ap biology campbell-reece unit 2 ch 6 tour of the cell Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cell fractionation
a technique for studying cells that takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from one another
ultracentrifuge
most powerful machine for cell fractionation
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membranous sacs and tubes (cisternae); active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough and smooth regions
flagellum
locomotion organelle present in some animal cells and bacteria; composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane (sperm)
centrosome
region where the cell's microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles
cytoskeleton
reinforces cell's shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of protein (includes: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules)
microvilli
projections that increase the cell's surface area
peroxisome
organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water
mitochondrion
organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
lysosome
digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
golgi apparatus
organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products; consists of flattened membranous sacs (cisternae); manufactures certain macromolecules by itself (pectins)
ribosomes
complexes made of rRNA and proteins that make proteins; free in cytosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
plasma membrane
functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell; a membrane enclosing the entire cell
nuclear envelope
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER
nucleolus
structure involved in production of ribosomes and rRNA; a nucleus has one or more; may regulate other cell function such as cell division
chromatin
material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible are individual chromosomes in a dividing cell
cell wall
outer layer that maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein
plasmodesmata
channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
chloroplast
photosynthetic organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
central vacuole
prominent organelle in older plant cells; functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement is a major mechanism of growth
cytosol
universal to all cells, a semifluid enclosed in the membrane in which organelles and other components are found
eukaryotic cell
type of cell in which the DNA is found in the nucleus
prokaryotic cell
type of cell in which the DNA is enclosed in the not membrane bound nucleoid
nucleoid
a nonmembrane enclosed region of a prokaryotic cell in which the DNA is located
cytoplasm
the interior of a prokaryotic cell; the region between the nucleus and plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell
fimbriae
attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes
capsule
jellylike outer coating of many prokaryotes
nucleus
contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
nuclear lamina
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
chromosomes
structures that carry genetic information; made up of a material called chromatin; each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of these
endomembrane system
system made up of different membranes in eukaryotic cells; functions: synthesis of proteins and their transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
vesicles
sacs made of membrane
ER lumen
internal compartment of the ER
smooth ER
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, stores calcium ions, and detoxification of drugs and poisons; region of the ER that lacks ribosomes
rough ER
produce proteins that are secreted by the cell, grows in places by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane, makes own membrane phospholipids; region of the ER with ribosomes
glycoproteins
proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them; secretory protein produced by the rough ER
transport vesicles
vesicles that are in transit from one part of the cell to another
cis face
the receiving pole of a golgi apparatus stack; usually located near the ER
trans face
the shipping pole of a golgi apparatus stack; gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
phagocytosis
a process of eating in which a cell engulfs a smaller organism or food substance
autophagy
a process where lysosomes use hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material
food vacuole
formed by phagocytosis, a membrane bound vesicle which contains food to be digested
contractile vacuole
membrane bound vesicle that pump excess water out of the cell
cristae
infoldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
mitochondrial matrix
enclosed by the inner mitochondrial membrane, this contains many enzymes and mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes
plastids
a family of closely related plant organelles including: chloroplast, amyloplasts, chromoplasts
thylakoids
a membranous system in the form of flattened interconnected sacs found inside chloroplast
granum
regions of stacked thylakoids
stroma
fluid outside the thylakoids which contains chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes
microtubules
part of cytoskeleton; hollow tubes; functions: maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movements in cell division, organelle movements
microfilaments
part of cytoskeleton; two intertwined strands of actin; functions: maintenance of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, cell division (cleavage furrow formation)
intermediate filaments
part of cytoskeleton; fibrous proteins supercoiled into thinker cables; functions: maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
centrioles
one pair in a centrosome; composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
cilia
a locomotive appendage that works like many small oars
cytoplasmic streaming
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells speeds the distribution of materials within a cell
extracellular matrix
animal cell has this instead of a cell wall; made up of glycoproteins (collagen)
integrins
cell surface receptor proteins that are built into the plasma membrane
plasmodesmata
perforated channels in a cell wall connecting the chemical environments of adjacent cells
tight junctions
when plasma membranes of neighboring cells are pressed tightly against each other preventing the leakage of extracellular fluids
desmosomes
fasten cells together into strong sheets; attach muscle cells to each other
gap junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell; consisting of membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass.
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