movement.
fractured
to effectively stretch a muscle, ____________ ___________ must be increased.
intramuscular temperature.
The optimal temperature to enhance the abilities of the collagen and elastin to deform as well as the GTO to reflexively relax is achieved at approx ___ degrees
103
The average height fluctuates throughout the day with an average daily change of ____ inches
0.6
hormones are chemical substances that generally fit into one of two categories
__________ ___________ and
__________ ___________
steroid driven

synthesized hormones
the principal endocrine glands are the _________, _______, ___________, ________, _________, and ________.
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads.
Often referred to as the master gland, it is located beneath the brain and has a regulatory effect on many other glands and body functions.
pituitary gland
____________ is a hormone that is released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and has an antidiuretic effect.
vasopressin
_________ is a hormone that stimulates the smooth muscles or the reproductive organs and intestines, this hormone is released by the posterior portion of the pituitary gland
oxytocin
the anterior portion of the pituitary gland releases six different hormones ____
__
___
____
__ and
_________
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
LH luteinizing hormone
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
ACTH adrenocorticotropin hormone
GH growth hormone
prolactin
FSH and LH are called gonadotropins because of their effect on the gonads, these substances control ________ and _________ secretion in the ovaries and _____________ secretion and production in the testis
estrogen, progesterone

testosterone
this hormone controls the synthesis and release of thyroxine from the thyroid gland which helps control the rate at which we utilize oxygen.
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone
This hormone controls the secreation of the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism of carbohydrates sodium and potassium.
ACTH
This hormone promotes the entrance of amino acids to be turned into protein and release fatty acids for energy, as well as the stimulation of overall growth.
GH growth hormone
This hormone is involved in the initiation and maintenance of breast milk production in females.
prolactin
This gland is located anterior to the upper part of the trachea and is among the largest endocrine organs of the body.
Thyroid
The thyroid gland releases three hormones _________, _______________, and ___________
Thyroxine
Triiodothyronine
calcitonin
these two hormones are iodine containing hormones released by the thyroid gland to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, there by increasing the bodies oxygen consumption and heat production.
Thyroxine
Triiodothyronine
This hormone lowers blood calcium and phosphate levels by accelerating the absorption of calcium through the bones.
Calcitonin
four structures located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
the parathyroid gland
the parathyroid gland releases PTH (parathyroid hormone) which is primarily responsible for controling the amount of _________ and _________ in the blood by way of the kidneys and the skeleton.
calcium

phosphorus
This hormone functions to break down bone calcium for its release into the blood and works synergistically with vitamin D to maintain the bodies calcium levels.
PTH parathyroid hormone
These glands are located close to the superior border of each kidney and each gland consists of two parts the medulla (inner portion) and the cortex (outer portion)
the adrenal glands
The _________ _______ produces two hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine these two hormones work together to prepare the body for stressful events
Adrenal medulla
This hormone acts to elevate the blood glucose levels, increase the rate, force and amplitude of the heartbeat, as well as dilate the blood vessels.
Epinephrine
this hormone causes an increase in heart rate and force of contraction of the cardiac muscle, and a constriction of blood vessels throughout most of the body.
norepinephrine
Two hormones mineralocoticoids and glucocorticoids are produced and released by this gland
adrenal cortex
This hormone is associated with sodium and potassium metabolism
mineralocoticoids
This hormone is associated with the utilization of glucose and the mobilization of fatty acids.
glucocorticoids
This gland lies just below the stomach and in addition to its role in producing digestive enzymes produces insulin and glucagon.
pancreas
this hormone acts to facilitate the uptake and utilization of glucose and prevent the breakdown of glycogen, it also favors lipid formation and storage and facilitates the movement of amino acids into cells.
insulin
This hormone decreases glucose oxidation and increases the blood sugar level, and its main function is the breakdown of glycogen in the liver for its release into the blood stream.
glucagon
The _______ are endocrine glands that produce hormones that promote sex-specific physical characteristics and regulate reproductive function.
Gonads
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