Anatomy and Physiology by Kenneth S. Saladin 4th edition - Chapter 01 - BSCC2093 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Frontal Plane
An anatomical plane that passes through the body or an organ from right to left and superior to inferior; also called a coronal plane.
Serous Membrane
A membrane sucha s the peritoneum, pleura, or pericardium that lines a body cavity or covers the external surfaces of the viscera; composed of a simple squamous mesothelium and a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
The widening of a blood vessel due to relaxation of the muscle of its tunica media and the outward pressure of the blood exerted against the wall.
Any anatomical structure that is composed of at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structures around it. Many organs are microscopic and any organs contain smaller organs, such as the skin containing numerous microscopic sense organs.
Pertaining to a wall, as in the parietal cells of the gastric glands and parietal bone of the skull.
Located relatively close to the medial axis of the body, as in the central nervous system; opposite of peripheral.
Development of a relatively unspecialized cell into one with a more specific structure and function.
A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over a period of time; the mechanism that produces adaptations in human form and function.
A serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen and covers the mesenteries and viscera.
The study of cell structure and function.
Relatively near a point of origin or attachment; for example, the shoulder is proximal to the elbow. (compare distal)
Computed Tomography
A method of medical imaging that uses X Rays and a computer to create an image of a thin section of the body.
A serous membrane that binds the intestines together and suspends them from the abdominal wall; the visceral continuation of the peritoneum.
The functional processes of the body.
The region from elbow to wrist; the forearm.
An evolutionary process leading to the establishment of species characteristics that favor survival and reproduction.
Relatively far from the body surface; opposite of superficial. For example, the bones are deep to the skeletal muscles.
Sagittal plane
Any plane that extends from ventral to dorsal and cephalic to caudal, dividing the body into right and left portions. Compare midsagittal plane.
Relatively close to the surface; opposite of deep. For example, the ribs are superficial to the lungs.
An informed conjecture about a phenomenon that is capable of being tested and potentially falsified by experimentation or data collection.
Pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk; The part of the body excluding the appendicular portion.
The leg proper; the region from the knee to the ankle.
That part of the body excluding the head, neck, and appendages.
The narrowing of a blood vessel due to muscular constriction of its tunica media.
The organs contained in the dorsal and ventral body cavities, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomacy, intestines, and kidneys.
X Ray
A high-energy, penetrating electromagnetic ray with wavelengths in the range of 0.1 to 10 nm; used in diagnosis and therapy.
The entire organism
Dynamic Equilibrium
A state of continual change that is controled within narrow limits, as in homeostasis and chemical equilibrium
Midsagittal Plane
The plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves. (Compare Sagittal plane)
Structure of the Body.
Anatomical Position
A reference posture that allows for standardized anatomical terminology. A subject in anatomical position is standing with the feet flat on the floor and slightly apart, arms down to the sides, and the palms and eyes directed forward.
In Situ
In the normal anatomical location.
Away from the center of the body or of an organ, as in peripheral vision and peripheral blood vessels.
Pertaining to the leg proper or to the crus of an organ.
Position Emission Tomography
A method of producing a computerized image of the physiological state of a tissue using injected radioisotopes that emit positrons.
Pertaining to the extremities and their supporting skeletal girdles.
A double-walled serous membrane that encloses each lung.
The smallest subdivision of tissue considered to be alive; consists of a plasma membrane enclosing a cytoplasm and, in most cases, a nucleus.
Negative Feedback
A self-corrective mechanism that underlies most homeostasis, in which a bodily change is detected and responses are activated that reverse the change.
A cell or organ specialized to detect a stimulus, such as a taste cell or the eye.
The thick medial partition of the thoracic cavity that separates one pleural cavity from the other and contains the heart, great blood vessels, and thymus.
A chemical or physical agent in a cell's surroundings that is capable of creating a physiological response in the cell; especially agents detected by sensory cells, such as chemicals, light, and pressure.
An explanatory statement, or set of statements, that concisely summarizes the state of knowledge on a phenomenon and provides direction for further study; for example, the fluid mosaic theory of the plasma membrane and the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.
Abdominal Cavity
The body cavity between the diaphragm and pelvic brim.
The habit of walking on two legs; a defining characteristic of the family hominidae that underlies many skeletal and other characteristics of humans.
Pertaining to the abdomen.
Any species of primate classified in the family hominidae, characterized by bipedal locomotion, relatively large brains, and usually articulate speech; currently represented only by homo sapiens but including extinct species of homo and australopithecus.
Pertaining to the groin
Away from the midline of an organ or midsagittal plane of the body; toward the side. (compare medial)
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