Medical Student Amnesia USMLE Step 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Addison’s Disease
1. Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia
2. Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome
3. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Alport’s Syndrome
4. Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s
5. Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil
6. Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
10. Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s
11. Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome
12. Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy
13. Similar to Duchenne
Bell’s Palsy
14. CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease
15. IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids
Bernard-Soulier Disease
16. Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm
17. Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
Bowen’s Disease
19. Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease
20. Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome
21. Somatization disorder
Broca’s Aphasia
23. Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard
24. Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch
Bruton’s Disease
25. X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari
26. Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease
27. Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
Burkitt’s Lymphoma
29. Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
31. Seen commonly in jaws
abdomen
Caisson Disease
33. Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease
34. Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chediak-Higashi Disease
35. (AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36. Neutropenia
albinism
Conn’s Syndrome
37. Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease
38. Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1
Creutzfeldt-Jakob
39. Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
40. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
Crohn’s
43. IBD; ileocecum
44. (contrast to UC: limited to colon
mucosa & submucosa
Curling’s Ulcer
46. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s
47. Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
Cushing’s Ulcer
0. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis
1. Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome
2. Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
3. Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
4. Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome
Dressler’s Syndrome
6. Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
7. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
8. Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
9. Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Cushing’s Ulcer
0. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis
1. Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome
2. Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
3. Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
4. Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome
. Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome
6. Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
7. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
8. Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
9. Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Addison’s Disease 1
Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addisonian Anemia 2
Pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells →↓IF →↓Vit B12 →megaloblastic anemia)
Albright’s Syndrome 3
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia; precocious puberty; café au lait spots; short stature; young girls
Alport’s Syndrome 4
Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alzheimer’s 5
Progressive dementia
Argyll-Robertson Pupil 6
Loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
7
“Prostitute’s Eye” – accommodates but does not react
8
Pathognomonic for 3Syphilis
9
Lesion pretectal region of superior colliculus
Arnold-Chiari Malformation 10
Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum = see thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
Barrett’s 11
Columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (↑risk of adenocarcinoma)- constant gastroesophageal reflux
Bartter’s Syndrome 12
Hyperreninemia
Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy 13
Similar to Duchenne; but less severe (mutation; not a deficiency; in dystrophin protein)
Bell’s Palsy 14
CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
Berger’s Disease 15
IgA nephropathy causing hematuria in kids; usually following infection
Bernard-Soulier Disease 16
Defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
Berry Aneurysm 17
Circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) Anterior Communicating artery
18
Often associated with ADPKD
Bowen’s Disease 19
Carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (↑risk of visceral ca) [compare w/ Queyrat]
Brill-Zinsser Disease 20
Recurrences of rickettsia prowazaki up to 50 yrs later
Briquet’s Syndrome 21
Somatization disorder
22
Psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology
Broca’s Aphasia 23
Motor Aphasia (area 44 & 45) intact comprehension
Brown-Sequard 24
Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch; UMN / ipsi loss of consc
Bruton’s Disease 25
X-linked agammaglobinemia (↓B cells)
Budd-Chiari 26
Post-hepatic venous thrombosis = ab pain; hepatomegaly; ascites; portal HTN; liver failure
Buerger’s Disease 27
Acute inflammation of medium and small arteries of extremities →painful ischemia →gangrene
28
Seen almost exclusively in young and middle-aged men who smoke
Burkitt’s Lymphoma 29
Small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV
30
8:14 translocation
31
Seen commonly in jaws; abdomen; retroperitoneal soft tissues
32
Starry sky appearance
Caisson Disease 33
Nitric gas emboli
Chagas’ Disease 34
Trypansoma infection - cardiomegaly with apical atrophy; achlasia
Chediak-Higashi Disease 35
(AR) Phagocyte Deficiency = defect in microtubule polymerization
36
Neutropenia; albinism; cranial & peripheral neuropathy & repeated infections w/ strep & staph
Conn’s Syndrome 37
Primary Aldosteronism: HTN; retain Na+ & H2O; hypokalemia (causing alkalosis); ↓renin
Cori’s Disease 38
Type III Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (debranching enz: amylo 1;6 glucosidase def
Creutzfeldt-Jakob 39
Prion infection →cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome 40
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated)
41
Glucuronyl transferase deficiency
42
Less severe form will respond to Phenobarbital therapy
Crohn’s 43
IBD; ileocecum; transmural; skip lesions; cobblestones; lymphocytic infiltrate; granulomas
44
(contrast to UC: limited to colon; mucosa & submucosa; crypt abscesses; pseudopolyps; ↑colon cancer risk)
45
Clinically: ab pain & diarrhea; fever; malabsorption; fistulae b/t intestinal loops & abd structures
Curling’s Ulcer 46
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Cushing’s 47
Disease: Hypercorticism 2to ↑ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
48
Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1adrenal or ectopic)
49
- moon face; buffalo hump; purple striae; hirsutism; HTN; hyperglycemia
Cushing’s Ulcer 50
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
de Quervain’s Thyroiditis 51
Self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
DiGeorge’s Syndrome 52
Failure of 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches formation: Thymus & Parathyroid
53
Thymic hypoplasia →T-cell deficiency
54
Hypoparathyroidism Tetany
Down’s Syndrome 55
Trisomy 21 or translocation – Simian Crease
Dressler’s Syndrome 56
Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome 57
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) = bilirubin transposrt is defective not conjugation
58
Striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 59
Deficiency of dystrophin protein →MD X-linked recessive
Edwards’ Syndrome 60
Trisomy 18
61
Rocker-bottom feet; low ears; small lower jaw; heart disease
Ehler’s-Danlos 62
Defective collagen
Eisenmenger’s Complex 63
Late cyanotic shunt (R→L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2to long-standing VSD; ASD; or PDA
Erb-Duchenne Palsy 64
Trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
Ewing Sarcoma 65
Malignant undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone in boys <15yoa - t11;22
Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat 66
Carcinoma in situ on glans penis
Fanconi’s Syndrome 67
Impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria;
Felty’s Syndrome 68
Rheumatoid arthritis; neutropenia; splenomegaly
Gardner’s Syndrome 69
AD = adenomatous polyps of colon; osteomas & soft tissue tumors
Gaucher’s Disease 70
Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency – glucocerebroside accumulation
71
Hepatosplenomegaly; femoral head & long bone erosion; anemia
Gilbert’s Syndrome 72
Benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) = ↓d glucuronyl transferase activity
Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia 73
Defective glycoproteins on platelets = deficient platelet aggregation
Goodpasture’s 74
Autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes
Grave’s Disease 75
Autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI): IgG Ab reactive w/ TSH receptors
Guillain-Barre 76
Polyneuritis following viral infection/ autoimmune (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting)
Hamman-Rich Syndrome 77
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Hand-Schuller-Christian 78
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis 79
Autoimmune hypothyroidism
Hashitoxicosis 80
Initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism
Henoch-Schonlein purpura 81
Hypersensivity vasculitis = allergic purpura
82
Hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever; arthralgias; GI & renal involvement)
83
Associated with upper respiratory infections
Hirschprung’s Disease 84
Aganglionic megacolon
Horner’s Syndrome 85
Ptosis; miosis; anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2to a Pancoast tumor)
Huntington’s (Chromosome 4) 86
AD: Progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus; putamen (striatum) & frontal cortex ↓GABA
Jacksonian Seizures 87
Epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
Job’s Syndrome 1
Immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli
2
Defective neutrophilic chemotactic response = repeated infections
3
Commonly seen in light-skinned; red-haired girls
88
↑’d IgE levels
Kaposi Sarcoma 89
Malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men)
Kartagener’s Syndrome 90
Immotile cilia 2to defective dynein arms infection; situs inversus; sterility
Kawasaki Disease 91
Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in kids (acute necrotizing vasculitis of lips; oral mucosa)
Klinefelter’s Syndrome 92
47; XXY: Long arms; Sterile; Hypogonadism
Kluver-Bucy 93
Bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior)
Krukenberg Tumor 94
Adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to
95
the ovaries
Laennec’s Cirrhosis 96
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lesch-Nyhan 97
HGPRT deficiency
98
Gout; retardation; self-mutilation
Letterer-Siwe 99
Acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis
Libman-Sacks 100
Endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets
101
Associated with SLE
Lou Gehrig’s 102
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
Mallory-Weis Syndrome 103
Bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2to wretching (alcoholics)
Marfan’s 104
Connective tissue defect: defective Fibrillin gene Dissecting aortic aneurysm; subluxation of lenses
McArdle’s Disease 105
Type V Glycogenosis - Glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency = ↑Glycogen)
Meckel’s Diverticulum 106
Rule of 2’s: 2 inches long; 2 feet from the ileocecum; in 2% of the population
107
Embryonic duct origin; may have ectopic tissue: gastric/pancreatic remnant of vitteline duct/yolk stalk
Meig’s Syndrome 108
Triad: ovarian fibroma; ascites; hydrothorax – associated w/ fibroma of ovaries
Menetrier’s Disease 109
Giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss)
Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis 110
Calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa
Munchausen Syndrome 111
Factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms; but doesn’t know why)
Nelson’s Syndrome 112
1Adrenal Cushings →surgical removal of adrenals →loss of negative feedback to pituitary →
Niemann-Pick 113
Lysosomal Storage Disease (sphingomyelinase deficiency – sphingomyelin accumulation)
114
“Foamy histiocytes”
Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome 115
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Paget’s Disease 116
Abnormal bone architecture (thickened; numerous fractures →pain)
Pancoast Tumor 117
Bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement →Horner’s Syndrome
Parkinson’s 118
Dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts
Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome (AD) 119
Melanin pigmentation of lips; mouth; hand; genitalia + hamartomatous polyps of small intestine
Peyronie’s Disease 120
Subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis
121
1
122
1
123
Calcium-frosting; unyielding layer – heart chambers may be unable to dilate to receive blood during diastole
Plummer’s Syndrome 124
Hyperthyroidism; nodular goiter; absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs)
Plummer-Vinson 125
Esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia; spoon-shaped nails; ↑SCCA of esophagus
Pompe’s Disease 126
Type II Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease →cardiomegaly (1;4 Glucosidase deficiency: ↑
Pott’s Disease 127
Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae
Potter’s Complex 128
Renal agenesis →oligohydramnios →hypoplastic lungs; defects in extremities
Raynaud’s 129
Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities = seen in young; healthy women
130
Phenomenon: 2to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma)
Reiter’s Syndrome 131
Urethritis; conjunctivitis; arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections); HLA-B27; polyarticular
Reye’s Syndrome 132
Microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy
133
2to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness; especially VZV
Riedel’s Thyroiditis 134
Idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid
Rotor Syndrome 135
Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated)
136
Similar to Dubin-Johnson; but no discoloration of the liver
Sezary Syndrome 137
Leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
Shaver’s Disease 138
Aluminum inhalation →lung fibrosis
Sheehan’s Syndrome 139
Postpartum pituitary necrosis = hemorrhage & shock usually occurred during delivery
Shy-Drager 140
Parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension
Simmond’s Disease 141
Pituitary cachexia – can occur from either pituitary tumors or Sheehan’s
Sipple’s Syndrome 142
MEN type IIa = pheochromocytoma; thyroid medullary CA; hyperparathyroidism
Sjogren’s Syndrome 143
Triad: dry eyes; dry mouth; arthritis ↑risk of B-cell lymphoma
Spitz Nevus 144
Juvenile melanoma (always benign)
Stein-Leventhal 145
Polycystic ovary: see amenorrhea; infertility; obesity; hirsutism = ↑↑LH secretion
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome 146
Erythema multiforme; fever; malaise; mucosal ulceration (often 2to infection = mycoplasma or sulfa
Still’s Disease 147
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor)
Takayasu’s arteritis 148
Aortic arch syndrome
149
Loss of carotid; radial or ulnar pulses = pulseless disease
150
Common in young Asian females
Tay-Sachs (AR) 151
Gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency →GM2 ganglioside) Cherry Red Spots of the Macula
Tetralogy of Fallot 152
1
Tourette’s Syndrome 153
Involuntary actions; both motor and vocal Txt w/ Pimozide
Turcot’s Syndrome 154
Colon adenomatous polyps plus CNS tumors
Turner’s Syndrome 155
45; XO = most common cause of Primary Amenorrhea
Vincent’s Infection 156
“Trench mouth” – acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to Fusobacterium
Von Gierke’s Disease 157
Type I Glycogenosis – Glycogen storage disease (G6Ptase deficiency) – Glycogen accumulaiton
Von Hippel-Lindau 158
Hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) = cerebellum; brain stem; & retina
159
Adenomas of the viscera; especially ↑Renal Cell Carcinoma
160
Chromosome 3p
Von Recklinghausen’s 161
Neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodules (Chromosome 17)
Von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone 162
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2to hyperparathyroidism = osteoclastic resorption w/
163
fibrous replacement
Von Willebrand’s Disease (AD) 164
Defect in platelet adhesion 2to deficiency in vWF
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia 165
Proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in men 50-70 yoa; PAS(+) Dutcher bodies
Wallenberg’s Syndrome 166
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome”
167
Ipsilateral: ataxia; facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp
Waterhouse-Friderichsen 168
Adrenal insufficiency 2to DIC
169
DIC 2to meningiococcemia
Weber’s Syndrome 170
Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain
171
Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body)
Wegener’s Granulomatosis 172
Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses; lungs; kidneys; etc
Weil’s Disease 173
Icteric Leptospirosis non-icteric prgresses to renal failure & myocarditis
174
Dark field microscopy for dx
Wermer’s Syndrome 175
MEN type I = thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal cortex; pancreatic islets; pituitary
Wernicke’s Aphasia 176
Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome 177
Thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (mediodorsal nucleua) (confusion; ataxia;
Whipple’s Disease 178
Malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis
Wilson’s Disease 179
Hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation [Txt w/ Penicillamine ] & decrease in ceruloplasmin)
180
Mallory Bodies in the Liver & also w/ alcoholic hepatitis & Hyaline change
181
Chromosome 13
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome 182
Immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema)
183
↓IgM w/ ↑IgA
Wolff-Chaikoff Effect 184
High iodine level (−)’s thyroid hormone synthesis
Zenker’s Diverticulum 185
Esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES
Zollinger-Ellison 186
Gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) →↑acid →recurrent ulcers
Roger’s Disease 187
Interventricular septal defect
Barlow’s Syndrome 188
Floppy vale syndrome – women b/t 20-40 yoa
Bracht-Wachter Lesions 189
Minute abscesses found in subacute bacterial endocarditis
Lutembacher’s Syndrome 190
Combination of septum secundum atrial septal defect w/ mitral stenosis
Schmidt’s Syndrome 191
Autoimmnue thyroid Disease (Hashimoto’s ) & insulin-dependent diabetes
Hallmark Findings
Questions
Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation 192
Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies 193
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly 194
Marfan’s
Aschoff Bodies 195
Rheumatic fever
Auer Rods 196
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
Autosplenectomy 197
Sickle cell anemia: switch a glu val in chain
198
Low O2 ↑sickling
199
Aplastic crisis w/ B19 (Parvovirus ssDNA) infection
200
Salmonella osteomyelitis
201
Vaso-occlusive painful crisises
202
Hydroxyurea as Txt (↑HbF) & Bone marrow transplant
Babinski 203
UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs 204
Lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein 205
Multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
206
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
Birbeck Granules 207
Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater 208
Chronic Bronchitis (at least 3 months for at least 2 years of ecessive mucus secretion & chronic
Boot-Shaped Heart 209
Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard’s Nodes 210
Osteoarthritis (Proximal IP joint of the fingers)
Boutonniere’s Deformity 211
Rheumatoid arthritis flex proximal & extend distal IP joints
Brown Tumor 212
Hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots 213
Down’s
Call-Exner Bodies 214
Granulosa cell tumor: associated w/ endometrial hyperplasia & carcinoma
215
Granuloma-Theca cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy 216
Chagas’ Disease
Chancre 217
1Syphilis
Chancroid 218
Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad 219
Multiple sclerosis = nystagmus; intention tremor; scanning speech
Charcot-Leyden Crystals 220
Bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing 221
Cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts 222
Endometriosis
Chvostek’s Sign 223
Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells 224
Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s Triangle 225
Osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins 226
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
227
Infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata 228
2Syphilis
229
New coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel
Cotton Wool Spots 230
HTN
231
Aka; cytoid bodies seen w/ SLE (yellowish cotton wool fundal lesions)
Councilman Bodies 232
Dying hepatocytes – HepB
Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule 233
Rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum 234
Klebsiella
Curschmann’s Spirals 235
Bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra 236
Parkinson’s
Donovan Bodies 237
Granuloma inguinale (STD)
Eburnation 238
Osteoarthritis (polished; ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis 239
Marfan’s
Erythema Chronicum Migrans 240
Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver 241
Alcoholism
Ferruginous Bodies 242
Asbestosis - & Iron laden
Ghon Focus / Complex 243
Tuberculosis (1& 2; respectively)
Glitter Cells 244
Acute Pyelonephritis
Gower’s Maneuver 245
Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
Heberden’s Nodes 246
Osteoarthritis (Distal IP joint of the fingers)
Heinz Bodies 247
G6PDH Deficiency
Heterophil Antibodies 248
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hirano Bodies 249
Alzheimer’s
Hypersegmented PMNs 250
Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs 251
Iron-deficiency anemia or Thalassemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction 252
Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt
Joint Mice 253
Osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing 254
Acidosis / Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Keratin Pearls 255
Squamous Cell CA of skin Actinic Keratosis is a precursor
Keyser-Fleischer Ring 256
Wilson’s
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules 257
Diabetic nephropathy: Nodular Glomerulosclerosis nodules of mesangial matrix
Koilocytes 258
HPV 6 & 11 (condyloma acuminatum - benign) and HPV 16 & 18 (malignant association)
Koplik Spots 259
Measles
Lewy Bodies 260
Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
Lines of Zahn 261
Arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules 262
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) = pigmented iris hamartomas
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli 263
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis – prototype of nephritic syndrome
Mallory Bodies 264
Alcoholic hepatitis
McBurney’s Sign 265
Appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies 266
Malakoplakia lesion on bladder due to macros & calcospherites (M-G Bodies): usually due to E
Monoclonal Antibody Spike 267
Multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
268
MGUS
Myxedema 269
Hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies 270
Rabies
Neuritic Plaques 271
Alzheimer’s
Neurofibrillary Tangles 272
Alzheimer’s
Non-pitting Edema 273
Myxedema
274
Anthrax Toxin
Notching of Ribs 275
Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver 276
CHF = causing congested liver
Owls Eye Cells 277
CMV
278
Reed Sternburg Cells (Hodkins Lymphoma)
279
Aschoff cells seen w/ Rheumatic Fever
Painless Jaundice 280
Pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus 281
Rheumatoid arthritis; also see morning stiffnes that ↓w/ joint use; HLA-DR4
Pautrier’s Microabscesses 282
Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma); Sezary
Philadelphia Chromosome 283
CML
Pick Bodies 284
Pick’s Disease
2 types of COPD 285
Pink Puffer – Type A: Emphysema
286
Blue Bloater – Type B: Bronchitis
287
Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Podagra 288
Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain 289
Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign 290
Tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies 291
Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
292
Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
293
Meningioma
294
Mesothelioma
Pseudohypertrophy 295
Seen w/ Duchenne muscular dystrophy @ the claf muscles; due to ↑fat
Punched-Out Bone Lesions 296
Multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles 297
2Syphilis
298
RMSF
299
Coxsackie virus infection: Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease
Red Morning Urine 300
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg Cells 301
Hodgkin’s Disease
Reid Index Increased 302
Chronic bronchitis = ↑d ratio of bronchial gland to bronchial wall thickness
Reinke Crystals 303
Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation 304
Multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound 305
L→R Shunt (VSD; PDA; ASD)
306
Mitral Regurg
307
LV Failure
S4 Heart Sound 308
Pulmonary Stenosis
309
Pulmonary HTN
Schwartzman Reaction 310
Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
Smith Antigen 311
SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
312
Malar Rash; Wire loop kidney lesions; Joint pain; False (+) syphilis test (VDRL)
313
90% 14-45 yo females
314
also seen w/ use of INH; Procainamide; Hydralazine = SLE-like syndrome
Soap Bubble on X-Ray 315
Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli 316
Membranous glomerulonephritis = Nephrotic syndrome
317
Spike = basement membrane material & Dome = immune complex deposits (IgG orC3)
String Sign on X-ray 318
Crohn’s bowel wall thickening
Target Cells 319
Thalassemia in Thalassemia w/ no gene: Hydrops Fetalis & Intrauterine death associations = HbBarts
Tendinous Xanthomas 320
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney 321
Chronic pyelonephritis
Tophi 322
Gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli 323
Membranoproliferative GN: Nephritic syndrome – basement membrane is duplicated into 2 layers
Trousseau’s Sign 324
Visceral ca; classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
325
Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
326
These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs; but they unfortunately have the
same name
Virchow’s Node 327
Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells 328
Measles
WBC Casts 329
Pyelonephritis
Whipple’s Triad 330
CNS disfunction – Hypoglycemic episodes – glu injection reverses CNS Sympt’s
Wire Loop Glomeruli 331
Lupus nephropathy; type IV (diffuse proliferative form)
332
Spina Bifida
333
Anencephaly
↑Uric Acid 334
Gout
335
Lesch Nyhan
336
Myeloproliferative Disorders
337
Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
↓FEV1/FVC 338
COPD
339
Due to Pneumocystis carinii
340
Seen w/ Atelectasia
Honey Combing of the lung 341
Seen w/ Asbestosis (a restrictive lung disease)
Crescents 342
Goodpastures syndrome (pneumonia w/ hemoptysis & rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis)
Linear Ig Deposits 343
Goodpastures syndrome
45 Degree Branch Points 344
Aspergillosis
PAS(+) Dutcher Bodies 345
Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia = ↑IgM = Hyperviscosity
“Ground Glass” in Abdomen(Hyaline) 346
Seen in the hepatocytes of healthy carriers of HBsAg in liver biopsies
“Signet Ring” Cells 347
Cells that replace the ovaries; due to Krukenberg’s tumor that has metastasized from the
Ground Glass Appearance (Hyaline) 348
Seen w/ Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy oligodendrocytes
349
Nuclei seen in Papillary CA of the thyroid (malignant)
Congo Red 350
Shows amyloid deposition in plaques & vascular walls
Meningiomas & Progesterone 351
Some meningiomas have Progesterone receptors = rapid growth in pregnancy can occur
Tuberous Sclerosis Triad 352
Seizures; Mental retardation; Leukoderma (congenital facial white spots or macules):
Cowdry A Inclusions 353
Seen w/ Herpes Simplex Encephalitis – in oligodendroglia
Devic’s Syndrome 354
“Neuromyelitis Optica”
355
A variant of multiple sclerosis: rapid demyelination of the optic nerve & spinal cord w/ paraplegia
c-erb B2 356
Breast Cancer association
Foster-Kennedy Syndrome 357
A tumor causing blindness & loss of smell w/ papilloedema
Hoffman’s Sign 358
Flicking of the middle finger’s nail
Red Nucleus Destruction 359
Intention tremors of the arm
Ventral Spinocerebellar tr
360
Dorsal Spinocerebellar tr
361
Cuneocerebellar tr
362
Dorsal Column 363
Conscious proprioception of the body
Lateral Spinothalamic tr
364
Ventral Spinothalamic tr
365
SVA 366
Taste & Smell
GSE 367
Muscles of the eye & of the tongue
SSA 368
Vision; Hearing; Equilibrium
GVA 369
Sensation of tongue; soft palate
GVE 370
Edinger Westphal = parasympathetic eye innervation
371
Gland innervation = secretions
372
Viscera
GSA 373
Pain & temperature of face
374
Sensation of external ear
SVE 375
Innervation of muscles of masticaiton; facial expressions; larynx & pharynx
LMN Lesion 376
Werndig Hoffman (progressive infantile muscular atrophy)
377
Poliomyelitis
Sensory Pathway Lesion 378
Subacute Combined Degeneration = Friedrich’s Ataxia = B12 deficiency
379
Tabes Dorsalis (Neurosyphilis)
Both UMN & LMN Lesion 380
ALS = Lou Gherig’s Disease
Both Sensory & Motor Lesion 381
Brown Sequard
382
Anterior Spinal artery Occlusion
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 383
Controls circadian rhythm
Ventromedial Nucleus 384
Satiety center
Lateral Nucleus 385
Induces eating
Arcuate Nucleus 386
Releases PIF (dopa-ergic neurons)
Mamillary Body 387
Can have hemorrhages as seen in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy
Acanthocytes 388
RBSc w/ spiny projections
Most Common…
Questions
389
Osteosarcoma
Adrenal Medullary Tumor – Adults 390
Pheochromocytoma: 5 P’s: ↑Pressure; Pain (Headache); Perspiration; Palpitations;
391
Neuroblastoma
Agent of severe viral encephalitis 392
Herpes simplex
Aggressive lung tumor 393
Small cell or oat cell
Associated with gallstones 394
Adenocarinoma
Bacterial Meningitis – adults 395
Strep pneumoniae & in young adults = Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial Meningitis – elderly 396
Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial Meningitis – newborns 397
E
Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers 398
Hib
399
Papilloma
Benign fallopian tube tumor 400
Adenomatoid
Benign ovarian tumor 401
Mature(Native) Teratoma = benign dermatoid
Benign tumor of soft tissue 402
Lipoma
Benign tumor of the breast <25yoa 403
Fibroadenoma
Benign tumor of the liver 404
Hemangioma
Benign tumor of the vulva 405
Hidroadenoma
Benign uterine tumor 406
Leiomyoma: estrogen sinsitive: changes size during pregnancy & menopause
Bone Tumors 407
Metasteses from Breast & Prostate
Brain Tumor – Child 408
Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Brain Tumor –Adult 409
Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets; meningioma; Schwannoma
Breast Carcinoma 410
Invasive Duct Carcinoma
Breast Mass 411
Fibrocystic Change: premenopausic women (Carcinoma is the most common in post-menopausal
Bug in Acute Endocarditis 412
Staph aureus
413
Klebsiella
Bug in Epiglottitis 414
Hib
Bug in GI Tract 415
Bacteroides (2nd – E
416
Staph aureus
Bug in PID 417
N
Bug in Subacute Endocarditis 418
Strep Viridans
CA of urinary collecting system 419
Transitional cell CA (assoc
Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Adults 420
Myxoma: “Ball Valve”
Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Child 421
Rhabdomyoma – associated w/ Tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac Tumor – Adults 422
Metasteses
Cardiomyopathy 423
Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy: Alcohol; BeriBeri; Cocaine use; Coxsackie B; Doxorubicin
424
Systolic Dysfunction
Cause of 2ry HTN 425
Renal Disease
Cause of Addison’s 426
Autoimmune (2nd – infection)
Cause of breast lumps 427
CA of the breast
Cause of chronic endometriosis 428
TB
429
21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: NaCl lost & Hypotension (then; 11- NaCl retention & HTN)
Cause of Cushings 430
Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then; 1ry ACTH; Adrenal Adenoma; Ectopic ACTH)
Cause of Death in Alzheimer pts 431
Pneumonia
Cause of Death in Diabetics 432
MI
Cause of Death in premature 433
NRDS = hyaline membrane disease
SLE pts
434
Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) = Renal Disease
Cause of Dementia 435
Alzheimer’s
436
Multi-Infarct Dementia
Cause of Dwarfism 437
Achondroplasia
Cause of Food poisoning 438
Staph aureus
Cause of Hematosalpynga 439
Ectopic pregnancy
Cause of Hypoparathyroidism 440
Throidectomy
Cause of Hypothyroidism 441
Corrective surgery I31 treatment
Cause of Kidney infections 442
E
Cause of Liver disease in US 443
Alcohol consumption
Cause of Malignancy in children 444
Acute leukemia
Cause of Mental retardation 445
Down’s
446
Fragile X
447
21 hydroxylase deficiency
Cause of PID 448
N
Cause of Portal cirrhosis 449
Alcohol
Cause of Preventable Blindness 450
Chlamydia (serotypes A;B;Ba;C)
Cause of Pulmonary HTN 451
COPD
Cause of Secondary Hypertension 452
Renal disease
Cause of SIADH 453
Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Cause of UT Obstruction in men 454
BPHyperplasia
Cause Pernicious Anemia 455
Chronic atrophic gastritis = no production of intrinsic factor
Chromosomal Disorder 456
Down’s
Common Tumor of the Appendix 457
Carcinoid tumor: flushing; diarrhea; bronchospasm; RHeart valvular lesions
458
Txt: Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
Congenital Cardiac Anomaly 459
VSD (membranous > muscular)
Congenital Early Cyanosis 460
Tetralogy of Fallot =right to left shunt
Coronary Artery Thrombosis 461
LAD artery: MI
Demyelinating Disease 462
Multiple Sclerosis: (Charcot Triad = nystagmus; intention tremor; scanning speech)
463
Periventricular plaques w/ ↓Oligodenrocytes
464
↑IgG in CSF; Optic Neuritis; MLF Syndorme = Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; bladder
Dental Tumor 465
Odontoma
Dietary Deficiency 466
Iron
Disease of the Breast 467
Fibrocystic disease
468
CMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall)
Esophageal Cancer 469
SCCA
Fallopian Tube Malignancy 470
AdenoCA
471
Cystic Fibrosis (chromosome 7q)
Female Tumor 472
Leimyoma
Form of Amyloidosis 473
Immunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain)
Form of Tularemia 474
Ulceroglandular
Germ Cell Tumor of Testes 475
Seminoma (analogous to dysgerminoma of ovaries)
Gynecological Malignancy 476
Endometrial Carcinoma
Gynecological Finding 477
Endometrial CA
Heart Murmur 478
Mitral Valve Prolapse
479
Mitral
480
Tricuspid
481
Mitral then Aortic
Hereditary Bleeding Disorder 482
Von Willebrand’s Disease
483
Prolactin
Inherited disease of the Kidney 484
Adult polycystic kidney disease: associated w/ polycystic liver; Berry aneurysms; Mitral prolapse
485
APD1 – chromosome 16
Intracranial tumor in adults 486
Glioblastoma mulitforme
Islet Tumor 487
Insulinoma = cell tumor
Liver 1ry Tumor 488
Hepatoma
Liver Disease 489
Alcoholic Liver Disease
490
Head (99%)
Location of Adult Brain Tumors 491
Above Tentorium
492
Below Tentorium
Lung Tumor; malignant or benign 493
Malignant
Lung Tumor; primary or secondary 494
Secondary
Lysosomal Storage Disease 495
Gaucher’s
Malignancy in Women 496
Lung (2nd breast)
Malignancy of the Larynx 497
Glottic CA (squamous cell)
Malignancy of the Small Intestine 498
Adenocarcinoma
Malignancy Vulva 499
Squamous cell CA
Malignant Eye Tumor in Kids 500
Retinoblastoma
Malignant Tumor of the Liver 501
Hepatocellular CA
Motor Neuron Disease 502
ALS
Muscular Dystrophy 503
Duchenne’s: Dystrophin deletion
Nasal Tumor 504
Squamous cell CA
Neoplasm – Child 505
Leukemia
506
Medulloblastoma of brain (cerebellum)
Neoplasm of the West 507
Adeno CA of the rectum and/or colon
Neoplastic Polyp 508
Tubular adenoma
Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults 509
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic Syndrome in Children 510
Minimal Change (Lipoid Nephrosis) Disease (responds well to steroid txt)
Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 511
Follicular small clear cell
512
Lung CA
Skin tumor 513
Basal cell CA
Opportunistic infection in AIDS 514
PCP
Ovarian Malignancy 515
Serous Cystadenocarcinoma
Ovarian Tumor 516
Hamartoma
Pancreatic Tumor 517
Adeno (usually in the head)
518
ALL – Child / CLL – Adult over 60 / AML - Adult over 60 / CML – Adult 35-50
Patient with Goodpasture’s 519
Young male
Patient with Reiter’s 520
Male
Pituitary Tumor 521
Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)
522
Mid 1/3
Place for Peptic Ulcer Disease 523
Lesser curvuture in antrum – associated w/ blood group O
Primary Benign Salivary Tumor 524
Pleomorphic Adenoma (Mixed) – 90% localized to the parotid
Primary Hyperparathyroidism 525
Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia; then carcinoma)
Primary Malignancy of Bone 526
Osteosarcoma
527
Lymphoma
Pt
with Hodgkin’s 528
Pt
with Minimal Change Disease 529
Renal Malignancy 530
Renal cell CA
531
Wilm’s tumor (neohroblastoma) – chromosome 11p
Salivary Tumor 532
Pleomorphic adenoma
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism 533
Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure
Sexually Transmitted Disease 534
Chlamydia (sero types D-K)
Site of Diverticula 535
Sigmoid Colon
Site of Embolic Occlusion 536
Middle cerebral aa: contralateral paralysis; aphasias; motor & sensory loss
Site of Metastasis 537
Regional Lymph Nodes
538
Liver
Sites of Atherosclerosis 539
Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Skin CA of Fair Skinned People 540
Malignant melanoma
Skin Cancer 541
Basal Cell Carcinoma
542
Meckel’s diverticulum
Stomach Cancer 543
Adeno – associated w/ blood group A
Testicular Tumor 544
Seminoma = malignant painless testes growth
Thyroid Anomaly 545
Thryoglossal duct cyst
Thyroid CA 546
Papillary CA
Tracheoesophageal Fistula 547
Lower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch – polyhydramnios association
Tumor in men <20 548
Germ cell tumor
Tumor of Infancy 549
Benign vascular tumor = port wine stain = Hemangioma
550
CA of stomach (adeno CA)
Type of Hodgkin’s 551
Mixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance; lymphocytic depletion; nodular sclerosis)
Type of Non-Hodgkin’s 552
Follicular; small cleaved
Type of Portal Cirrhosis 553
Micronodular
554
Rhabdomyosarcoma
555
Temporal Arteritis (branch of Carotid Artery)
Viral Encephalitis 556
HSV
Worm Infection in US 557
Pinworm (2nd – Ascaris)
Worst Prognosis in Thyroid Cas 558
Follicular CA
Cause of Lobar Pneumonia 559
Strep
Cause of Death b/t 24-44 yoa 560
AIDS
561
Pseudomonas
562
Pseudomonas
Cause of Infection in Burn Pts 563
Pseudomonas
Mental Problem in Males 564
Specific phobia
Intelligence Test 565
Stanford Binet (ages 6 & under)
566
WIPSI (ages 4-6)
567
WISK-R (for ages 6-17)
568
WAIS-R (for > 17 yoa)
Paraphilia 569
Pedophilia
570
VMA: vanillylmandelic acid (NE metabolite)
Severe Shigella 571
Dysenteriae
572
Strep
Cause of a Solitary Brain Abscess 573
A
U
S
574
Campylobacter jejuni
Shigella Type 575
S
576
Chlamydia trichomonas
Pneumonia 577
Strep
Urethritis 578
N
Cause of Glomerulonephritis 579
IgA Nephropathy = Berger’s Disease
Cause of Viral Pneumonia 580
RSV – infants
581
Parainfluenza – kids
582
Influenza virus – adults
583
Adeno virus – military recruits
Complication of COPD 584
Pulmonary infections
585
Renal failure
Atrial Septal Defect 586
Ostium Secundum Type
Warm Antibody 587
Most common form of immune hemolytic anemia
588
IgG auto antibodies to RBC
589
See spherocytosis; (+) Coombs’ test; complication to CLL
Immunodeficiency 590
IgA Deficiency
Congenital GIT Anomaly 591
Meckel’s Diverticulum: persistence of vitelline duct/yolk sac stalk
Cause of Congenital Malformation 592
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Pharmacology
Autonomic Nervous System
Epinephrine 1
1; 2; 1; 2
Norepinephrine 2
1; 2; 1 (no 2 activity)
GABA 3
Causes an inhibitory cell hyperpolarization
Muscarinic-r 4
Uses DAG & IP3 as 2nd messengers
5
Parasympathetic control
Bethanechol 6
Cholinergic
Pilocarpine 7
Cholinergic
8
Txt acute glaucoma
Isoflurophate 9
Organophosphate
Pralidoxime 10
“2PAM”
Neostigmine 11
Reversible acetylcholinesterase (-)r
12
Txt Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia Gravis 13
Anitbodies to Ach-r
Tubocurium 14
Nondepol
15
Prevents Ach binding but does not activate NMJ
16
↑Histamine release= ↓BP & ↑bronchospasm
Trimethaphan 17
Nonselectively binds N-r of the PS- and SNS
Pancurium 18
More potent than tubocurium w/o histamine release
Succinylcholine 19
Depol
20
Opens Na Ch
1 & Eye 21
Mydriasis due to norepinephrine
M-r & Eye 22
Miosis due to Ach
Sympathetic 23
Post ganglionic symapthetic fibers releases norepinephrine
Parasym
24
M3-r & Eye 25
Contracts sphincter = miosis
M2-r & Heart 26
Negative chronotropy: ↓HR = vagal arrest
27
Negative inotropy: ↓contractility
M3-r & Lung 28
Bronchospasm ↑secretions
M3-r & GI 29
↑motility (cramps & diarrhea)
Tacrine 30
Acetylcholine esterase (-)r
Atropine 31
DOC w/ vagal arrest
Glycoperrolate 32
M-r(-)
Pirenzepine 33
M-r(-)
Doxacurium 34
Most potent competitive non-depol NMJ (-)r
release
bungarotoxin 35
Prevent the releasal of Ach from vesicles @ the pre synaptic nerve ending
bungarotoxin 36
Irreversible N-r (-)r = ↓action potentials
1 & Eye 37
Contracts radial muscle = mydriasis (pupil dilation)
1 & Arterioles 38
Constiction: ↑TPR = ↑Diastolic pressure = ↑Afterload
1 & Venules 39
Constriction: ↑Venous return = ↑Preload
1 & Sex Function 40
Ejaculation
↑Diastolic 41
↑1 = ↑TPR
↓Diastolic 42
↑2; Direct acting vasodilators; (+)Cholinergics
1 & Heart 43
(+)chronotropism = ↑HR
44
(+)inotropism = ↑contractility; ↑SV; ↑CO; ↑O2 consumption
45
↑conduction velocity
Phenylephrine 46
1 (+) Nasal decongestant
2(+) Asma Drugs 47
Metaproterenol; Albuterol; Terbutaline; Ritodrine; Salmeterol
Ritodrine/Turbutaline 48
Relaxes myometrium used in pre-mature labor pains
Phentolamine 49
Epi reversal
50
Txt pheochromocytoma = ↓BP
Terazosin 51
Txt BPH
Yohimbine 52
↑sympathetic outflow = 2 (-)
Cardioselective NMJ 53
Pancuronium = ↑HR due to atropine-like anti muscarinic vagolytic effect & Gallamine (-)r
Ecothiophate 54
Irreversible cholinesterase (-)r
Pyridostigmine 55
Cholinomimetic that ↑s M & N-r effects
56
DOC for the oral Txt of MG
Cardio
pharm
Digoxin 1
↓AV nodal conduction/ inh
Diltiazem 2
Txt black men
Quinidine 3
↓AV nodal conduction
Verapamil 4
↓AV nodal conduction
Propranolol 5
↓AV nodal conduction
Melitus via 2 block
Diazoxide 6
Balanced vasodilator
Niroprusside 7
Balanced vasodilator
Reserpine 8
Txt severe & resistant HTN
Dobutamine 9
At high doses 2(+) offsets 1 = 1 ↑CO w/o systemic vascular resistance
Dopamine 10
At low doses Txt Shock= dilates renal and mesenteric aa= maintain urine output
Esmolol 11
Short acting (-)
Captopril 12
Balanced vasodilator
Digoxin 13
Txt CHF & Atrial Flutter - inotropic - ↓K+ levels= dig
Dig
Toxicity 14
Quinidine 15
ClassIa anti arrhythmic
Lidocaine 16
ClassIb anit arrhythmic
Flecanide 17
ClassIc anti arrhythmic
Amiodarone 18
Long t1/2= need potent doses to obtain desired level for action
Pulmonary Fibrosis
NE 19
↑AV nodal conduction via 1
Ach 20
↓AV nodal conduction via M receptor
Atenolol 21
Controls catecholamine induced arrhythmias
Bretylium 22
Txt Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias but causes passing catecholamine release that can
Nimodipine 23
Txt Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage by preventing post hemorrhagic vasospasm
Atropine 24
↓excess vagal tone as seen in Sinus Bradycardia
Nitrates 25
↓preload= venous pooling
Propranolol 26
Blocks reflex tachy but causes excess brady= ↑diastole time= ↑EDV
Verapamil 27
↑O2 supply via ↓in vasospasm Txt Prinzmetal’s variant angina
Aspirin 28
Prevents arterial platelet adhesion (not DVThrombi)
Warfarin 29
(-)Vit
Heparin 30
Dependent on Antithrombin III activation
TPA 31
Binds to fibrin clots & activates plasminogen on the spot
32
Does not discriminate b/t fibrin-based clots= bleeding & stroke complications arise
Streptokinase 33
From bacteria= allergies arise
Urokinase 34
Human source
Colestipol 35
Bile acid sequestrants
MOA
Lovastatin 36
HMGCoA reductase(-)= ↑LDL-r synthesis
Losartan 37
↓Aldosterone
Diazoxide 38
Txt insulinomas
Clonidine 39
Central 2(+)
Methyldopa 40
Central 2(+)
Phenytoin 41
ClassIb
Procainamide 42
ClassIa
Indopamide 43
Only Thiazide that will have no effect on cholesterol levels
Thiazides 44
Older black men w/ HTN due to ↑Renin
(-) 45
Young white men w/o asthma (cause bronchospasm)
ACEIs 46
(-) change AI AII
47
Cause renal failure = use w/ caution in the elderly
Epinephrine 48
↑contraction rate & force via 1
49
↑systolic but ↓diastolic BP
50
↓peripheral resistance via 2 vasodilaiton
Norepi
51
52
↑peripheral blood vessel resistance
Methyldopa 53
DOC for pregnancy induced HTN
Quinidine pre-txt 54
Atrial arrhythmia pretxt w/ a drug that will ↓ventricular response: Dig
ClassII 55
(-) ↓risk fo reinfarction & sudden death following MI
“Gray man” 56
Amiodarone: ClassIII antiarrhythmia
Beperidil 57
Ca Ch(-)
ACEIs 58
Vasodilate renal efferents > than afferent arterioles: ↓GFR & Filtration pressure
59
↓Diabetic renal failure progression
Adenosine 60
Its receptor is blocked by Methylxanthines (ie… Theophyline)
61
Favored for the Txt of Reentrant Supra Ventricular Tachycardia
Enoxaparin 62
Low molecular weight heparin = Oral anticoagulant
Isoproterenol 63
↑HR & ↓MAP
Variant angina 64
Use Ca Ch
Contraindicated in CHF 65
(-)r = you don’t want to ↓the heart’s pumping strength
CNS
questions
“TOM” 1
Short –acting BDZs:
2
Triazolam
3
Onazelam
4
Midazolam
Butyrophenone 5
Haloperidol & Droperidol
Atypical D4 6
Clozapine – Thioridazine – Olanzepine – Risperidone = Do not cause EPS
Flumazenil 7
BDZ antidote for OD
Methylphenidate 8
Txt attention deficit disorder
Phenytoin 9
Causes aplastic anemia/ gingival hyperplasia/ cleft lip & palate
Thiopental 10
Short acting Barb
Carbamazepine 11
DOC trigeminal neuralgia
Atypical D4-r 12
Thioridazine; Olamzapine; Clozapine
Pimozide 13
Txt Tourette’s
Risperidone 14
Good for negative symptoms
Thioridazine 15
Most anti cholinergic neuroleptic
Haloperidol 16
Neuroleptic malignant hyperthermia due to chronic D2 block
Imirpamine 17
Enurisis
Clomirpramine 18
Txt OCD See aggressive behavior w/ use
Trazadone 19
Priapism
Bupropion 20
Helps to quit smoking
SSRIs 21
Primarily used for OCD
Fluoxetine 22
Good for negative symptoms
Phenelzine 23
Irreversible MAOI
Lithium 24
Txt manic phase of Bipolar Disorder
25
Causes goiter by (-) conversion of T4 to T3
26
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
27
Low salt diet will lead to Li toxicity
Alprazolam 28
DOC stage fright
Propranolol 29
Social phobia
-r 30
Spinal analgesia
-r 31
Supraspinal analgesia
Morphine & O2 32
Admin
breathing
Morphine 33
↑ICP = do not give to pt
Morphine OD 34
1
Meperidine 35
Anesthetic used during labor
Hydromorphone 36
(+) used in renal failure
Tramadol 37
Ambulatory txt for mod
Naloxone 38
Txt opioid OD
Pentazocine 39
Part (+) & part (-)
Butorphenol 40
Part (+) & part (-)
Nalbuphene 41
Part (+) & part (-)
↓GABA 42
↓seizure focus= Barbs & BDZs
↓Fast Na Ch
43
Methoxyflurane 44
Can be nephrotoxic
Enflurane 45
Can cause tonic/clonic muscle spasms
Isoflurane 46
Can cause bronchospasm
Halothane 47
Can cause ventricular extrasystoles & Malignant hyperthermia & Hepatitis
Nitric Oxide 48
No effect on HR
Thiopental 49
Short acting Barb
Kentamine 50
Dissociative anesthetic
Droperidol 51
Can be used in combo w/ Fentanyl for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
52
Neuroleptic tranquilizer
Fentanyl 53
Can be used on combo w/ Droperidol for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
54
Used transdermally for chronic pain
Midazolam 55
Pre anesthetic
Primidone 56
Biotransformed to Phenobarb
C & A delta Fibers 57
First fibers to be blocked w/ anesthesia
Esters 58
Procaine; Tetracaine; Benzocaine
59
Broken down and make PABA (allergen)
Amides 60
Lidocaine; Mepivaciane; Bupivaciane; Etidocaine= “i” before “caine” always an amide
61
Metabolized in the liver
Amphetamine 62
DA reuptake (-)’r
Bromocriptine 63
D2(+)
Benztropine 64
Ant M w/ some DA reuptake (-)
Amantidine 65
↓DA reuptake
Diphenhydramine 66
Txt early Parkinson’s stages
Pergolide 67
> Effective & longer acting than Bromocriptine
Ethosuximide 68
DOC for Absence seizures
Tranylcypromine 69
MAOI = antidepressant
SSRI & MAOI 70
Fatal combo; especially seen with the use of Paroxetine or Fluoxetine (SSRIs) and
Labor opioids 71
Meperidine & Nalbuphine
Desipramine causes 72
Sudden cardaic death in children
Anti-Infective
questions
Primaquine 4
Malaria profylaxis
5
Used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P
Ciporfloxacin 6
Quinolone derivative
Sulfonamides 7
PABA structural analogs
8
Inhibit Folic acid synthesis
9
Should not be used in anuric pt due to production of (-) Nitrogen balance & ↑d BUN levels
10
Doxycycline is the exception
Ceftriazone 11
3rd generation cephalosporin
12
DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (ie… HiB)
13
One dose txt of gonorrhea
Hepatic coma DOC 14
Neomycin (aminoglycoside) – it supresses the normal flora = ↓g NH4 production = ↓g free
nitrogen levels in the bloodstream
Clavulanic acid 15
Irreversible (-)r of lactamases; but ot of transpeptidase = use w/ a lactamase sensitive
Piperacillin 16
Txt Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella
17
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Streptomycin (aminoglycoside) 18
Txt Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Isoniazid 19
Most commonly used drug for TB
20
Usually combined w/ Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
21
Pre Txt w/ Pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis‘
Pyrantel Pamoate 22
Txt of Hookworm disease
23
Depolarizing NMJ (-)r
Buy “AT” 30; “CELL” at 50 24
A = Aminoglycosides
25
T = Tetracyclines
26
C = Chloramphenicol
27
E = Erythromycin (macrolide)
28
L = Clindamycin
29
L = Lincomycin
Cefoxitin 30
Txt intraabdominal infections (ie… w/ Bacteroides fragilis)
31
Traditional txt has been Clindamycin & Gentamycin
Chloramphenicol 32
Broad spectrum antibiotic
33
Bone marrow depression (common) – Aplastic anemia (rare)
34
Gray baby syndrome (chloramphenicol cannot be conjugated)
35
DOC Typhoid Fever (symptomatic Salmonella infection)
36
DOC HiB meningitis in kids – especially resistant strain to ampicillin
Nifurtimox 37
Txt trypanosomiasis
Metronidazole 38
Txt Leishmaniasis & Amebiasis
39
Good for anaerobic bacteria = Bacteroides fragilis
40
DOC Trichomoniasis
41
DOC Giardia lamblia
Txt P
carinii 42
Tetracycline 43
Txt of Brucellosis & Cholera
44
Txt Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
45
Txt spirochete infections = Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
TMP-SMX 46
(-) dihydrofolate reductase activity
Benzathine Penicillin G 47
Long duration of action = given once every 3-4 weeks for Txt of Syphilis
Praziquantel 48
Txt Schistosomiasis (trematode [fluke] infections)
Melarsoprol 49
Txt Trypanosomiasis that has neurological symptoms
Stibogluconate 50
Txt Leishmaniasis
Fluconazole 51
Txt fungal encephalitis
Amphotericin B 52
Polyene antifingal
Ketoconazole MOA 53
(-) fungal ergosterol synthesis = disrupts membrane
Griseofulvin MOA 54
Accumulates in keratinized layers of the skin = used in dermatomycoses infections
Mefloquine 55
Anti malarial
56
Txt Chloroquine resistant strains = P
Chloroquine 57
Txt for Malaria when inside RBC
Nifurtimox 58
DOC Chagas disease due to Trypanosoma cruzi
Erythromycin 59
Used in pts allergic to penicillins
Nystatin 60
Topical txt of superficial mycotic infections = Candidiasis
Acyclovir 61
Guanine analog
62
Txt Herpes infections
Imipenem 63
Used w/ Cilastatin
64
Can cause seizures
Cefoperazone side effects 65
Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
66
Contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding disorders
Vancomycin 67
Used for MRSS (methicillin resistant Staph
68
“Red neck”: due to histamine release causes facial flushing
Meropenem 69
used w/ Cilastatin
70
Does not cause seizures (cf w/ Imipenem)
Nafcillin 71
Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment
Peripheral neuropathy 72
Seen w/ use of:
73
Metronidazole – Isoniazid – Vincristine – ddI – AZT – Allopurinol
Sulfonamides & newborns 74
Kernicterus can occur
“O
N
76
O = Ofloxacin
77
N = Norfloxacin
78
E = Enoxacin
Ribavirin 79
Txt RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
Anti-Neoplastics
questions
Cyclosporine 80
Protects against rejections from organ transplants
81
Does not induce bone marrow depression
Cyclophosphamide 82
Alkylating agent of both purine & pyrimidine bases of DNA
83
Txt CLL
Cisplatin’s toxicities 84
Nephro- & Ototoxicity
Methotrexate 85
Antimetabolite of folic acid: (-)dihydrofolate reductase
Leucovorin Rescue 86
Can block/reduce Methotrexate = ↑folic acid via a reduced folate
Bleomycin toxicities 87
Pneumonitis & pulmonary fibrosis
Azathiorine 88
Used in organ transplantation = kidney allografts
89
Allopurinol can ↑its activity by (-) its biotransformation to xanthine oxidase
MOPP 90
Chemotherapy used in the txt of Hodgkin’s disease
91
M = Mechlorethamine – nitrogen mustard
92
O = Oncovin (Vincristine) – prevents microtubule assembly
93
P = Procarbazine
94
P = Prednisone – glucocorticoid; inducing apoptosis
Tamoxifen 95
(-) estrogen receptor
96
Txt of breast tumors; can see associated endometrial CA
Flutamide 97
Antiandrogenic
98
Used w/ Leuprolide (LH-RH analog)
99
Txt prostatic CA
Megestrol 100
(-) progesterone receptor
101
Txt endometrial CA
Fluoxymesterone 102
Androgenic steroid
103
Txt mammary CA in postmenopausal women
Methotrexate 104
Folic acid analog that (-) tetrahydrofolate synthesis by (-) dihydrofolate reductase
105
Txt of ALL
106
Txt of Psoriasis
Brain tumor Txt 107
Lomustine
108
Carmustine – Causes pulmonary fibrosis
Streptozocin 109
Attaches to cells
110
Txt of pancreatic insulinomas
Cytarabine (AraC) 111
Pyrimidine analog
112
DOC for AML
Dactinomycin 113
Used for Wilms tumor & rhabdomyosarcoma
Etoposide 114
Used for oat cell CA
Paclitaxel 115
Used for ovarian CA
Amifostine 116
Can ↓nephrotoxicity due to chronic use of Cisplatin
Pathology
questions
Mobitz I 117
Usually due to inferior MI
118
Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol
Mobitz II 119
BBB association
P wave 120
Atrial depol
a wave 121
LA contraction
T wave 122
Vetricular repol
Wavy fibers 123
Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes
Janeway’s lesions 124
Acute bacterial endocarditis
125
Nontender; erythematous lesions of palms & soles
Osler’s nodes 126
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
127
Tender lesions of fingers & toes
Thiamine defcy 128
Wet Beri Beri heart
129
Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
130
Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss
Fibrinous Pericarditis 131
Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s
Serous Pericarditis 132
Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction
Friction Rub 133
Pericarditis association
Hemorrhagic Pericarditis 134
Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy 135
Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
136
Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
137
Due to ; also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yoa)
PML’s infectious agent 138
JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA; naked icosahedral capsid)
Edema 139
↑Pc (more seeps out)
140
↓c (less reabsorbed)
141
↑permeability
142
Block lymphatic drainage
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease 143
Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts
present
144
3 cysts in ea
Malignant HTN & Kidneys 145
Petehial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea-Bitten surface = young black men
Nephritic signs 146
Hematuria; RBC casts; HTN
Nephrotic signs 147
Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema
Podocyte Effacement seen w/ 148
Minimal Change (Lipoid nephrosis) disease
ASO seen in 149
Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to HGASrtep)
150
Anti streptolysin O
Crescentic GN 151
Rapidly progressive GN – nephritic syndrome
152
Associated w/ multi system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis
Hereditary Nephritis 153
Alport’s syndrome
154
Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities
Membranoproliferative GN 155
Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL
156
See tram tracking
157
C3 & IgG deposits
158
Only C3 deposits
GN deposits 159
Aka Dense deposit disease
160
IgM & C3 deposits
Cold agglutinins 161
Seen in atypical pneumonia
162
It is IgM Ab with specificity for I Ag on adult RBCs
Scrofula 163
TB in the lymph nodes
Aspirin-Asthma Triad 164
Nasal polyps – Rhinitis – bronchoconstriction
Ferruginous bodies 165
Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been pahgocytised
Pancoast’s tumor causes 166
Ulnar nerve pain & Horner’s syndrome
Fatty degeneration 167
Made up primarily of triglycerides
168
Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
169
Associated w/ CCl4
Cloudy swelling 170
Failure of cellular Na pump
171
Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver
Hydropic degeneration 172
Severe form of cloudy swelling
173
Seen with hypokalemia induced by vomitting/diarrhea
Liquefaction necrosis 174
Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
175
Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries
176
Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
Coagulation necrosis 177
Result of sudden ischemia
178
Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart; lung; kidney; spleen
Caseation necrosis 179
Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
180
Seen w/ M
Fibrinoid necrosis 181
Seen in the walls of small arteries
182
Associated w/ malignant hypertension; polyarteritis nodosa; immune mediated vasculitis
Fat necrosis 183
Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
184
Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results
Hemoptysis 185
Blood in sputum
Pulmonary embolism 186
Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein
Phlebothrombosis 187
From a vein of lower extremities; of a pregnant uterus; in Congestive heart failure; bed ridden
188
As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to ↑d blood coagulability
Saddle embolus 189
Embolus lodged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
190
↑↑RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor Pulmonale
Paradoxical embolism 191
Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation
192
Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect
Tuberculoid granuloma 193
Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
194
Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections
Cellulitis 195
Spreading infection due to streptococcus
PSA 196
Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA
↑↑5-HT 197
In cases of metastatic carcinoid; txt w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
↑Feto Protein 198
Hepatocarcinoma
199
Neural tube defects
CEA 200
Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in Colon CA
Chromosome 13 201
Retinoblastoma
Chromosome 11p 202
Wilms tumor of the kidney
Vinyl Chloride 203
Associated w/ Angiosarcoma of the liver
Agent Orange 204
Contains dioxin
205
Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin;s disease; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma & soft tissue sarcomas
Parasites & CA 206
Schistosoma haematobium = Urinary bladder CA
207
S
208
Aspergillus flavus = potent hepatocarcinogen
Ochronosis 209
Alkaptonuria
210
Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
211
Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine
212
See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera; tendons; cartilage
Lead poisoning 213
Acid fast inclusion bodies
214
↑urinary coproprophyrin
215
Anemia: microcytic/ hypochromic
216
Stippling of the basophils
217
Gingival line & lead line in bones: x-ray
218
Mental retardation
Heroin OD; clinically 219
Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from the nostrils
Fetal alcohol syndrome 220
Small head; small eyes; funnel chest; ASD; mental deficiency; and hirsutism
Atypical mycobacterium 221
M
Cold abscesses 222
Liquefied TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscesses but lacking acute inflammation
Actinomyces isrealli 223
Farmers infection
224
Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD); but most common is due to saprophyticus
Congenital Syphilis 225
Saddle nose; Saber shin; Hutchinson’s teeth; nerve deafness; interstitial keratitis
Warthin-Finkeledy cells 226
Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils; lymph nodes; spleen
227
Seen with Rubeola (measles) due to paramyxovirus
Diphyllobothrium latum 228
Tapeworm infection causing megaloblastic anemia by consuming large amount of vit B12 in the
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis 229
Hemolytic Streptococci (S
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis 230
Staph aureus; Hemolytic Streptococci; E
231
Common among drug addicts & diabetics
Mitral Insufficiency 232
Ruptured papillary muscle
Left Anterior Descending branch 233
Branch of the Left Coronary artery
234
Highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
235
MI = anterior wall of the LV; especially in apical part of interventricular septum
Left Circumflex branch 236
Branch of the Left Coronary artery
237
Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
Dissecting Aneurysm 238
False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
239
Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension; also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia;
240
Zones of medial necrosis +/- slitlike cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
Cor Pulmonale 241
Right ventricular strain; associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
Acute Cor Pulmonale 242
Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
Bronchopneumonia 243
Lobular (rather than lobar)
244
Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E
245
Abscess formation is common
Lobar pneumonia 246
Due to Strep
247
Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of the pneumonia
248
Gray Hepatization: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
249
Complicaitons: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis;
Bronchiectasis 250
Permanent dilatation of the bronchi – predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
251
Supparation associated
252
Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
Cold Agglutinins 253
Found w/ Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Panlobular Emphysema 254
1 – antitrypsin deficiency; causing elastase ↑= ↑compliance in the lung
Bulla 255
Associated w/ Emphysema = “Bleb” = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax
Farmer’s Lung 256
Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)
Bagassosis 257
Due to M
258
Inhalation of sugar cane dust
Silo-Filler’s Lung 259
Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn
G6PDH Deficiency 260
Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
261
Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs
HbF ↑↑262
Sickle Cell Anemia
Multiple Myeloma 263
Lytic lesions of flat bones (“salt & pepper lesions”) = vertebrae; ribs; skull; Hypercalcemia; Bence-
Hodgkin’s Disease 264
Malignant neoplasm of the lymph nodes causing pruritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
265
Reed Sternberg cells
Polyarteritis Nodosa 266
Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
267
Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
268
Can see fever; abd
Sprue 269
Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
270
High titers of anti-gliadin Abs & ↑IgA levels
Regional Enteritis 271
Crohn’s Disease
272
Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum
Whipple’s Disease 273
Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome
Kulchitsky cells 274
Neural cest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi; GIT; Pancreas
Ulcerative Colitis 275
Inflammatory disease of the colon w/ ↑colon CA incidence
276
Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
277
Pseudopolyps when ulcers are deep
278
Not transmural involvement
Vaginal Adenosis 279
Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18th week of pregnancy
280
Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina & cervix
Scirrhous Carcinoma 281
Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma w/ fibrosis – most common type of breast carcinoma
Hofbauer Cells 282
Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Retinopathy of Prematurity 283
Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
IgA deficiency 284
Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/ ↑respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune diseases
285
If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe; fatal anaphylaxis reaction
Priamry Sjorgen’s 286
Dry eyes & dry mouth; arthritis
disease
Secondary Sjorgen’s 287
Rheumatoid arthritis; SLE; or systemic sclerosis association
288
RA association shows HLA-DR4
LDH1 & LDH2 289
Myocardium
LDH3 290
Lung tissue
LDH4 & LDH5 291
Liver cells
Keratomalacia 292
Severe Vit A deficiency
Metabisfite Test 293
Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution
294
Can detect Hemoglobin S; which sickles in low O2
295
Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
296
See Helmet cells
Wright’s stain 297
Stain for Burkitt’s lymphoma
Mononucleosis 298
Due to EBV infeciton
299
If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin; thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis; a rash will occur
T(8;14) 300
Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
T(9;22) 301
CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis 302
Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
303
Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
Myeloid Metaplasia 304
Alkaline phosphatase ↑/normal compare to CML = low to absent
305
Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis
Multiple Myeloma 306
Weakness; wt
307
Serum M protein spike – most often of IgG or IgA
308
Hypercalcemia (↑bone destruction)
T(14;18) 309
NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene overexpression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (Follicualr)
Focal Segmental GN exs 310
IgA Focal GN = Berger’s disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)
Nephrotic Syndrome exs 311
Focal (Segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (Minimal Change) GN; Membranoproliferative GN;
Schistosoma Haematobium 312
Infection is assocaited w/ Squamous cell CA of the Bladder (most common Bladder CA is
313
Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction
Penicillin Resistant PID 314
PID is usually due to N
Duret Hemorrhages 315
Severe ↑in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a
316
Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
Hypertensive Hemorrhage 317
Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhages
Cerebral Embolism from 318
MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis;
Neurosyphilis 319
Tabes Dorsalis = ↓joint position sensation; ↓pain sensation; ataxia; Argyl Robertson pupils
320
Syphilitic meningitis
321
Paretic neurosyphilis
5p- 322
Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry
Trisomy 13 323
Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
Acute Cold Agglutinaiton 324
Abs to I blood group Ag
325
Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
Chronic Cold Agglutinaiton 326
Associated w/lymphoid neoplasms
RBC Osmotic Fragility 327
Hereditary Spherocytosis
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas 328
Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly
329
Small Cleaved cell (Follicualr): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly
330
Large Cell
331
Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
332
Small Non Cleaved = Burkitt’s: high grade B cell lymphoma
appearance
T(8;14) c-myc proto-oncogene
Singer’s Nodules 333
Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice
Paraseptal emphysema 334
Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome 335
Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma
Betel nuts 336
Associated to oral cancer
Fundal (Type A) Gastritis 337
Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune diseases
Antral (Type B) Gastritis 338
Associated w/ Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 339
Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondrial Abs
340
Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)
Acute Pancreatitis 341
↑pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia; ↑serum amylase
342
Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back
Radiating Back Pain 343
Chronic pancreatitis
Complete Hydatidiform Mole 344
No embryo
Partial Hydatidiform Mole 345
Embryo
Cold Nodules 346
Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine
Acidophils 347
Mammotrophs = Prolactin
348
Somatotrophs = GH
Basophils 349
Thyrotrophs = TSH
350
Gonadotrophs = LH
351
Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH
Lacunar Strokes 352
Small/focal aa occlusions
353
Sensory: lesion of thalamus
354
Motor: lesion of internal capsule
CSF of Bacterial Meningitis 355
↓Glucose; ↑Protein; ↑Neutrophils; ↑Pressure
CSF of Viral Meningitis 356
Normal Glucose; +/-↑Protein; ↑Lymphocytes
Marble Bone Disease 357
Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of ↑d bone density; many fractures = ↓
C5a 358
Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)
C3b 359
Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)
Anaphylotoxins 360
C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
Vasoactive Mediators 361
Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
362
Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2; Bradykinin; PAF
363
↑d Vascular Permeability: Hist
Platelet Aggregation 364
ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epinephrine; PAF
Platelet Antagonist 365
Prostacyclin (PGI2)
Intrinsic Pathway 366
F XII (Hagman): APTT
Extrinsic Pathway 367
F VII: PT
Lines of Zahn 368
Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)
Currant Jelly appearance 369
Post mortem clots
Emigration: Chemotaxis 370
Margination
371
Pavementing
372
Adhesion
373
Chemotaxis
374
Phagocytosis
375
Intracellular microbial killing
Transudate 376
Specific gravity < 1
Exudate 377
Specific gravity > 1
Hurler’s 378
Lysosomal storage disease L Iduronidase – Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate accumulation
Galactosemia 379
Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase
Phenylketonuria 380
Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
381
Mousy body odor
Autosomal Dominant Diseases 382
Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
383
Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
384
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
385
Hereditary Spherocytosis
386
Huntington’s Disease (chromosome 4p)
387
Marfan’s Syndrome
388
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s)
389
Tuberous Sclerosis
390
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Autosomal Recessive Diseases 391
Tay-Sachs
392
Gaucher’s
393
Niemann-Pick
394
Hurler’s
395
Von Gierke’s
396
Pompe’s
397
Cori’s
398
McArdle’s
399
Galactosemia
400
PKU
401
Alcaptonuria
X Linked Recessive Diseases 402
Hunter’s Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficincy; ↑Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
403
Fabry’s Disease (Galactosidase A deficiency; ↑Ceremide Trihexoside)
404
Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency; F8 Gene on X chromosome is bad; ↑Ceremide Trihexoside)
405
Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency; ↑Uric acid)
406
G6Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency; ↑Ceremide trihexoside)
407
Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficinecy; ↑Ceremide Trihexoside)
408
Type I (Anaphylactic): IgE mediated
409
Type II (Cytotoxic): Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions;
410
Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound aggregates of Ag-Ab complexes
411
Type IV (Delayed = Cell mediated immunity): Delayed hypersensitivity
Transplant Rejections 412
Hyperacute Rejection = occurs w/in minutes of transplant
413
Acute Rejection = occurs w/in days to months of transplant
rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy
414
Chronic Rejection = occurs months to years of transplant
Blood Metastasis 415
Sarcoma; exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Lymph Metastasis 416
Carcinoma; exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Aflatoxin 417
Seen w/ Aspergillus
Cleft Lip 418
Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
Cleft Palate 419
Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other & median nasal prominence & medial
Craniopharyngioma 420
Pituitary tumor - usually calcified
Common peroneal lesion Foot drop
No dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot
Diract inguinal hernia Goes through superficial inguinal ring
Hemiballism Wild flailing of 1 arm
Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus
MLF Syndrome Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye
Cori Cycle Keeps muscles working anaerobically
Cones Color vision
Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment
Rods Contain Rhodopsin pigment
High sensitivity
Epiblast @ 2nd week: forms the primitive streak; from which Meso & Endo come from
Directly gives rise to
Ecto
Sydenham’s Chorea Post streptococcal infection
Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate; putamen; thalamus
Agranulocytosis 421
Clozapine; Chloramphenical
Aplastic Anemia 422
Chloramphenicol
423
NSAIDs
424
Benzene
Atropine-like Side Effects 425
Tricyclics
Cardiotoxicity 426
Doxorubicin
427
Daunorubicin
Cartilage Damage in Children 428
Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
Cinchonism 429
Quinidine
Cough 430
ACE Inhibitors
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 431
Lithium (Txt w/ Amiloride)
Disulfiram-like Effect 432
Metronidazole
433
Sulfonylureas (1st generation)
Extrapyramidal Side Effects 434
Antipsychotics (Thioridazine; Haloperidol; Chlorpromazine)
Fanconi’s Syndrome 435
Tetracycline
Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis) 436
Valproic Acid
437
Halothane
438
Acetaminophen
Gingival Hyperplasia 439
Phenytoin
Gray Baby Syndrome 440
Chloramphenicol
Gynecomastia 441
Cimetidine
442
Azoles
443
Spironolactone
444
Digitalis
445
Sulfonamides
446
Isoniazid
447
Aspirin
448
Ibuprofen
449
Primaquine
Hepatitis 450
Isoniazid
Hot Flashes; Flushing 451
Niacin
452
Tamoxifen
453
Ca++ Channel Blockers
Induce CP450 454
Barbiturates – Phenobarbital
455
Phenytoin
456
Carbamazepine
457
Rifampin
Inhibit CP450 458
Cimetidine
459
Ketoconazole
Interstitial Nephritis 460
Methicillin
461
NSAIDs (except Aspirin)
462
Furosemide
463
Sulfonamides
Monday Disease 464
Nitroglycerin Industrial exposure →tolerance during week →loss of tolerance during weekend →headache; -
Orange Body Fluids 465
Rifampin
Osteoporosis 466
Heparin
467
Corticosteroids
Positive Coombs’ Test 468
Methyldopa
Pulmonary Fibrosis 469
Bleomycin
470
Amiodarone
Red Man Syndrome 471
Vancomycin
Severe HTN with Tyramine 472
MAOIs
SLE-like Syndrome 473
Procainamide
474
Hydralazine
475
INH
Tardive Dyskinesia 476
Antipsychotics (Thioridazine; Haloperidol; Chlorpromazine) Clozapine: only antipsychotic to not
477
give you tardive dyskinesia
Tinnitus 478
Aspirin
479
Quinidine
Microbiology
questions
Lactose formers 1
“CEEK”
2
Citrobacter
3
Enterobacter
4
E
5
Klebsiella
Non lactose formers 6
“SHYPS”
7
Shigella
8
Yersinia enterolytica (AKA Pestis)
9
Proteus
10
Salmonella
May lack color 11
“These rascals may microscopically lack color”:
12
Treponema
13
Ricksetta
14
Mycobacterium
15
Mycoplasma
16
Legionella
17
Chlamydia
↑cAMP 18
“CAPE”
19
Cholera
20
Anthracis (Poly D glutamate capsule)
21
Pertusis (via Gi)
22
E
23
“Some killers have pretty nice capsules”
24
Strep
25
Klebsiella
26
HiB
27
Pseudamona Aeroginosa
28
Neisseria meningitis
29
Cryptococcus neoformans (only encapsulated fungal pathogen)
Dimorphic Fungi 30
“Can Also Have Both Shapes”
31
Cocciodes
32
Aspergillus
33
Histolpasma
34
Blastomyces
35
Sprothrix schenkii
Have Prophage 36
“OBED”
37
O = Salmonella
38
B = Botulinum
39
E = Erythrogenic strep
40
D = Diptheria
Spore Forming Bacteria 41
Bacilus & Clostridium (have calcium di-picolinate)
IgA Proteases 42
Neisseria; Haemophilus; S
Widal Test 43
Salmonella (Salmonella begins in the ileocecal region) agglutination indicates Abs to O; H; Vi Salmunella Ags
Wayson’s Stain 44
Yersinia
Pneumonic Plaque Transmission 45
Person to person cf w/ Bubonic plaque that was via infected flea
Splenectomy 46
Predisposes to septicemia
Invasins 47
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Fusiform 48
Vincent’s trench mouth
S
viridans 49
Obligate Aerobes 50
Pseudomonas & Mycobacterium
Obligate Anaerobes 51
Clostridium; Actinomyces; Bacteroides
Staph aureus 52
A Protein; Catalase +/ Coagulase +
Spirochetes 53
Treponema; Borrelia; Leptospira
Non Motile Gram (+) Rods 54
Corenybacterium D & Nocardia
Acid Fast Organisms 55
Mycobacterium; Cryptosporidium; Nocardia (partially); Legionella micdadei; Isospora
Pigment Producing Bacteria 56
Serratia – red (can cause pseudohemoptysis)
57
Pseudomonas A – piocyanin blue/green
58
Staph Aureus – yellow – Protein A
59
Mycobacteria – photo/scoto chromogenic – caritinoid – yellow/orange
60
Corneybacterium D – black/gray – pseudomembrane plaque in throat
61
Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) melaninogenicus – black (heme)
62
E
Bacterial Morphology 63
Pneumococci – lancet shaped diplococci
64
Neisseria – kidney bean shaped diplococci
65
Camphylobacter – gulls’ wings/comas
66
Vibrio Cholera – coma shaped
67
Corneybacterium D – club shaped (nonmotile; G+Rod)
68
Yersinia – safety pin seen in Wayson’s stain
Inclusion Bodies 69
Rabies – Negri bodies – intracytoplasmic
70
Pox virus – Guarnieri – intracytoplasmic & acidophilic
71
CMV – Owl’s eyes – intracytoplasmic & intranuclear
72
HSV – Cowdry bodies – intranuclear
Schistosoma Japonicum Monsoni 73
Intestinal – contact w/ bad water
Schistosoma Haematolium 74
Vesicular – contact w/ bad water
Non Human Schistosom 75
Swimmer’s itch – contact w/ bad water
Clonorchichis 76
Chinese liver fluke – eating raw fish
Fasciola Hepatica 77
Sheep – eating raw fish
Fasciola Biski 78
Giant intestinal flukes – eating raw fish
Paragonimus Westermani 79
Lung fluke – eating raw fish
Oxidase (+) 80
Neiserria and most Gram (-)s
Micro Aerophilic 81
Camphylobacter & Helicobacter
Urease (+) 82
All Proteus – can cause Staghorn/Struvite calculi (NH4
83
Ureaplasma
84
Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter)
85
Cryptococcus
86
Nocardia
Coagulase (+) 87
Staph A & Yersenia pestis
Obligate Intracellular Bacteria 88
Chlamydia Pistacci (Chlamydia do not make own ATP); Mycobacterium Leprae; all Rickettsia except
Protozoa 89
Plasmodium; Toxoplasma ghondi; Babesin; Leishmania; Trypanosoma Cruzi
90
Treponema palidum & Pneumocystis Carinii (cannot be cultured on inert media but can be found
Haemophilus Factors 91
X = Protoporphyrin & V = NAD
All cocci are 92
Gram (+) except for Neisseria & Moraxella
“Eaton Fried Eggs” 93
Mycoplasma pneumoniae has fried egg colonies on Eaton agar (needs cholesterol)
Mycoplasma 94
No cell wall
95
P1 protein inhs ciliary action
96
Fried egg colonies
97
Atypical pneumonia – young adults
Sabrands 98
Fungal media
Malassazia furfur 99
Spaghetti & meat ball
Measles’ 3C’s 100
Cough – Coryza – Conjunctivitis
101
May lead to subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
Non Motile Bacilli & Clostridium 102
B
Bloody diarrhea agents 103
EIEC – EHEC – Shigella - Yersenia enterocolitica – Entaemeba histolytica – Salmonella –
YW-135CA 104
N
Indian Ink 105
Cryptococcus neoformans
Naegleria causes 106
Colonization in the nasal passages after swimming
Need Cysyeine for growth 107
“Ella likes cysteine”:
108
Francisella
109
Brucella
110
Legionella
111
Pasturella
Endotoxins; G(+) or G(-) 112
Gram (-): N
Ecthyma Gangrenosum; seen w/ 113
Pseudomonas aeroginosa
Endospores G(+) 114
Gram (+): Bacillus & Clostridium – made up of dipicolinate & Keratin
Multi Brain Abscess 115
Nocardia
Single Brain Abscess 116
Actinomyces israelli
↑risk for Strep pneum Infection 117
Asplenic; Sickle cell anemia; immunocompromising illness
Hemolysis/Optochin Sensitive 118
Strep
Hemolysis/Optochin Resistant 119
Strep
Staph
Saprophyticus 120
Staph
Epidermidis 121
Hemolysis/Bacitracin Sensitive 122
Strep
123
Hyaluronic capsule; non-motile; M proteins; Endotoxin A
Hemolysis/Bacitracin Resistant 124
Strep
EFII Ribosylation 125
Diphtheria toxin & Pseudomonas exotoxon A
126
Protective Antigen (PA)
127
Lethal Factor = toxic to macrophages
128
Edema Factor = ↑cAMP
Woolsorter’s Disease 129
Bacillus anthracis
Grows in Rice 130
Bacillus Cereus
Clostridium Perfringens 131
Double Zone Hemolysis (test)
132
Lecithinase: toxin = lyses RBCs
133
80% of gas gangrene (myonecrosis) cases
Clostridium Difficile 134
2 Toxins: Enterotoxin (Exotoxin A) & Cytotoxin (Exotoxin B)
135
Pseudomembranous colitis (can be precipitated by clindamycin/ampicillin)
Spastic Paralysis toxin 136
Clostridium Tetani toxin
Clostridium Botulinum 137
Bad canned foods have neurotoxin = flaccid paralysis (block Ach release)
Infant Botulinum 138
Floppy Baby Syndrome
Thayer Martin Agar 139
Neisseria ID
DOC for N
gonorrhoeae 140
K1 E
Coli Capsular Ag 141
The A’s of Klebsiella 142
Alcoholics
143
Aspiration pneumonia
144
Abscesses in the lungs
Rice H2O Diarrhea 145
Vibrio Cholera: metabolic acidosis
Raw seafood intoxicaiton 146
Vibrio parahemolyticus
Helicobacter Txt 147
Bismuth salts; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (or amoxicillin)
↑risk of P
aeroginosa infection 148
Contact lens’ infection 149
Pseudomonas aeroginosa
Cat Bites 150
Pasteurella multocida
Undulant Fever 151
Brucella
Bordet Gengou Agar 152
Bordetella pertusis ID
Lowenstein-Jensen medium 153
M
Cat Scratch Disease 154
Bartonella henselae
155
Toxoplasmosis
Pink Eye 156
Adenovirus (type 8)
True Hemaphrodite 157
Testes & Ovaries are present
Pseudo Hemaphrodite 158
External genitalia does not coincide w/ gonads
Male Pseudo Hemaphrodite 159
Testicular Feminization
HLA Genes Location 160
6p
Parvovirus B19 161
Fifth Disease: Erythema Infectiosum (ssDNA)
Interferon MOA 162
Inhibits viral replication (translation or transcription)
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis 163
Seen w/ infections from Enterovirus & Coxsackie A
Parainfluenza Causes… 164
Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Swimming Pool Conjunctivitis 165
Adenovirus (types 3 & 4)
RSV 166
Bronchiolitis in infants
Removed tonsils; find what virus 167
In 80%; Adenovirus
Bone Fever 168
Dengue: Group B Togavirus; from the Arbovirus; transmitted by mosquitos
HbsAg 169
Appears in blood soon after infection; before onset of acute illness
170
Disappears w/in 4-6 months after the start of clinical illness
HbeAg 171
Appears early acute phase; indicates higher risk of transmitting the disease
172
Disappears before HbsAg is gone
Anti-Hbc 173
Present in beginning of clinical illness
174
Seen in the “window phase”
Filamentous Bacteria 175
Actinomycetes = Nocardia; Actinomyces; Streptomyces
Listeria contaminates 176
Milk; cheese; vegetables (coleslaw) in recent infections
Shiga like Toxin 177
E
Necrotizing Fasciitis 178
Group A Streptococci
Relapsing Fever 179
Borrelia recurrentis
Loffler’s Medium 180
Corneybacterium diphtheriae
Chlamydiae Developmental Cycle 181
Elementary Body: infeccious particle that Enters the cell
182
Reticulate Body: made from elementary body
183
W/ infection you will see Glycogen containing inclusions
184
Cell wall lacks muramic acid
Trench Fever 185
Rochalimaea quintana
“Spotted Fever” Members 186
Rickettssia rickettsii (RMSF) & R
187
R
Thrush Txt 188
Nystatin txts candidiasis of the mouth
Rose Bush Thorns 189
Have Sporothrix schenckii
Contact lens solution infection 190
Acanthamoeba
Filiariasis Causant 191
Wucheria bancrofti (infection aka elephantitis & wucheriasis
Freshwater lake infection 192
Causes amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri
Reduviid bug bite 193
Transmits Trypanoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease): Romana’s Sign
Schistosoma Haematobium causes 194
Bladder calcificaiton & cancer
Schistosoma Mansoni causes 195
Presinusoidal HTN; splenomagaly; esophageal varices
Snail; intermediate host of… 196
Schistosomiasis
Ixodes scapularis transmits 197
Babesia (clinically rembles malaria) & Borelia burgdorferi
Nantucket Protozoa 198
Babesia microt
Infection by Reduviid Bug 199
Trypansoma cruzi: Chagas’ Disease
Infection by TseTse Fly 200
Trypansoma brucei gambiense & rhodiense: African Sleeping Sickness
Infection by Sandfly 201
Leishmaniasis: Mucocutaneous Diseases by L
Leishman by L
tropica; mexicana; peruviana
Infection by Ixodes Tick 202
Babesia microti: Babesiosis & Borrelia burgdorferi: Lyme Disease
Infection by Anopheles Mosquito 203
Malaria
204
Giardia lamblia
Nonseptate Hyphae 205
Zygomycosis: Rhizopus & Mucor
Histoplasmosis Geography 206
Ohio; Mississippi; Misouri River valleys
Coocidioidomycosis Geography 207
Southwestern deserts; California
Blastomycosis Geography 208
States east of Mississippi River
209
Latin America
Roseola Infection; aka 210
Exanthema Subitum: “Sixth Disease” (Human Herpes Virus-6 dsDNA; enveloped)
Herpangina 211
“Hand-Foot-and-Mouth” Disease: Coxsackie A (Picornavirus +ssRNA)
Orthomyxovirus 212
–ssRNA; enveloped virus
213
Spike Glycoproteins (peplomeres): HA = Hemagluttinin & NA = Neuraminidase
214
Influenza A & B
Paramyxovirus 215
–RNA; enveloped
216
Mumps
217
Croup(Parainfluenza virus)
218
Rubeola(Measles virus)
219
RSV
Togavirus 220
+ssRNA; enveloped
221
3 Day Measles: German Measles: Rubella/ Rubivirus
222
Encephalitis viruses: Alphaviruses: Eastern (more severe) and Western Equine Encephalitis
Flaviviris 223
Dengue Fever – icterus & hemorrhage w/ blac vomit
224
Yellow fever
225
St
Bunyavirus 226
–ssRNA; enveloped
227
California Encephalitis – severe bifrontal headaches
228
Hantavirus – hemorrhagic fever w/ acute resp
IgA Protease Activity 229
H
230
Strep
231
N
232
N
233
W/ this activity these bugs are able to colonize the oral mucosa
Diphtheria: ABCDEFG 234
Adenopathy
235
Prophage encodes the exotoxin
236
Corneybacteria is Club shaped
237
Diphtheria
238
Elongation Factor II
239
Granules (metachromatic)
Only ssDNA 240
Parvovirus: “Part of a virus”
Only dsRNA 241
Reovirus; “RepeatOvirus”
Naked RNA 242
“Naked for CPR”: Calcivirus; Picornovirus; Reovirus
2 circular DNAs 243
Papovavirus & Hepadnavirus
BK 244
Papovavirus
Hepadna; Retrovirus? 245
No; but has reverse transcriptase
Picornovirus: “PERCH” 246
Poiliovirus; Echo; Rhino; Coxsackie; Hep A
Eclipse Phase No internal virus
1 total virus per cell
Latent Phase No external virus
Extracellular virus found
Naked Capsid Virus Nucleocapsid
DNA or RNA + Structural proteins
Enveloped Virus Membrane
Nucleocapsid + Glycoprotein
Interferon Non virus specific
Works by RNA endonuclease = digests viral DNA + inh viral prot synth
E Brick
Rep H = Herpes
C P R F T C ------ ico (+) Linear
F = Flavi
No segment
Rep in Cyto T = Toga
Linear
Non seg
C5a Neutral chemotaxis
35 www
brain101
Cocciodes Hyphae in wild
Artroconidia
Histoplasma Cap Hyphae in wild
Microcondida w/ tuberculate macrocondida
w/ a small neck
Sporothrix Schenkii Hypahe in wild
Potas iodide in milk
PCP Obligate parasite
Kills type I pneumo cells
Gram (-) Bugs w/ Exotoxins E
Coli; V
E
Histolitica Cysts Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Balantium C
Cysts Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Trichomonas V
Trophozoites Motile trophozoites
Miscellaneous
questions
1
Fastest growing tumor – Burkitt’s
2
PE’s are found in half of all autopsies
3
Courvoisier’s Law: tumors that obstruct the common bile duct cause enlarged gallbladders; but obstructing
gallstones do not (too much scarring); so if you can palpate the gallbladder you’e probably looking at cancer
4
Only DNA virus to replicate in cytoplasm: Pox
5
Only RNA virus to replicate in nucleus: Influenza
6
Bacillus anthracis has the only protein capsule
7
Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Cough) elicits lymphocytosis rather than granulocytosis
8
Bronchioalveolar carcinomas grow without destroying the normal architecture of the lung
9
Cryptococcus neoformans often lacks a capsule and; when stained with GMS; looks just like Pneumycistis carinii;
except that Cryptococcus lacks the prominent nucleoli
10
Weil Felix reaction: (+)R
11
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) tests: 1)VDRL 2)FTA-Abs: most widely used 3)TPI (immobilization test – most
36 www
brain101
IL 1 12
Monocytes; macrophages Stimulates T cell proliferation & IL2 produciton
IL 2 13
Macrophages; T & NK cells Stim prolif of B; T & NK cell
IL 3 14
T cells GF of tissue mast cells & hematopoietic stem cells
IL 4 15
T cells ↑growth of B & T cells/ ↑HLA II Ags
IL 5 16
T cells Maturation of B plasma cell
IL 6 17
T cells; monocytes Maturation of B & T cell/ (-) fibroblasts
IFN 18
B cells; macrophages Antiviral activity
IFN 19
Fibroblasts Antiviral activity
IFN gamma 20
T & NK cells Antiviral activity; (+) macrophages; ↑HLA II Ags
TNF 21
Macrophages; T & NK cells T cell prolif; IL 2 prod; cytotoxicity
TNF 22
T cells T cell prolif; IL 2 prod; cytotoxicity
Genes Chrom
Associated Tumors
VHL 3p
Von Hippel Lindau; Renal Cell CA
APC
5p Familial adenomatous polyposis; Colon CA
WT-1
11p Wilm’s tumor
Rb
13q Retinoblastoma; Osteosarcoma
BRCA-2
13q Breast CA
p53
17p Most human Cas
NF-1
17q Neurofibromatosis type 1
BRCA-1
17q Breast CA; Ovarian CA
DCC
18q Colon & Stomach CA
DPC
18q Pancreatic CA
NF-2
22q Neurofibromatosis type 2 = bilateral acoustic neuroma
/ 1657
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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