Tox Final: Poisonous Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Toxic Part: Cannabis sativa
marijuana
Toxic Part: Cannabis sativa
flowering tops > flowers > leaves > stems. Female plants more toxic than males
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
Dumb cane
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
split leaf philodendren
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
Caladium; Elephant ear
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
Jack in the pulpit
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Aloe vera
aloe
Toxic Part: Aloe vera
latex juice within the leaves
Toxic Part: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
tulip
Toxic Part: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Bulbs Iris spp.
iris; flags
Toxic Part: Bulbs Iris spp.
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
daffodils
Toxic Part: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Pinus spp
Christmas Tree
Toxic Part: Pinus spp
Pine needles, sap, water in tree reservoir probably more likely source
Toxic Part: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Easter lily and Asiatic lily, respectively
Toxic Part: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Leaves, stems, flowers – flowers most toxic
Toxic Part: Nicotiana tabacum
Tobacco
Toxic Part: Nicotiana tabacum
All parts – absorbed in small intestine; toxicity not lost in drying
Toxic Part: Phoradendron flavescens
Mistletoe
Toxic Part: Phoradendron flavescens
Leaves and berries – berries most toxic
Toxic Part: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
Toxic Part: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Leaves (juice/sap)
Toxic Part: Ilex opaca
American Holly
Toxic Part: Ilex opaca
All parts
Toxic Part: Amanita muscaria
Fly mushroom, Amanita
Toxic Part: Amanita muscaria
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Amanita spp.
Destroying Angel
Toxic Part: Amanita spp.
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Psilocybe
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogens)
Toxic Part: Psilocybe
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Paneolus
Sacred Mushroom
(hallucinogens)
Toxic Part: Paneolus
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove, Digitalis
Toxic Part: Digitalis purpurea
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Nerium oleander
Oleander
Toxic Part: Nerium oleander
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Convallaria majalis
Lilly of the Valley
Toxic Part: Convallaria majalis
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Sorghum halapense
Johnson Grass
Toxic Part: Sorghum halapense
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp.
Sorghum,Sudex
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp.
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Zea Mays
Corn
Toxic Part: Zea Mays
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Claviceps spp.
ergot
Toxic Part: Claviceps spp.
seed head
Toxic Part: Festuca
Tall Fescue
Toxic Part: Festuca
all parts toxic but seed heads most toxic (esp. in mid summer). Drought and fertilization increases toxicity
Toxic Part: Taxus spp.
Japanese Yew
Toxic Part: Taxus spp.
All parts toxic except for fruit of the berries; toxic in green or dry stage; older more mature leaves more mature than young ones; concentration highest during winter.
Toxic Part: Aesculus octandra
Yellow Buckeye
Toxic Part: Aesculus octandra
NUTS are the most toxic, but all parts are potentially problematic.
Toxic Part: Acer rubrum
Red Maple
Toxic Part: Acer rubrum
Wilted or dried leaves (fresh leaves suspected but not proven).
Toxic Part: Quercus spp
Oak, Acorn
Toxic Part: Quercus spp
Acorns, especially the caps. Oak buds also.
Toxic Part: Juglans nigra
Black Walnut
Toxic Part: Juglans nigra
The wood is usually to blame (walnut shavings).
Toxic Part: Prunus spp
Wild or Chokecherry
Toxic Part: Prunus spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Johnson or Sudan Grass
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Sudex or Sorghum
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Hypericum perforatum
St. Johnswort
Toxic Part: Hypericum perforatum
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Buckwheat
Toxic Part: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Medicago sativa
Alfalfa
Toxic Part: Medicago sativa
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Trifolium spp
White Clover
Toxic Part: Trifolium spp
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Azalea spp.
Azalea
Toxic Part: Azalea spp.
"0.2% of BW of leaves

nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel; Sheep Laurel
Toxic Part: Kalmia latifolia
"0.2% of BW of leaves

nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron
Toxic Part: Rhododendron maximum
"0.2% of BW of leaves

nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
Toxic Part: Cicuta maculata
"lower stem and roots - highest concentration of the toxic yellow oily liquid

one piece of tuber the size of your thumb is enough to kill a horse or cow"
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron radicans
Poison Ivy
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron radicans
N/A
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron quercifolium
Poison Oak
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron quercifolium
N/A
Toxic Part: Cannabis sativa
Marijuana
flowering tops > flowers > leaves > stems. Female plants more toxic than males
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
Dumb cane
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
split leaf philodendren
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
Caladium; Elephant ear
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
Jack in the pulpit
all parts are toxic, but especially stalk. Stalk > leaves
Toxic Part: Aloe vera
aloe
latex juice within the leaves
Toxic Part: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
tulip
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Bulbs Iris spp.
iris; flags
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
daffodils
bulb >>> other parts. Leaves contain some toxin, but much less of a hazard
Toxic Part: Pinus spp
Christmas Tree
Pine needles, sap, water in tree reservoir probably more likely source
Toxic Part: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Easter lily and Asiatic lily, respectively
Leaves, stems, flowers – flowers most toxic
Toxic Part: Nicotiana tabacum
Tobacco
All parts – absorbed in small intestine; toxicity not lost in drying
Toxic Part: Phoradendron flavescens
Mistletoe
Leaves and berries – berries most toxic
Toxic Part: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
Leaves (juice/sap)
Toxic Part: Ilex opaca
American Holly
All parts
Toxic Part: Amanita muscaria
Fly mushroom, Amanita
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Amanita spp.
Destroying Angel
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Psilocybe
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogens)
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Paneolus
Sacred Mushroom
(hallucinogens)
Entire fungus
Toxic Part: Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove, Digitalis
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Nerium oleander
Oleander
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Convallaria majalis
Lilly of the Valley
All parts of plant are toxic but with low palatability
Toxic Part: Sorghum halapense
Johnson Grass
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp.
Sorghum,Sudex
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Zea Mays
Corn
85% of the nitrate is in the lower 1/3 of the plant (i.e. lower stalk); corn, wheat or oat seeds are not a problem; stover/straw problems. Silage and concentrate not source of nitrate. (bacteria degredate in silage)
Toxic Part: Claviceps spp.
ergot
seed head
Toxic Part: Festuca
Tall Fescue
all parts toxic but seed heads most toxic (esp. in mid summer). Drought and fertilization increases toxicity
Toxic Part: Taxus spp.
Japanese Yew
All parts toxic except for fruit of the berries; toxic in green or dry stage; older more mature leaves more mature than young ones; concentration highest during winter.
Toxic Part: Aesculus octandra
Yellow Buckeye
NUTS are the most toxic, but all parts are potentially problematic.
Toxic Part: Acer rubrum
Red Maple
Wilted or dried leaves (fresh leaves suspected but not proven).
Toxic Part: Quercus spp
Oak, Acorn
Acorns, especially the caps. Oak buds also.
Toxic Part: Juglans nigra
Black Walnut
The wood is usually to blame (walnut shavings).
Toxic Part: Prunus spp
Wild or Chokecherry
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Johnson or Sudan Grass
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Sorghum spp
Sudex or Sorghum
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Part: Hypericum perforatum
St. Johnswort
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Buckwheat
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Medicago sativa
Alfalfa
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Trifolium spp
White Clover
Entire plant
Toxic Part: Azalea spp.
Azalea
"0.2% of BW of leaves
nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel; Sheep Laurel
"0.2% of BW of leaves
nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron
"0.2% of BW of leaves
nectar and honey made from nectar"
Toxic Part: Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
"lower stem and roots - highest concentration of the toxic yellow oily liquid
one piece of tuber the size of your thumb is enough to kill a horse or cow"
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron radicans
Poison Ivy
N/A
Toxic Part: Toxicodendron quercifolium
Poison Oak
N/A
Toxic Principle: Cannabis sativa
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Mechanism unknown but THC affects brain serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine metabolism
Toxic Principle: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
insoluble Ca oxalate crystals embed on GI tract causing irritation. Needles shoot out of idioblast. Also, proteolytic enzymes may cause histamine release.
Toxic Principle: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
insoluble Ca oxalate crystals embed on GI tract causing irritation. Needles shoot out of idioblast. Also, proteolytic enzymes may cause histamine release.
Toxic Principle: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
insoluble Ca oxalate crystals embed on GI tract causing irritation. Needles shoot out of idioblast. Also, proteolytic enzymes may cause histamine release.
Toxic Principle: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
insoluble Ca oxalate crystals embed on GI tract causing irritation. Needles shoot out of idioblast. Also, proteolytic enzymes may cause histamine release.
Toxic Principle: Aloe vera
barbolin (an anthraquinone glycoside) is a purgative
Toxic Principle: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
exact mechanism unknown, bulb contains a combination of irritant resins and alkaloids
Toxic Principle: Bulbs Iris spp.
exact mechanism unknown, bulb contains a combination of irritant resins and alkaloids
Toxic Principle: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
exact mechanism unknown, bulb contains a combination of irritant resins and alkaloids
Toxic Principle: Pinus spp
"Multiple monocyclic carbon alcohols in pine needles and the sap
that leeches into the water reservoir; pinene, pine oil, phenol-type compounds"
Toxic Principle: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Unknown
Toxic Principle: Nicotiana tabacum
"–Pyridine alkaloid: nicotine
–Teratogen is called Anabasine (Large Animals)"
Toxic Principle: Phoradendron flavescens
"–Sympathomimetic amines like tyramine, choline and B-
phenylethylamine –Oxytocin like substance - increase BP & RR
»Abortifacient used by American Indians –Phoratoxin (a Toxalbumin) - GI irritant »Similar to Castor Bean
»Biggest problem with ingestion of berries"
Toxic Principle: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Euphorbin, an irritant in the juice or sap
Toxic Principle: Ilex opaca
"–Glucosidic saponins most important
–Also has some caffeine & theobromine
–All parts of plant are toxic"
Toxic Principle: Amanita muscaria
"1. Muscarinic: Inocybe & Clitocybe
muscarine similar to ACh & binds to ACh receptors → causes unclrolled stimulation → not degraded by Achesterase
2. Isoxazole: Ibotenic & Muscimol
*crosses BBB & acts on CNS
*Muscimol: potent agonist of GABA receptor so decreases motor activity at small dose & ataxia at large dose
*Ibotenic Acid: mimics glutamic acid activity in CNS"
Toxic Principle: Amanita spp.
"*Cyclopeptides: amanitins (most important because toxic orally) & phalloidins
*Amanitins inhibit nuclear RNA polymerase II → block protein synthesis at ribosomes → cell death of hepatocytes, renal tubular cells & crypt cells"
Toxic Principle: Psilocybe
"Psilocybin metabolized to Psilocin (active)
*Indole tryptamine derivative (serotonin)
*Stimulates serotonin receptors
*psychoactive effects similar to LSD"
Toxic Principle: Paneolus
"Psilocybin metabolized to Psilocin (active)
*Indole tryptamine derivative (serotonin)
*Stimulates serotonin receptors
*psychoactive effects similar to LSD"
Toxic Principle: Digitalis purpurea
"Fairly potent toxicant
*Cardiac glycosides which are digitalis, digitoxin, convallamarin, & oleandrin
*cause cardiac arrhythmias due to incomplete AV block"
Toxic Principle: Nerium oleander
same as Digitalis purpurea; only takes 0.005% BW to be lethal

"Fairly potent toxicant
*Cardiac glycosides which are digitalis, digitoxin, convallamarin, & oleandrin
*cause cardiac arrhythmias due to incomplete AV block"
Toxic Principle: Convallaria majalis
"Fairly potent toxicant
*Cardiac glycosides which are digitalis, digitoxin, convallamarin, & oleandrin
*cause cardiac arrhythmias due to incomplete AV block"
Toxic Principle: Sorghum halapense
Nitrates reduced to nitrite by rumen microbes -> nitrate is an oxidizing agent that causes methhemobglobin in amt greater than what can be compensated for by methemoglobin reductase. Chronic nitrate toxicosis thought to be associated with induced iodine deficiency or decreased progesterone production by copora lutea.
Toxic Principle: Sorghum spp.
Nitrates reduced to nitrite by rumen microbes -> nitrate is an oxidizing agent that causes methhemobglobin in amt greater than what can be compensated for by methemoglobin reductase. Chronic nitrate toxicosis thought to be associated with induced iodine deficiency or decreased progesterone production by copora lutea.
Toxic Principle: Zea Mays
Nitrates reduced to nitrite by rumen microbes -> nitrate is an oxidizing agent that causes methhemobglobin in amt greater than what can be compensated for by methemoglobin reductase. Chronic nitrate toxicosis thought to be associated with induced iodine deficiency or decreased progesterone production by copora lutea.
Toxic Principle: Claviceps spp.
Claviceps purpurea has ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergotamine, ergosine and ergonovine which do the following:
1.lysergic acid has CNS effects and causes vasoconstriction
2. decreases prolactin
3. interferes with thermoregulation center of hypothamalamus. Claviceps paspali produces paspalitrems which are tremorgenic and have physioloigic effects related to CNS.
Toxic Principle: Festuca
Neotyphodium coenophialum endophytic fungus grows on >95% of fescue grass in Southwest and Midwest-->contains alkaloids. Alkaloid ergovaline affects smooth muscle contraction, hypothalamic thermoregulation, prolactin levels, and other midbrain sympathetic activity. It is a dopamine (D2) agonist and serotonin antagonist.
Toxic Principle: Taxus spp.
19 alkaloids found but most important are taxine A and B → depress conduction of depolarization through the heart; leads to pronounced bradycardia with heart stoppage in diastole; also negative ionotrope and calcium, sodium channel antagonistic activity.
Toxic Principle: Aesculus octandra
Consumption of only 0.5-1% of body weight can be fatal. The suspected toxins are triterpenoid saponins, which can be neurotoxic at low doses and hemolytic at high doses. All species are susceptible, but most of cases are seen in cattle.
Toxic Principle: Acer rubrum
Gallic acid and pyrogallol involved. Lead to oxidative damage to red cells, forming methmeglobin with a lack of oxygen carrying capacity. Mostly a problem in horses.
Toxic Principle: Quercus spp
Tannins and their metabolites. Tannins metabolized to gallic acid and pyrogallol. Gallic acid precipitates proteins. Presumed mechanism is through endothelial damage leading to interstitial and perirenal edema.
Toxic Principle: Juglans nigra
Moldy walnuts contain Penitrum A, which is toxic to dogs. Fresh walnuts are toxic mostly to horses through an unknown mechanism.
Toxic Principle: Prunus spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Principle: Sorghum spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Principle: Sorghum spp
Forage containing 200 ppm or greater is dangerous. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase and shuts down cellular respiration, leading to histotoxic anoxia. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin.
Toxic Principle: Hypericum perforatum
Primary photosensitivity: pigments in plants present, need no metabolism. Causes photosensitizational dermatitis, caused by activation of photodynamic agent by UV light. Pigments are hypericin (St. Johnswort)& fagopyrin (Buckwheat). Pigments form free radicals that interact with DNA, RNA in skin cells. This changes membrane permeability, leading to cell death.
Toxic Principle: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Primary photosensitivity: pigments in plants present, need no metabolism. Causes photosensitizational dermatitis, caused by activation of photodynamic agent by UV light. Pigments are hypericin (St. Johnswort)& fagopyrin (Buckwheat). Pigments form free radicals that interact with DNA, RNA in skin cells. This changes membrane permeability, leading to cell death.
Toxic Principle: Medicago sativa
Toxin unknown, mechanism thought to be like that below.

Primary photosensitivity: pigments in plants present, need no metabolism. Causes photosensitizational dermatitis, caused by activation of photodynamic agent by UV light. Pigments are hypericin (St. Johnswort)& fagopyrin (Buckwheat). Pigments form free radicals that interact with DNA, RNA in skin cells. This changes membrane permeability, leading to cell death.
Toxic Principle: Trifolium spp
Toxin unknown, mechanism thought to be like that below.

Primary photosensitivity: pigments in plants present, need no metabolism. Causes photosensitizational dermatitis, caused by activation of photodynamic agent by UV light. Pigments are hypericin (St. Johnswort)& fagopyrin (Buckwheat). Pigments form free radicals that interact with DNA, RNA in skin cells. This changes membrane permeability, leading to cell death.
Toxic Principle: Azalea spp.
"Grayanotoxins (Andromedotoxins-tetracyclic polyol (complex alcohol)

Arbutin - a glycoside; a toxicant of secondary importance"
Toxic Principle: Kalmia latifolia
"Grayanotoxins (Andromedotoxins-tetracyclic polyol (complex alcohol)

Arbutin - a glycoside; a toxicant of secondary importance"
Toxic Principle: Rhododendron maximum
"Grayanotoxins (Andromedotoxins-tetracyclic polyol (complex alcohol)

Arbutin - a glycoside; a toxicant of secondary importance"
Toxic Principle: Cicuta maculata
"Cicutoxin: a resenoid
complex alcohol-unsaturated
present in the yellow oily liquid

Cicutol - an alcohol derivative, which is relatively non-toxic"
Toxic Principle: Toxicodendron radicans
oil in the root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit can cause dermatitis in people --- IT DOES NOT AFFECT ANIMALS but they can carry the oil on their coats, transferring it to humans
Toxic Principle: Toxicodendron quercifolium
" --- IT DOES NOT USUALLY AFFECT ANIMALS (some dogs may get slight irritation on underbelly or nose)
- people can have an allergic reaction to this plant
-livestock can graze without side effects "
What is this plant?
Cannabis sativa
What is this plant?
Marijuana
What is this plant?
Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
What is this plant?
Dumb Cane
What is this plant?
Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
What is this plant?
Split Leaf Philodendren
What is this plant?
Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
What is this plant?
Caladium - Elephant Ear
What is this plant?
Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
What is this plant?
Jack in the Pulpit
What is this plant?
Aloe vera
What is this plant?
Aloe
What is this plant?
Bulbs Tulipia spp.
What is this plant?
Tulip
What is this plant?
Bulbs Iris spp.
What is this plant?
Iris; Flags
What is this plant?
Daffodils
What is this plant?
Bulbs Narcissus spp.
What is this plant?
Pinus spp
What is this plant?
Christmas Tree
What is this plant?
Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
What is this plant?
Easter lily and Asiatic lily respectively
What is this plant?
Nicotiana tabacum
What is this plant?
Tobacco
What is this plant?
Mistletoe
What is this plant?
Phoradendron flavescens
What is this plant?
Poinsettia pulcherrima
What is this plant?
Poinsettia
What is this plant?
Ilex opaca
What is this plant?
American Holly
What is this plant?
Amanita muscaria
What is this plant?
Fly Mushroom, Amanita
What is this plant?
Amanita spp. (Destroying Angel)
What is this plant?
Destroying Angel
What is this plant?
Psilocybe
What is this plant?
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogen)
What is this plant?
Paneolus
What is this plant?
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogen)
What is this plant?
Digitalis purpurea
What is this plant?
Foxglove, Digitalis
What is this plant?
Nerium oleander
What is this plant?
Oleander
What is this plant?
Convallaria majalis
What is this plant?
Lily of the Valley
What is this plant?
Sorghum halapense (Johnson Grass)
What is this plant?
Johnson Grass
What is this plant?
Sorghum spp. (Sorghum, Sudex)
What is this plant?
Sorghum; Sudex
What is this plant?
Zea Mays
What is this plant?
Corn
What is this plant?
Claviceps spp.
What is this plant?
Ergot
What is this plant?
Festuca
What is this plant?
Tall Fescue
What is this plant?
Taxus spp.
What is this plant?
Japanese Yew
What is this plant?
Aesculus octandra
What is this plant?
Yellow Buckeye
What is this plant?
Acer rubrum
What is this plant?
Red Maple
What is this plant?
Quercus spp
What is this plant?
Oak, Acorn
What is this plant?
Juglans nigra
What is this plant?
Black Walnut
What is this plant?
Prunus spp
What is this plant?
Wild or Choke Cherry
What is this plant?
Sorghum spp (Johnson or Sudan Grass)
What is this plant?
Johnson or Sudan Grass
What is this plant?
Sorghum spp (Sudex or Sorghum)
What is this plant?
Sudex or Sorghum
What is this plant?
Hypericum perforatum
What is this plant?
St. Johnswort
What is this plant?
Fagopyrum sagittatum
What is this plant?
Buckwheat
What is this plant?
Medicago sativa
What is this plant?
Alfalfa
What is this plant?
Trifolium spp
What is this plant?
White Clover
What is this plant?
Azalea spp.
What is this plant?
Azalea
What is this plant?
Kalmia latifolia
What is this plant?
Mountain Laurel; Sheep Laurel
What is this plant?
Rhododendron maximum
What is this plant?
Rhododendron
What is this plant?
Cicuta maculata
What is this plant?
Water Hemlock
What is this plant?
Toxicodendron radicans
What is this plant?
Poison Ivy
What is this plant?
Toxicodendron quercifolium
What is this plant?
Poison Oak
Clinical Signs: Cannabis sativa
CNS (depress>>hyperesthesia) - esp. glazed eyes & stupor. Ataxia, vomit, bradycardia, tremors.
Clinical Signs: Cannabis sativa
marijuana
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
GI signs - vomit, diarrhea, salivation. Head shaking, loss of voice.
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
Dumb cane
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
GI signs - vomit, diarrhea, salivation. Head shaking, loss of voice.
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
split leaf philodendren
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
GI signs - vomit, diarrhea, salivation. Head shaking, loss of voice.
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
Caladium; Elephant ear
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
GI signs - vomit, diarrhea, salivation. Head shaking, loss of voice.
Clinical Signs: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
Jack in the pulpit
Clinical Signs: Aloe vera
GI signs- vomiting and diarrhea; possible red color urine if the urine is alkaline (kidney irritation).
Clinical Signs: Aloe vera
aloe
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
GI signs- vomiting, diarrhea, salivation.
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
tulip
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Iris spp.
GI signs- vomiting, diarrhea, salivation.
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Iris spp.
iris; flags
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
GI signs- vomiting, diarrhea, salivation.
Clinical Signs: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
daffodils
Clinical Signs: Pinus spp
Clinical Signs: CNS, Liver, GI, Renal
Onset time: <12 hours
Depression/lethargy, jaundice, vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal
Pain, possible seizures
Clinical Signs: Pinus spp
Christmas Tree
Clinical Signs: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Clinical Signs: GI, Renal
Onset time: <12 hours; GI <2 hrs, Renal 1-3 days, course is 3-7 days
Vomiting, anorexia, polyuria early (12-24hrs), dehydration, salivation,
Depression/lethargy, oliguria/anuria late (>24hrs), hypothermia
Clinical Signs: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Easter lily and Asiatic lily, respectively
Clinical Signs: Nicotiana tabacum
Clinical Signs: CNS, Cardiovascular
Onset time: 15-60min
-CNS: Excitation, hyperactivity, shaking, shivering, twitching, staggering gait
–Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urination, lacrimation
–CV: decreased HR early then increasing with blockade, weak thready pulse with low BP
–High dose: weakness, staggering, collapse
»Resp. changes from rapid and shallow to very slow; death
Clinical Signs: Nicotiana tabacum
Tobacco
Clinical Signs: Phoradendron flavescens
Clinical Signs: System: GI
–Onset time is about 12-24 hrs post ingestion
–Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain (colic)
–Pale, anorexic, apathetic, PU and bradycardia
–Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Clinical Signs: Phoradendron flavescens
Mistletoe
Clinical Signs: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Clinical Signs: System: GI
–Irritated oral mucosa in puppies, kittens, birds, lizards
–Emesis, nausea, diarrhea
–Conjunctivitis, keratitis, possible dermatitis
Clinical Signs: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
Clinical Signs: Ilex opaca
Clinical Signs: GI
–Salivation, vomiting, diarrhea - self limiting
–May become anorexic
–Shake head, smack lips (burning irritation)
Clinical Signs: Ilex opaca
American Holly
Clinical Signs: Amanita muscaria
1. Muscarinic-fast onset; GI & Autonomic NS (SLUD, abdomenal pain due to severe intestinal contractions, miosis & bradycardia
2. Isoxazole-CNS signs; Canine gets opisthotonus, paresis, seizures, paddling, chewing, miosis, vestibular signs, respiratory depression, coma
Clinical Signs: Amanita muscaria
Fly mushroom, Amanita
Clinical Signs: Amanita spp.
*latent period of 6-12 hours post-ingestion
*Initial Signs:nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, feeble rapid pulse
*Later Signs: severe signs of liver & kidney failure; severe hypoglycemia; significant elevation of liver enzymes; Renal Failure signs of PU/PD, vomiting, anorexia, tubular necrosis, Increased BUN, CREA
Clinical Signs: Amanita spp.
Destroying Angel
Clinical Signs: Psilocybe
CNS signs-ataxia, vocalization, overt aggression, nystagmus, increased HR, BP, & temperature; mydriasis, tremors; no coma
Clinical Signs: Psilocybe
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogens)
Clinical Signs: Paneolus
CNS signs-ataxia, vocalization, overt aggression, nystagmus, increased HR, BP, & temperature; mydriasis, tremors; no coma
Clinical Signs: Paneolus
Sacred Mushroom
(hallucinogens)
Clinical Signs: Digitalis purpurea
Clinical Signs: Onset time: rapid, usually 30-60 minutes post-ingestion
*Gastrointestinal: usually are initially the predominate signs including salivation, nausea, vomiting. Abdominal pain, diarrhea; may see mild hyperemia of gut
*Cardiovascular: later signs including strong, slow pulse → weak rapid pulse & beat as AV, progressive heart block, cardiac arrhythmias, ataxia, hypotension, shock, collapse, death
*Other signs: increased frequency of urination
Clinical Signs: Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove, Digitalis
Clinical Signs: Nerium oleander
same as Digitalis pupurea
Clinical Signs: Onset time: rapid, usually 30-60 minutes post-ingestion
*Gastrointestinal: usually are initially the predominate signs including salivation, nausea, vomiting. Abdominal pain, diarrhea; may see mild hyperemia of gut
*Cardiovascular: later signs including strong, slow pulse → weak rapid pulse & beat as AV, progressive heart block, cardiac arrhythmias, ataxia, hypotension, shock, collapse, death
*Other signs: increased frequency of urination
Clinical Signs: Nerium oleander
Oleander
Clinical Signs: Convallaria majalis
Same as Digitalis purpurea
Clinical Signs: Onset time: rapid, usually 30-60 minutes post-ingestion
*Gastrointestinal: usually are initially the predominate signs including salivation, nausea, vomiting. Abdominal pain, diarrhea; may see mild hyperemia of gut
*Cardiovascular: later signs including strong, slow pulse → weak rapid pulse & beat as AV, progressive heart block, cardiac arrhythmias, ataxia, hypotension, shock, collapse, death
*Other signs: increased frequency of urination
Clinical Signs: Convallaria majalis
Lilly of the Valley
Clinical Signs: Sorghum halapense
Species affected: Cattle>sheep>horses>pigs ACUTE: (RESP, RBCs) onset: 30 mins to several days; duration: minutes to several hours; Signs: depression, lethargy, weakness, mild dyspnea, prostration, pulse weak and rapid, cyanosis, polyuria, metHb, abortion may occur 2-5 d.post toxicosis. Lesions:brown blood and tissues, color disappears in 5-8h post mortem, petichial--> eccymotic epicardial hemorrhages, pulmonary congestion. CHRONIC: (REPRO) signs: poor growth rate, abortion, infertility, decresed milk production, goiter in newborn. Lesion: placental necrosis
Clinical Signs: Sorghum halapense
Johnson Grass
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp.
Species affected: Cattle>sheep>horses>pigs ACUTE: (RESP, RBCs) onset: 30 mins to several days; duration: minutes to several hours; Signs: depression, lethargy, weakness, mild dyspnea, prostration, pulse weak and rapid, cyanosis, polyuria, metHb, abortion may occur 2-5 d.post toxicosis. Lesions:brown blood and tissues, color disappears in 5-8h post mortem, petichial--> eccymotic epicardial hemorrhages, pulmonary congestion. CHRONIC: (REPRO) signs: poor growth rate, abortion, infertility, decresed milk production, goiter in newborn. Lesion: placental necrosis
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp.
Sorghum,Sudex
Clinical Signs: Zea Mays
Species affected: Cattle>sheep>horses>pigs ACUTE: (RESP, RBCs) onset: 30 mins to several days; duration: minutes to several hours; Signs: depression, lethargy, weakness, mild dyspnea, prostration, pulse weak and rapid, cyanosis, polyuria, metHb, abortion may occur 2-5 d.post toxicosis. Lesions:brown blood and tissues, color disappears in 5-8h post mortem, petichial--> eccymotic epicardial hemorrhages, pulmonary congestion. CHRONIC: (REPRO) signs: poor growth rate, abortion, infertility, decresed milk production, goiter in newborn. Lesion: placental necrosis
Clinical Signs: Zea Mays
Corn
Clinical Signs: Claviceps spp.
Species affected: C. purpurea → cattle and sheep most often but can affect all species; C. paspali → mainly cattle but can affect goats, horses, and sheep. ACUTE NERVOUS ERGOTISM: (CNS) onset: 1-5d signs: hyperexcitability, falling, incoordination, opisthotonus, ataxia w/ forelimb flexure, muscle tremors, clonic convulsions. CHRONIC GANGRENOUS ERGOTISM: (BLOOD VESSELS) onset time: 1wk; low morbidity and mortality; usually late fall or winter signs:lameness (hindlimbs 1st), anxiety, TRP poss. Increased, abortion (?), dearrhea, selling of coronary band, ataxia, feed refusal, sloughing of hooves, tails, ears, skin or teats, necrosis of tip of tongue in sheep. Lesions: swelling, ischemia, edema, thrombosis, necrosis of external extremities, GI tract ulceration and perforation. ERGOTISM IN SWINE: (REPRO) in last 2-4 wks of gestation; recovery 5-7d after clean feed substituted ; signs: feed refusal, gangrene (ears and nose), agalactia, sow appears healthy, festation shortened 3-5 d, abortion rare C.PASPALI SYNDROME: (CNS) onset:1-5 d. mostly in cattle; signs: hyperexcitability, ataxia, opisthotonus, tremors, falling, clonic convulsions,
Clinical Signs: Claviceps spp.
ergot
Clinical Signs: Festuca
SUMMER SLUMP: (GENERALIZED ADR, NEUROENDOCRINE);affects cattle in summer primarily; signs:poor weight gain, decreased conception, heat intolerance, failure to shed winter hair, decreased immunity, increased body temp., nervousness, increased RR, increased salivation, diarrhea. FESCUE FOOT SYNDROME:(BLOOD VESSELS);affects cattle in late fall or winter; signs: arched back, shifting weight in rear leg, knuckling, lameness, sloughed hooves, rough hair coat, swelling and redness of coronary band or tip of tail, muscle tremors eliciting cough. FAT NECROSIS SYNDROME: (FAT) affects cattle of all ages; signs: scants feces, dystocia, rough hair coat, bloat, weight loss, decreased appetite; lesions: necrotic mesenteric fat is yellowish or chalky, white, irrecgular and hard. REPRODUCTION DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME: (REPRO); affects horses last month of gestation or early gestation in cattle (EED); signs: abortion,dystocia, dysmature weak or stillborn foals with feathered hooves and long thin torso, prolonged gestation (~27d), thickened placenta, retained agalactia.
Clinical Signs: Festuca
Tall Fescue
Clinical Signs: Taxus spp.
Affects all animals but most commonly seen in cattle (HEART AND CNS (in dog)); onset 15min to 24 hrs; course <12hrs ; signs: sudden death, dyspnea bradycardia, convulsions possible in dogs, trembling, incoordination, depression/lethargy, diarrhea; lesions: yew in rumen or stomach, enlarged globular heart, possible increase in pericardial fluid, pulmonary edema, congestion
Clinical Signs: Taxus spp.
Japanese Yew
Clinical Signs: Aesculus octandra
Within about 16 hours of ingestion, will see goose stepping, saw horse stance and ataxia/incoordination. May also see hyperesthesia and seizures.
Clinical Signs: Aesculus octandra
Yellow Buckeye
Clinical Signs: Acer rubrum
Within 1-3 days, weakness, polydipsia, hemoglobinuria and Heinz body formation.
Clinical Signs: Acer rubrum
Red Maple
Clinical Signs: Quercus spp
Within (usually) 5-7 days, will see anorexia, depression, mucus covered feces and rumen atony.Later signs include melena, icterus, kyphosis, and ventral edema.
Clinical Signs: Quercus spp
Oak, Acorn
Clinical Signs: Juglans nigra
Laminitis in horses (the toxin interacts with hoof alpha 1 receptors). Also see increased TPR and respiratory difficulty.
Clinical Signs: Juglans nigra
Black Walnut
Clinical Signs: Prunus spp
Very fast (15-60min) onset of respiratory signs, especially in ruminants. Initial excitement is followed by severe dyspnea, jerky eyeballs, bright red mucus membranes and bright red blood. Blood is poor to clot. Breath and stomach contents smell of bitter almonds, or mousy.
Clinical Signs: Prunus spp
Wild or Chokecherry
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp
Very fast (15-60min) onset of respiratory signs, especially in ruminants. Initial excitement is followed by severe dyspnea, jerky eyeballs, bright red mucus membranes and bright red blood. Blood is poor to clot. Breath and stomach contents smell of bitter almonds, or mousy.
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp
Johnson or Sudan Grass
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp
Very fast (15-60min) onset of respiratory signs, especially in ruminants. Initial excitement is followed by severe dyspnea, jerky eyeballs, bright red mucus membranes and bright red blood. Blood is poor to clot. Breath and stomach contents smell of bitter almonds, or mousy.
Clinical Signs: Sorghum spp
Sudex or Sorghum
Clinical Signs: Hypericum perforatum
Primary photosensitization affects the skin, causing a sunburn type of reaction within 1-5 days of ingestion. Erythematous areas of low pigmented skin. Affects large animals mostly. May also see photophobia, pruritus, low grade fever, skin fissuring or sloghing, or coronitis.
Clinical Signs: Hypericum perforatum
St. Johnswort
Clinical Signs: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Primary photosensitization affects the skin, causing a sunburn type of reaction within 1-5 days of ingestion. Erythematous areas of low pigmented skin. Affects large animals mostly. May also see photophobia, pruritus, low grade fever, skin fissuring or sloghing, or coronitis.
Clinical Signs: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Buckwheat
Clinical Signs: Medicago sativa
Primary photosensitization affects the skin, causing a sunburn type of reaction within 1-5 days of ingestion. Erythematous areas of low pigmented skin. Affects large animals mostly. May also see photophobia, pruritus, low grade fever, skin fissuring or sloghing, or coronitis.
Clinical Signs: Medicago sativa
Alfalfa
Clinical Signs: Trifolium spp
Primary photosensitization affects the skin, causing a sunburn type of reaction within 1-5 days of ingestion. Erythematous areas of low pigmented skin. Affects large animals mostly. May also see photophobia, pruritus, low grade fever, skin fissuring or sloghing, or coronitis.
Clinical Signs: Trifolium spp
White Clover
Clinical Signs: Azalea spp.
Systems: Heart, CNS, GI
Onset time: about 4-6 hours post ingestion
Major signs: salivation and burning sensation in mouth ---> leads to emesis, diarrhea, muscle weakness and impaired vision
CV effects that can be lethal: Bradycardia, hypotension (due to vasodilation) and AV block
Cattle- projectile vomiting (one of the few things that will cause cattle to do this), bloat, abdominal pain, grind teeth -- stagger, collapse
Sheep/Goats - ooze ingesta from mouth --- other signs same as cattle (will likely end up with aspiration pneumonia)
Horses- can't vomit -- very painful retching
All: dyspnea, depression, and prostration; death in 1-2 days
Clinical Signs: Azalea spp.
Azalea
Clinical Signs: Kalmia latifolia
Systems: Heart, CNS, GI
Onset time: about 4-6 hours post ingestion
Major signs: salivation and burning sensation in mouth ---> leads to emesis, diarrhea, muscle weakness and impaired vision
CV effects that can be lethal: Bradycardia, hypotension (due to vasodilation) and AV block
Cattle- projectile vomiting (one of the few things that will cause cattle to do this), bloat, abdominal pain, grind teeth -- stagger, collapse
Sheep/Goats - ooze ingesta from mouth --- other signs same as cattle (will likely end up with aspiration pneumonia)
Horses- can't vomit -- very painful retching
All: dyspnea, depression, and prostration; death in 1-2 days
Clinical Signs: Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel; Sheep Laurel
Clinical Signs: Rhododendron maximum
Systems: Heart, CNS, GI
Onset time: about 4-6 hours post ingestion
Major signs: salivation and burning sensation in mouth ---> leads to emesis, diarrhea, muscle weakness and impaired vision
CV effects that can be lethal: Bradycardia, hypotension (due to vasodilation) and AV block
Cattle- projectile vomiting (one of the few things that will cause cattle to do this), bloat, abdominal pain, grind teeth -- stagger, collapse
Sheep/Goats - ooze ingesta from mouth --- other signs same as cattle (will likely end up with aspiration pneumonia)
Horses- can't vomit -- very painful retching
All: dyspnea, depression, and prostration; death in 1-2 days
Clinical Signs: Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron
Clinical Signs: Cicuta maculata
System: CNS
Onset time: 30-60 min
toxic to all classes of livestock
violent CNS tetanic convulsions
salivation, temors, twitching leading to convulsions
champing of jaws, coma, death
Respiratory distress due to convulsions: dyspnea, asphyxia
pupil dilated, may see increased body temp and severe abdom. pain
Clinical Signs: Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
Clinical Signs: Toxicodendron radicans
N/A
Clinical Signs: Toxicodendron radicans
Poison Ivy
Clinical Signs: Toxicodendron quercifolium
N/A - some dogs may get slight irritation on underbelly and nose
Clinical Signs: Toxicodendron quercifolium
Poison Oak
Treatment: Cannabis sativa
Tx is symptomatic; use diazepam or phenothiazine if hyperesthetic, prevent extraneous stimuli
Treatment: Cannabis sativa
marijuana
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
Tx is to rinse mouth with milk or water, & use demulcents to protect GI. Fluids, analgesics, emetics, antihistamines PRN.
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Dieffenbachia spp.
Dumb cane
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
Tx is to rinse mouth with milk or water, & use demulcents to protect GI. Fluids, analgesics, emetics, antihistamines PRN.
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Philodendren spp.
split leaf philodendren
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
Tx is to rinse mouth with milk or water, & use demulcents to protect GI. Fluids, analgesics, emetics, antihistamines PRN.
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Caladium spp.
Caladium; Elephant ear
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
Tx is to rinse mouth with milk or water, & use demulcents to protect GI. Fluids, analgesics, emetics, antihistamines PRN.
Treatment: Calcium Oxalate plants Arisaema spp
Jack in the pulpit
Treatment: Aloe vera
Treatment is symptomatic - fluids.
Treatment: Aloe vera
aloe
Treatment: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
Treatment is symptomatic - fluids, metaclopromide for antiemesis, GI demulcents
Treatment: Bulbs Tulipia spp.
tulip
Treatment: Bulbs Iris spp.
Treatment is symptomatic - fluids, metaclopromide for antiemesis, GI demulcents
Treatment: Bulbs Iris spp.
iris; flags
Treatment: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
Treatment is symptomatic - fluids, metaclopromide for antiemesis, GI demulcents
Treatment: Bulbs Narcissus spp.
daffodils
Treatment: Pinus spp
Treatment: Symptomatic
Treatment: Pinus spp
Christmas Tree
Treatment: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Treatment: Symptomatic; isotonic saline diuresis at 2x maintenance for 48hrs, Metoclopramide for vomiting
Treatment: Lilium longiflorum (Lilium spp.)
Easter lily and Asiatic lily, respectively
Treatment: Nicotiana tabacum
–Lavage and give Activated Charcoal
–Assist ventilation
–Stabilize HR and BP; Fluids and Electrolytes
–Atropine to control over stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system
Treatment: Nicotiana tabacum
Tobacco
Treatment: Phoradendron flavescens
–Much same as for Cardiac Glycosides:
–GI Detoxification: emesis, lavage, activated charcoal and saline cathartic
–Supportive Care: monitor serum K+, ECG
»Lidocaine or Phenytoin for arrhythmias»Fluids and Electrolytes
»Digibind (Ab prep from Glaxo) for severe cases
–Lavage and Activated Charcoal
–Oral and IV fluids and electrolytes
–Atropine to help the bradycardia
–Steroids
Treatment: Phoradendron flavescens
Mistletoe
Treatment: Poinsettia pulcherrima
–Remove plant, rinse mouth and/or lavage
–Coat GI tract with demulcent
–Fluids as required
–Bland diet for few days
Treatment: Poinsettia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
Treatment: Ilex opaca
–Symptomatic and supportive care
–Rinse out mouth
»Can use milk to help coat GI
–Activated Charcoal
–Fluids and Electrolytes
Treatment: Ilex opaca
American Holly
Treatment: Amanita muscaria
1. Muscarinic-early oral decontamination (activated charcoal) & Atropine 0.2-2mg/kg to change respiratory rate & secretions
2. Isoxazole: also oral decontamination; aggressive supportive care → recovery within 12-24 hours; Diazepam with adequate ventilation provided (or possibly other anti-seizure drug)
Treatment: Amanita muscaria
Fly mushroom, Amanita
Treatment: Amanita spp.
Emesis or lavage; activated charcoal in multiple doses; fluids & electrolytes; treat hepatic insufficiency; Penicillin G
Treatment: Amanita spp.
Destroying Angel
Treatment: Psilocybe
oral decontamination via lavage & activated charcoal; Diazepam or Phenobarbital for seizures
Treatment: Psilocybe
Sacred Mushroom (hallucinogens)
Treatment: Paneolus
oral decontamination via lavage & activated charcoal; Diazepam or Phenobarbital for seizures
Treatment: Paneolus
Sacred Mushroom
(hallucinogens)
Treatment: Digitalis purpurea
*Decontaminate GI: emesis, lavage, activated charcoal, saline or osmotic cathartic
*Supportive care: monitor & treat serum K+ as needed, monitor ECG; phenytoin or Lidocaine for arrhythmias; fluids & electrolytes; if severe, use Digibind (antibody prep to bind digitalis & oleandrin)
Treatment: Digitalis purpurea
Foxglove, Digitalis
Treatment: Nerium oleander
Same as Digitalis purpurea
*Decontaminate GI: emesis, lavage, activated charcoal, saline or osmotic cathartic
*Supportive care: monitor & treat serum K+ as needed, monitor ECG; phenytoin or Lidocaine for arrhythmias; fluids & electrolytes; if severe, use Digibind (antibody prep to bind digitalis & oleandrin)
Treatment: Nerium oleander
Oleander
Treatment: Convallaria majalis
Same as Digitalis purpurea
*Decontaminate GI: emesis, lavage, activated charcoal, saline or osmotic cathartic
*Supportive care: monitor & treat serum K+ as needed, monitor ECG; phenytoin or Lidocaine for arrhythmias; fluids & electrolytes; if severe, use Digibind (antibody prep to bind digitalis & oleandrin)
Treatment: Convallaria majalis
Lilly of the Valley
Treatment: Sorghum halapense
Methylene blue or ascorbic acid as reducing agent, activated charcoal and cold water.
Treatment: Sorghum halapense
Johnson Grass
Treatment: Sorghum spp.
Methylene blue or ascorbic acid as reducing agent, activated charcoal and cold water.
Treatment: Sorghum spp.
Sorghum,Sudex
Treatment: Zea Mays
Methylene blue or ascorbic acid as reducing agent, activated charcoal and cold water.
Treatment: Zea Mays
Corn
Treatment: Claviceps spp.
remove source, clip heads from pasture grass sources, antibiotics for gangrene
Treatment: Claviceps spp.
ergot
Treatment: Festuca
remove fescue, antibiotics for gangrene, domperidone 1.1mg/kg for mares past foaling date or for agalactic post partem mare.
Treatment: Festuca
Tall Fescue
Treatment: Taxus spp.
avoid overstimulation and walk slowly to an area where IM atropine can be administered without restraint, after drug begins working (~10 mins) give activated charcoal and saline cathartic; check horse for bradycardia before giving atropine.
Treatment: Taxus spp.
Japanese Yew
Treatment: Aesculus octandra
Treatment is to detoxify by removing the nuts from the rumen (lavage, if possible), activated charcoal and cathartics. Supportive care (acepromazine, xylazine, and B vitamins).
Treatment: Aesculus octandra
Yellow Buckeye
Treatment: Acer rubrum
No specific treatment is available, but provide aggressive supportive care (fluids, ascorbic acid).
Treatment: Acer rubrum
Red Maple
Treatment: Quercus spp
Treatment is to restore renal perfusion, fluid volume, and rumen motility.
Treatment: Quercus spp
Oak, Acorn
Treatment: Juglans nigra
Treat laminitis aggressively with NSAIDs, pazosin/nifedipine for vasodilation to hooves, and placing in a sand stall or on special shoes to reduce weight to the hoof lamina.
Treatment: Juglans nigra
Black Walnut
Treatment: Prunus spp
Treatment goal is to restore cellular respiration. Create a mild nitrite toxicity to combat the CN. 20% sodium nitrite and 5% sodium thiosulfate IV as a single injection. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Methemoglobin has a greater affinitiy for CN than cytochrome oxidase, pulling the CN of the cytochromes. Cyanomethemoglobin forms, restoring cellular respiration. Thiosulfate helps liver enzyme rhodanese to form nontoxic thiocyanate, which is excreted.
Treatment: Prunus spp
Wild or Chokecherry
Treatment: Sorghum spp
Treatment goal is to restore cellular respiration. Create a mild nitrite toxicity to combat the CN. 20% sodium nitrite and 5% sodium thiosulfate IV as a single injection. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Methemoglobin has a greater affinitiy for CN than cytochrome oxidase, pulling the CN of the cytochromes. Cyanomethemoglobin forms, restoring cellular respiration. Thiosulfate helps liver enzyme rhodanese to form nontoxic thiocyanate, which is excreted.
Treatment: Sorghum spp
Johnson or Sudan Grass
Treatment: Sorghum spp
Treatment goal is to restore cellular respiration. Create a mild nitrite toxicity to combat the CN. 20% sodium nitrite and 5% sodium thiosulfate IV as a single injection. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, and nitrite converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Methemoglobin has a greater affinitiy for CN than cytochrome oxidase, pulling the CN of the cytochromes. Cyanomethemoglobin forms, restoring cellular respiration. Thiosulfate helps liver enzyme rhodanese to form nontoxic thiocyanate, which is excreted.
Treatment: Sorghum spp
Sudex or Sorghum
Treatment: Hypericum perforatum
To treat, avoid further sun exposure for 7-10 days, and treat with topical antihistamines, corticosteroids, and antibiotics for secondary infections. Protective ointments (aloe and zinc oxide) also helpful.
Treatment: Hypericum perforatum
St. Johnswort
Treatment: Fagopyrum sagittatum
To treat, avoid further sun exposure for 7-10 days, and treat with topical antihistamines, corticosteroids, and antibiotics for secondary infections. Protective ointments (aloe and zinc oxide) also helpful.
Treatment: Fagopyrum sagittatum
Buckwheat
Treatment: Medicago sativa
To treat, avoid further sun exposure for 7-10 days, and treat with topical antihistamines, corticosteroids, and antibiotics for secondary infections. Protective ointments (aloe and zinc oxide) also helpful.
Treatment: Medicago sativa
Alfalfa
Treatment: Trifolium spp
To treat, avoid further sun exposure for 7-10 days, and treat with topical antihistamines, corticosteroids, and antibiotics for secondary infections. Protective ointments (aloe and zinc oxide) also helpful.
Treatment: Trifolium spp
White Clover
Treatment: Azalea spp.
Detoxification - Emetic/Lavage as needed (lavage hard with fibrous leaves in rumen)
Activated Charcoal (1-2 gm/kg) repeatedly on first day
Consider rumenotomy in some animals to remove tough fibrous material
Supportive Care:
Fluids, electrolytes and warmth
respiratory support as needed
Atropine for bradycardia
Isoproterenol or Na Channel Blockers (eg Quinidine) to treat heartblock
Treatment: Azalea spp.
Azalea
Treatment: Kalmia latifolia
Detoxification - Emetic/Lavage as needed (lavage hard with fibrous leaves in rumen)
Activated Charcoal (1-2 gm/kg) repeatedly on first day
Consider rumenotomy in some animals to remove tough fibrous material
Supportive Care:
Fluids, electrolytes and warmth
respiratory support as needed
Atropine for bradycardia
Isoproterenol or Na Channel Blockers (eg Quinidine) to treat heartblock
Treatment: Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel; Sheep Laurel
Treatment: Rhododendron maximum
Detoxification - Emetic/Lavage as needed (lavage hard with fibrous leaves in rumen)
Activated Charcoal (1-2 gm/kg) repeatedly on first day
Consider rumenotomy in some animals to remove tough fibrous material
Supportive Care:
Fluids, electrolytes and warmth
respiratory support as needed
Atropine for bradycardia
Isoproterenol or Na Channel Blockers (eg Quinidine) to treat heartblock
Treatment: Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron
Treatment: Cicuta maculata
often of little value due to rapid course of disease and extreme toxicity
#1 job is to try to stop control convulsions: (diazepam won't help)--- use Pentobarbital
Respiratory support - intubate and ventilate
Lavage - work quickly and vigorously
May need to consider an emergency rumenotomy (leaves will come up a rumen tube)
Activated charcoal - (1-2 gm/kg) repeat as needed
Treatment: Cicuta maculata
Water Hemlock
Treatment: Toxicodendron radicans
N/A
Treatment: Toxicodendron radicans
Poison Ivy
Treatment: Toxicodendron quercifolium
N/A
Treatment: Toxicodendron quercifolium
Poison Oak
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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