Genki I Grammar Points Flashcards

Grammatical tense
Terms Definitions
1.1: X は Y です
XはYです。 = X is Y.
1.2: Question Sentences
add か to the end of a statement to make it a question-ex, Xはなんですか。 = What is X?
1.3: noun の noun
の is a possessive particle-ex, たけしさんのほん = Takeshi's book
2.1: これ それ あれ どれ
これ = thisそれ = thatあれ = that (over there)どれ = which
2.2: この/その/あの/どの + noun
these are adjectives; they go together with a nounこのこと = this thingそのこと = that thingあのこと = that thing (over there)どのこと = which thing
2.3: だれの noun
だれのこと = whose thing-ex, だれのかばんですか。= Whose bag is this?
2.4: ここ そこ あそこ どこ
ここ = hereそこ = thereあそこ = over thereどこ = where
2.5: noun も
AはXです。 = A is X.BもXです。 = B too is X.
2.6: noun じゃありません
simple negation-ex, XはYじゃありません。 = X is not Y.-じゃ is the contraction form of でわ
2.7: ~ね/~よ
use on the ends of statements to give them a mood-ex, きょうはいいてんきですね。 = Good weather today, isn't it?-ex, 今日はいい天気ですよ。 = Let me assure you, the weather is good today.
3.1: Verb Conjugation
る-verbs:-dictionary form: (たべる)-present affirmative: change ru to masu (たべます)-present negative: change ru to masen (たべません)う-verbs:-dictionary form: (いく)-present affirmative: change u to imasu (いきます)-present negative: change u to imasen (いきません)irr. verbs:-dictionary form: する くる-present affirmative: します きます-present negative: しません きません
3.2: Verb Types and the "Present Tense"
the present tense of an action verb means:-a person regularly does the action-a person will do the action in the future
3.3: Particles
で: tells where the verb is doneに: tells the goal toward which things move; tells the time at which something happens (use ごろ or ごろに for approximate time)へ: tells the goal toward which things moveを: indicates direct objects
3.4: Time Reference
use に: -with days of the week, like "on Sunday"-when telling time, like "at 10:42"-with months, like "in September"don't use に:-with relative time expressions, like "today" and "tomorrow"-with expressions of regular intervals, like "every day"-with "when"optional:-with parts of the day, like "in the morning" and "at night"-with "weekend"
3.5: ~ませんか
used to extend an invitation-~ませんか = won't you ... with me?
3.6: Word Order
word order is usually subject-object-verb, but is generally flexible
3.7: Frequency Adverbs
-tell how frequently one does something with 毎日, よく, ときどき, etc.-tell how infrequently one does something with あまり and ぜんz how infrequently one does something with あまり and ぜんぜん plus a negative verb
3.8: The Topic Particle は
the topic phrase marked with 派 does not need to include the subject of the sentence
4.1: Xがあります/います
-tells that something exists at a certain location-use あります for nonliving things and います for living things-use に instead of で for the location, and が instead of は for the description-あります can also be used to say you have or won something-あります can also be used to tell when an event will take place
4.2: Describing Where Things Are
-ex, XはYのみぎです。 = X is to the right of Y.-ex, xはYとZのあいだです。 = X is between Y and Z.
4.3: Past Tense
present tense:aff: ~ます neg: ~ませんpast tense:aff: ~ました neg: ~ませんでしたXはYです:present tense:aff: ~です neg: ~じゃありませんpast tense:aff: ~でした neg: じゃありませんでした
4.4: たくさん
you can use both of these:私は[本をたくさん]読みました。私は[たくさん本を]読みました。
4.5: 一時間
-tells duration of an activity-does not need a particle-usually appears immediately before the verb
4.6: と
1. connects two nouns: AとB = A and B2. means "together with"--tells with whom you do something-ex, 家族と食べました = I ate with (my) family
4.7: も
-used when two or more things or people have something in common-ex, two or more people do the same activity: 私はお店に行きます。母もお店に行きます。-ex, someone buys/sees/eats two or more things: someone buys/sees/eats two or more things: 私はオレンジを食べます。私はケーキも食べます。
5.1: Adjectives - い
-there are い-adj and な-adjい-adj conjugation:present aff: おもしろいです present neg: おもしろくありませんpast aff: おもしろかったですpast neg: おもしろくありませんでした
5.1: Adjectives - な
な-adj conjugation:present aff: 元気です present neg: 元気じゃありませんpast aff: 元気でしたpast neg: 元気じゃありませんでした
5.1: Adjectives - irr: いい
conjugation of いい:present aff: いいです present neg: よくありませんpast aff: よかったですpast neg: よくありませんでした
5.2: 好き(な)/きらい(な)
XはYが[好き/きらい]です。 = X[likes/dislikes] Y.-add だい to the front to amplify-好きでもきらいでもありません。 = I neither like nor dislike (it).-you can also use them as normal adjectives
5.3: Degree Expressions
とても = veryちょっと = a little
5.4: ~ましょう/~ましょうか
~ましょう = let's ...~ましょうか = shall we ...?
5.5: Counting
-different counter suffixees are used for different items-counter comes after the noun-ex, 私は[切手を三枚]買いました。
6.1: Te-form - る and irr. verbs
る-verbs: change る to て (たべる->たべて)irr. verbs: する->してくる->きていく->いって
6.1: Te-form - う verbs
う-verbs: 5 sub-groups-ends in う/つ/る: change to って (あう->あって)-ends in む/ぶ/ぬ: change to んで (よむ->よんで)-ends in く: change to いて (かく->かいて)-ends in ぐ: change to いで (およぐ->およいで)-ends in す: change to して (はなす->はなして)
6.2: ~てください
-used for polite requests-ex, Xをしてください = please do X-ex, たべてください = please eat
6.3: ~てもいいです/~てはいけません
-used to ask for, grant, and deny permissionXをしてもいいですか? = May I do X?(literally, If I do X, is it okay?)Xをしてもいいですよ。 = You may do X.(lit, If you do X, it's okay.)Xをしてはいけません。 = You may not do X.(lit, If you do X, that won't do.)
6.4: Describing Two Activities
-used to make a compound verbs-ex, ケーキを食べて、コーヒーを飲みました。 = I ate cake and drank coffee.-also used to loosely connect a phrase with the rest of a sentence-ex, バスを乗って、学校に行きます。 = I ride the bus to go to school. -ex, おそくなって、すみません。 = I'm sorry for being late. = Because I was late, I'm sorry.
6.5: ~から
-means because, but it goes at the end of the explanation sentence.-ex, 私は勉強します。明日テストが在りますから。 = I will study. Because I have a test tomorrow.
6.6: ~ましょうか
-used to offer to help someone do something-ex, にもつを持ちましょうか。 = Shall I carry your luggage?
7.1: ~ている
1. describes an action in progress-ex, 私は食べています。 = I am eating.2. describes a continuous state-ex, 私は日本語を知っています。 = I know Japanese.*sometimes, the sentence can mean either #1 or #2: かれは日本語を勉強しています。 = He is studying Japanese (right now). OR He studies Japanese.*be careful with いく and くる:いっている = (someone) has gone (there)きている = (someone) has come (here)
7.2: かみがながいです
-used to describe a person's physical attributes-Aさんは[thing]が[adjective] = A's [thing] is [adjective]
7.3: て-forms for Joining Sentences
-use the て-form of an adjective or noun to make a compound adjective or compound sentence-conjugation:い-adj: あまい->あまくてな-adj: 元気(な)->元気でirr. adj: いい->よくてnoun + です: 日本人です->日本人で
7.4: verb stem + に行く
destination[に/へ]purposeに[行く/来る]-if a verb is the purpose, use the verb stem (present tense verb minus ます)-ex, きっさてんに食べに行きます。
7.5: Counting People
ひとり = 1 personふたり = 2 peopleさんにん = 3 peopleよにん = 4 peopleごにん = 5 peopleろくにん = 6 peopleしちにん/ななにん = 7 peopleはちにん = 8 peopleきゅうにん = 9 peopleじゅうにん = 10 people
8.1: Short Forms
8.2: Uses of Short Forms
8.3: ~ないでください
8.4: verb のが好きです
8.5: が
8.6: 何か and 何も
9.1: Past Tense Short Forms
9.2: Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives
9.3: まだ~ていません
9.4: ~から
10.1: Comparison
10.2: adjective/noun + の
10.3: ~つもりだ
10.4: adjective + なる
10.5: どこかに/どこにも
10.6: で
11.1: ~たい
11.2: ~たり~たりです
11.3: ~ことがある
11.4: noun A や noun B
12.1: ~なんです
12.2: ~すぎる
12.3: ~ほうがいいです
12.4: ~ので
12.5: ~なくちゃいけません
12.6: ~でしょう
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