Ecclesiology and Eschatology Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
How does the Holy Spirit apply salvation to the elect?

(one main point, six subpoints)
HS applies salvation BY uniting us to Christ (1 Cor 12:13, Romans 8:9)

1. He regenerates us, John 3:8

2. He converts us (brings us to repentance and grants us faith), 1 Cor 12:3

3. He assures us of and is involved with our adoption, Rom 8:16

4. He works to justify us by by imparting faith in Jesus to us. 1 Cor 6:11

5. He sanctifies us, 2 Thess 2:13

6. He preserves us as God’s seal, Eph 1:13-14
What is the significance of the sealing of the Holy Spirit?
1. To show ownership, authority, authentication—Eph 1:13

2. To show security (main purpose)—Eph 1:13
What are Peterson's conclusions regarding the fruit of the Spirit?
1. fruit is character qualities produced by the Spirit. God’s sovereignty is accented

2. but human responsibility is not omitted: all believers must trust, obey and rely on Spirit, Gal 5:16

3. The Spirit produces his fruit only in those, and in all of those, who have been united to Christ in his death and resurrection - Gal 5:25

4. fruit is only properly understood over against the weeds. Two ramifications of this: 1) if people’s lives are dominated by weeds, they appear to be unsaved (Gal 5:21 6:8). But Christians do have weeds in their lives and need to be reminded to repent, be reminded of their union with Christ, and to live by the Spirit.

5. The fruit deals with interpersonal relations. The fruit is a part of God’s equipping us to love our neighbors.
What is the biblical rationale for the marks of the church?
1. The Word: Matt 28:19-20; 2 Tim 4:2

2. The Sacraments
i. Baptism: Matt 28:19-20
ii. Lord’s Supper: Matt 26:26-28; 1 Cor 11:23-26

3. Discipline: Matt 18:25-27; 1 Cor 5:1-5; 1 Tim 5:10-20
What is the biblical rationale for the attributes of the church?
1. Unity: John 17:20-23, Eph 4:1-16


2. Sanctity (overlaps with the mark of discipline): Jn 17:17-19, Eph 5:25-27

3. Catholicity (follows from the ethnic universalism of the gospel): Matt 28:19, Gal 3:26-28, Rev 5:9-10


4. apostolicity: Jn 17:20, Acts 2:42, Ga1:6-12
What are the practical ramifications for unity in the church?
the ascended Lord gave gifted men to equip the saints to do the work of the ministry. These results come when they all do their jobs: edification, unity, maturity, and doctrinal stability.
What are the practical ramifications for the sanctity of the church?
only those showing initial sanctification should be members in good standing of the church
What are the practical ramifications for the apostolicity of the church?
there is an inherent subjectivity to Protestantism—hence the need for doctrinal statements and creeds, and for trained ministers
Ecclesiastical separation: terminology
1. Apostasy: the abandonment or renunciation of a faith once professed

2. Heresy: a belief or teaching that contradicts the gospel; damnable teaching

3. Heretic: one who promotes heresy

4. Schism: formal and willful separation from the unity of the church; turning one’s back on the church, repudiating the church
Ecclesiastical separation: biblical principles
1. It is the duty of pastors to protect the flock by holding fast to the truth: Acts 20:28-31; Titus 1:9 (pastors should be reluctant fighters)

2. Heretics ought to leave the church: 1 Jn 2:18-19

3. the church should discipline heretics who will not leave: Titus 3:10-11; 2 Pet 2:1-3, 9; Gal 1:6-9

4. Christians should separate from a church that rejects the marks of the church:
2 Cor 6:14-7:1
What is the service of the church?
1. Worship: 1 Pet 2:9-10; Rom 15:5-6 (prayer and the sacraments)

2. evangelism: Jn 20:21-23; Rom 15:16-17 (all God-honoring forms of outreach)

3. edification: 1 Cor 12:7; 14:12 (disciple-making and fellowship)

4. diaconal ministries: Acts 6:1-7, Gal 2:10, Ja 1:27; 2:15-16, 1 Jn 3:16-18 (all God-honoring ministries of mercy)
What are the distinctives of Presbyterian churches?
1. Theology
i. regulative principle: ways not revealed in Scripture are forbidden
ii. organic principle: church should function unitedly in localities, region, and as a whole
iii. parity and plurality of leadership: elders’ authority equal; should be > 1

2. Church order
i. local church
a. congregation: communicant and non-communicant members—“all of whom have the privilege of pastoral oversight, instruction, and government by church”
b. session: ruling body—pastors and elders

ii. regional church
a. consists of all members of local churches and their members
b. presbytery: all pastors and elders in region (spiritual oversight)
What is the structure of NT church offices?
1. NT distinguishes b/w elders and deacons: Phil 1:1, 1 Tim 3:1-12
2. distinguishes b/w teaching and ruling elders (?!): 1 Tim 5:17, Rom 12:7-8
3. all elders must be able to teach, but all do not have to occupy the teaching office: 1 Tim 3:2, 2 Tim 4:2
What are the means of grace?
Word, sacraments, and prayer
What are the similarities of the Word and Sacraments?
i. author is God (2 Tim 3:16, 2 Pet 1:21, Matt 28:19-20; 26:26-28, Ps 33)
ii. content is word of God (1 Cor 11:26; 15:3-4, Acts 22:16)
iii. efficacy—they save (Rom 1:16-17, 1 Pet 3:21, 1 Cor 10:16)
What are the dissimilarities of the Word and Sacraments?
i. outward form (book and sermon vs material elements and ceremony)
ii. function (Word brings about faith and causes it to grow [Rom 10:17, 1 Pet 1:23-2:3] vs the sacraments strengthen faith [Rom 6:1-4, 1 Cor 10:16])
iii. necessity (Word is necessary for salvation [Rom 10:17] vs people can be saved w/o sacraments [Lk 23:42-43])
What are the non-reformed historical views of the Sacraments?
1. Roman Catholic (Council of Trent, 1545-63)
i. there are 7 sacraments
ii. they are necessary for salavation
iii. grace is conferred by rite itself (ex opera operato)
2. Lutheran
i. sacraments are efficacious
ii. faith is necessary for right acceptance
3. Zwinglian
i. (Zwingli wasn’t as “Zwinglian” as his followers)
ii. baptism and Lord’s Supper are merely human actions, of testimony and remembrance respectively
What are the reformed historical views of the sacraments?
i. purposes: holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, to represent Christ and his benefits, to confirm our interest in him, to make a visible dif b/w those who belong to the church and those outside, and to engage them to the service of God in Christ
ii. parts: a sacramental union est by the word of Christ b/w the sign and thing signified so that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other
iii. efficacy: grace is not conferred automatically, and efficacy does not depend on piety of the minister but on the work of the Spirit and the word of institution and on worthy receivers
iv. number: 2—baptism and Lord’s Supper, to be administered by an ordained minister of the word
What is the mode and significance of Baptism?
1. mode: washing with water by immersion, sprinkling, or pouring, in the name of the trinity (prefer sprinkling or pouring); we affirm unity of body of Christ by accepting baptisms of other believing churches
2. significance: salvation, more specifically:
i. union with Christ (Matt 28:19, Rom 6:3-6, Gal 3:27
ii. forgiveness (Acts 2:38; 22:16, Col 2:11-12—baptism and circumcision overlap in spiritual significance)
Who is the right subject of Baptism?
believers and their babies
i. believers’ baptism only b/c no solid proof in NT of baby baptisms and b/c if you baptize babies you’re either saying baptism is a means of saving grace or it is like circumcision, a sign and seal of entrance into the covenant.

ii. infant/covenant baptism b/c:
a. Abrahamic cov is a spiritual cov (Gen 15:6; 17:7, Rom 4:1-3, 9-12) and is basis for new cov (Gal 3:15-18, Heb 6:13-18)
b. there is a fundamental unity between the OT and NTs.
c. in abrahamic and new covs, God enters into relationship with his people as individuals and as families. Abrahmaic: Gen 17:7, Ps 103:17-18. New: Acts 2:38-39, 1 Cor 7:14
d. It is God’s will that the initiatory rite, the sign and seal of the abrahamic (Gen 17:10-14) and new covs (Acts 16:14-15, 31-34, 1 Cor 1:16) be applied to believers and their children
What is the significance of the Lord's Supper?
1. Past—strengthens our faith
i. OT Passover was a memorial, a commemoration of the great redemptive act of God: Ex 12:1-14, 24-27; 13:8-10, Deut 16:1-8
ii. Lord’s Supper instituted at Passover: Matt 26:17-19
iii. “Christ our Passover has been sacrificed” 1 Cor 5:7 (cf. Lk22:15)
iv. we eat and drink “in remembrance” of Christ (1 Cor 11:24-25)
a. this involves response of our whole being: Ex 2:24, Ps 103:2
v. LS is a proclamation of Christ’s death: 1 Cor 11:26
2. Present—strengthens our love
i. LS is a communion with the glorified Lord: 1 Cor 10:16-17, Jn 6
ii. more than just a mental exercise; it is fellowship with the risen Christ, Minister of the Supper. It is appropriating by faith the blessings signified by the bread and wine.

3. Future—strengthens our hope
i. points toward the Wedding Feast of the Lamb, when we will eat and drink with Jesus: Matt 26:29, Mk 14:25, Lk 22:18, 1 Cor 11:26, Rev 19:9
What are some introductory issues regarding Last Things?
1. The two ages: present age vs age to come: Matt 12:32, Lk 20:34-35, Eph 1:21
a. present age characterized by: evil (Gal 1:4), spiritual blindness (2 Cor 4:4), and spiritual death (Eph 2:1-2). Age to come characterized by: the resurrection (Lk 20:35-36), eternal life (Lk 18:30), and the riches of God’s grace (Eph 2:7)
b. in a sense, the consummation of the age to come has come (1 Cor 10:11, Heb 9:26; 12). Believers living in the present age experience “the powers of the coming age” (Heb 6:5); the present age is a foretaste of the age to come
2. Kingdom of God
a. inaugurated in Jesus’ public ministry: Matt 12:28, Lk 11:20
b. expanded in Jesus’ exaltation to God’s right hand: Acts 5:31, Eph 1:19-23, Col 1:13-14
c. will be consummated when Jesus returns: Mtt 25:31-46, 1 Cor 15:22-28
3. The already and the not yet
a. church and ind believers live in tension between these realities; as a result we should be realistic and optimistic (eg Christian funeral should be bittersweet-1 Thess 4)
What are some observations on death and the intermediate state?
1. Death—not natural but unnatural, the last enemy: 1 Cor 15:26
a. death and fear of death are result of sin
i. Gen 2:17 warns of death as penalty of sin
ii. Gen 3:19 declares the death sentence on Adam and Eve
iii. Gen 3:8; 5:5 record the execution of this sentence
b. death is both spiritual (Eph 2:1-3) and physical (Jn 5:24-29)
2. Intermediate state
a. for believers: Lk 23:43, Phil 1:23, 2 Cor 5:6, 8
b. for unbelievers: Lk 16:19-31, 2 Pet 2:9 (weak)
3. Immortality
a. only God is inherently immortal: 1 Tim 6:16
b. he has granted immortality to humans: Mtt 25:46
c. better to speak of immortality of humans than of the soul: 1Cor15:53-54
What are some observations on the Second Coming?
A. Its Manner
1. Personal
- Acts 1:11
2. Visible
- Rev 1:7
3. Glorious
- Matt 25:31

B. Its Timing
1. Imminence Passages (to love enlight His Second Coming)
- Mark 9:1
- Matt 10:23

2. Interval Passages (something must happen before he returns, planning)
- Matt 24:14
- Luke 24:34
3. Ignorance Passages (no one knows the time, keep watch, be prepared)
- Matt 24:36-51
- Mark 13:32-37

C. Its Function
To promote spiritual readiness
- Matt 24:42, 44
- Mark 13:33, 35, 37
- Luke 21:36
What is amillennialism?
1. The Millennium:
"The present reign of the souls of the deceased believers with Christ in heaven" (Hoekema, 174)

2. The Binding of Satan:
He cannot prevent the spread of the gospel during the present age
3. The Timing of Christ's Return:
After the millennium. The millennium is the church age
4. The Second Coming of Christ: A single event
5. The Resurrection: One general resurrection
What is postmillennialism?
1. The Millennium:
"The present age will gradually merge into the millennial age as an increasingly larger proportion of the world's inhabitants are converted through the preaching of the gospel" (Hoekema, 175)
2. The Binding of Satan:
He cannot prevent the spread of the gospel during the present age
3. The Timing of Christ's Return:
After the millennium
4. The Second Coming of Christ:
A single event
5. The Resurrection:
One general resurrection
What is historic premillennialism?
1. The Millennium:
Christ's reign on the earth for a thousand years after his return and before the eternal state
2. The Binding of Satan:
He will be unable to deceive the nations during the future millennium
3. The Timing of Christ's Return:
Before the millennium
4. The Second Coming of Christ:
A single event
5. Two Resurrections:
One before and one after the millennium
What is dispensational premillennialism?
1. The Millennium:
Add to historic Premillennialism a Jewish character with restored temple and sacrifices
2. The Binding of Satan:
He will be unable to deceive the nations during the future millennium
3. The Timing of Christ's Return:
Before the millennium
4. The Two Stage Second Coming of Christ:
The rapture of the church before the tribulation and the Second Coming to earth after the tribulation and before the millennium
5. Three Resurrections:
At rapture, before and after the millennium
What is the nature of the resurrection body?
1. glorious (Phil 3:20-21, 1 Cor 15:42-44)
2. imperishable/immortal (1 Cor 15:42-44; 15:53-54)
3. powerful (1 Cor 15:42-44)
4. Spiritual (1 Cor 15:42-44)
What is the purpose of the last judgment?
1. To display the glory of God: his sovereignty, righteousness, power, truth, and holiness: Rom 2:5, Rev 11:17-18; 15:3-4; 16:5-6
2. Not to determine eternal destinies—they are determined before death (Jn 3:16-18)—but to assign destinies (Jn 5:27-29)
3. To reveal degrees of reward (1 Cor 3:12-15, Lk 19:16-17, 19) and punishment (Mt 11:22, 24, Lk 19:16-17, 19, Lk 12:47-48, Rom 2:5)
What are the circumstances of the last judgment?
i. God will be the judge—the Father (1 Pet 1:17, Rom 14:10) and the Son (Mt 16:27; 25:31-32, Jn 5:22, 28-29, Acts 10:42; 17:31)—and the HS must be involved bc we believe in the Trinity and the inseperableness of the persons
ii. angels (1Cor 6:2-3, 2 Pet 2:4, Jude 6, Mt 25:41) and all human beings (Rom 2:5-6; 3:6, Rev 20:12-13) will be punished
iii. judgment will be based on thoughts (1 Cor 4:5), words (Mt 12:36), and deeds—shorthand for thoughts and words—(2 Cor 5:10, Rev 20:10); as they reveal the presence or absence of faith
What is eternal state of the damned?
1. Darkness and separation (Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30, Jude 13, 2 Thess 1:8-9)—terrible desolation of hell
2. Fire (Mt 18:8, 9; 13:40-42, 49-50; 25:41, Lk 16:23-25, 28, Rev 14:10-11; 20:10, 14; 21:8)—great pain and suffering
3. Crying and grinding of teeth (fire: Mt 13:42, 50; darkness: Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30, Lk 13:28; being cut to pieces: Mt 24:51)—further defines these passages; speaks of remorse and regret, possibly anger?—but certainly physical pain
4. Punishment (Mt 25:46, Jn 5:27-29, 2 Thess 1:5-9, Jude 7, Rev 14:10-11)
5. Death and destruction (Mt 10:28, Rom 2:12, Rev 19:20; 20:10, 14-15)—but not annihilationism!
What is the state of the new earth?
1. Biblical passages: Isa 65:17; 66:22, Rom 8:20-21, 2 Pet 3:7, 10-13, Rev 21:1

2. Is the present earth renewed, or destroyed and recreated?
i. Buswell says destroyed, based on 1 Peter and Rev 20:11
ii. Hoekema says renewed, based on groaning of this earth, parallel b/w our bodies and creation, Noah parallel (2 Pet 3:6) -- prophetical language about a deep, thorough cleansing of the earth
What are the four views of the "this is my body" statement in the LS?
a. Roman Catholic: transubstantiation
b. Lutheran: bodily presence in, with, and under the bread
c. Reformed: spiritual presence of glorified Christ mediated by HS
d. Zwinglian: representation of Christ’s death
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