WoC #3: Analgesics II & Toxicology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define Chemistry.
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
To what level of precision can scientists today analyze matter?
p.p.t. (parts per trillion)
Curare was discovered where by which British explorer in which year?
Discovered in 1595 in the jungles of South America by Sir Walter Raleigh.
"Three Tree Poison," was actually which substance?
Curare.
Boiling down the vine 'Chondodendron tomentosum' yields which substance?
Curare
Sir Charles Waterton, an English physician, found what?
That Curare could cause muscle relaxation without causing death in small doses.
The brain and spinal cord make up what?
The Central Nervous System
In 1844, which French guy discovered that Curare worked by blocking nerve impulses between the CNS and the muscles?
Claude Bernard
What are the symptoms of Strychnine poisoning? What is an antidote?
Strychnine poisoning causes death by exhaustion/asphyxia due to sever muscular contractions. Curare is an antidote.
Who was the first doctor to use Curare in abdominal surgery in 1942 in Montreal?
Dr. Harold Griffith
Name the synthetic form of Curare.
Pancuronium bromide.
Executions by lethal injection are carried out by which three drugs?
Sodium thiopentol: barbituate, induces sleep
Pavulon (pancuronium): stops breathing.
Potassium chloride: stops the heart
What compound preceded penicillin as an antibiotic and was used to treat gonorrhea and strep throat?
Sulfanilamide, 1937.
London is to New York as Pills were to _____.
Elixirs. Pills were preferred in Europe, but Americans preferred to drink their medicine in Elixir form.
In 1937, Harold Watkins used which solvent to dissolve Sulfanilamide?
Diethylene glycol
What are the symptoms of diethylene glycol poisoning?
Abdominal pain, vomiting, blindness, and eventual death.
Diethylene glycol is converted to which toxic substance in the body?
Oxalic acid.
The catastrophe of sulfanilamide led to which Act under which president?
In 1938, President Roosevelt brought in the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Who is considered the father of modern toxicology?
Paracelsus (1493-1541)
Who used Mercury sulfide around 1500 to treat syphilis, even though high doses could kill the patient?
Paracelsus (1493-1541)
What does one call the study of substances at very low doses?
Hormesis.
Is the dose-response relationship linear?
Generally not. Hormesis curves show this.
Vitamin D: The more, the better?
No.
Vitamin D is beneficial at low levels, but is toxic at high levels.
Rats exposed to traces of DDT and a carcinogen develop more or less tumours?
Less tumours. Traces of DDT are actually beneficial in preventing cancer.
Lima beans, apple seeds, and Cassava contain which "poison?" Which of these foods may kill you?
Cyanide. Cassava may kill you if you prepare it incorrectly.
Japanese chef are specially trained for years to serve which maritime delicacy?
Puffer Fish, called 'Fugu' in Japan.
The lethal doses of cyanide and tetrodotoxine (TTX) are what?
10 000 mcg and 10 mcg, respectively.
Clostridium botulinum is a bacteria known to cause what? What is the lethal dose of their poison?
Botulism poisoning by Botulin toxin. The lethal dose is 0.03 mcg.
What are added to processed meats to prevent botulism poisoning?
Nitrites
Name some medical uses for Botulin toxin.
-Used to prevent tremors
-Botox
-Ease migraine pain by relaxing head muscles
-Treatment of chronic anal fissures
Snake venom will have the same effect, whether eaten or injected into the bloodstream, right?
No. If one ingests the snake venom, it is a protein that is digested in the stomach, thus rendered harmless.
What is 'biochemical individuality?'
The difference in toxicological responses in different individuals to the same amount of the same substance.
Generally, which demographic reacts most seriously to a poison?
Children
Bisphenol A: where does it come from? Is it dangerous in low, chronic doses, or acute doses?
Bisphenol A is used in the fabrication of polycarbonate plastics. There are no acute effects, but a low chronic dose can be a major health problem over time.
Define "teratogenic effect."
The substance is harmless to a pregnant woman, but seriously fucks up the fetus.
What is toxin recognition?
The analysis of an impure, toxic substance to determine which component is the toxic component.
What is theobromine?
It is the substance found in chocolate that dogs cannot digest. It guns pooches down.
Explain "The Placebo Effect."
30-50% of the time, a person will respond positively to a medication that actually contains no active ingredient, simply because they believe it is doing them good.
Explain "The Nocebo Effect."
If told that a particular (benign) substance will do harm to a person, the person may actually get sick if exposed to it.
Does aspartame cause MS or other sicknesses?
No, there is no proof of this.
Who was the founder of the "Poison Squad" of 1903?
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief of the bureau of Chemistry of the department of Agriculture.
Who was the chef for the Poison Squad?
Chef William R. Carter
Through what medium did members of the Poison Squad (1903) take their 'poison?'
Gelatin capsules
Which human organs are mostly responsible for the elimination of toxins from the body?
The liver and kidneys.
The detoxification process is largely an _______ process.
Enzymatic.
Explain Phase 1 enzymes.
Phase 1 enzymes attach to toxic molecules and increase the solubility of the toxic molecule, as well as provide a site of attachment for a phase 2 molecule.
Explain Phase 2 enzymes.
Phase 2 enzymes bond to the Phase 1 enzyme attached to the toxic molecule, and signal for its expulsion from the body.
Cytochrome P450 belongs to which group of enzymes?
Phase 1 enzymes.
Benzopyrenes: what is their origin? Are they dangerous?
Benzopyrenes are compounds or multiple aromatic rings, hence, they are not soluble. While not particularly dangerous, they provide a good example of a toxin worked on by Phase 1 enzymes.
What is a rare but serious complication of Phase-1 enzymes?
The bonding site they provide for Phase-2 enzymes may be used accidentally by DNA molecules, mutating them. (=carcinogens)
How does tea work as an anti-oxidant / anti-carcinogen?
The body perceives substances in the tea to be dangerous, and releases detoxication enzymes. These enzymes remove other harmful, but undetected substances.
Which compound, found in broccoli, does the body perceive to be toxic?
Sulforaphane
St. John's Wort, a mild antidepressant, stimulates the production of what?
Phase-1 enzymes, namely Cytochrome-P450
What is the name of the anti-rejection transplant drug that Cytochrome-P450 removes from the body?
Cyclosporine.
Name some drugs that are metabolized and removed from the body by cytochrome-P450,
Tetracyclines, tamoxifen, MAO inhibitors, protease inhibitors, corticosteroids, antidepressants, anesthetics, contraceptives, anti-anxieties, dextrometorphan.
Explain the mechanisms at play in an acetaminophen overdose.
Acetaminophen dissolves readily and is acted on by Glucuronyl Transferase (Phase 2 enzyme), which attaches a glucuronic acid molecule to the acetaminophen. If there is not enough glucuronic acid, then cytochrome-P450 goes to work, but makes the acetaminophen into a toxic substance which can damage the liver. Once this toxic substance is created, it can be neutralized by Glutathione-S-Transferase, but is there is not enough Glutathione available, liver damage occurs!
Alcohol stimulates the production of which enzyme?
Cytochrome P-450.
Is glutathione supplementation effective? Why/why not?
No, because it is a tripeptide which is broken down to methionine in the stomach.
Which amino acid is required to synthesize glutathione?
Cysteine
What amino acid can be supplemented to reduce liver damage by acetaminophen overdose?
N-Acetylcysteine
Heme is broken down by Heme oxygenase to yield what?
Biliverdin, which is then converted to Bilirubin, to which a glucuronic acid molecule is attached (for solubility reasons), and then it is all excreted.
Jaundice is caused by what?
A shortage of Glucuronyl transferase; glucuronic acid cannot be attached to bilirubin without it, and the yellowish waste builds up below the skin, and eventually in the brain, which can cause death.
Explain "Bili Lights"
Bili lights are blue lights that are used to prevent jaundice in babies. Blue light changes the shape of the bilirubin molecule, making it more soluble, and easier to excrete.
Allegra is the metabolically active form of which former allergy medication?
Seldane.
Felodipine is used for what?
Felodipine is an antihypertensive.
Furanocoumarins, which inhibit the formation of Cytochrome-P450, are found in which fruit juice? Which type of treatments can be seriously comprimised by this?
Furanocoumarins come from grapefruit juice. The inhibition of cytochrome-P450 can seriously complicate antihypertensive treatments.
Which antibiotic can cause irregular heartbeats at high doses and is broken down by cytochromes?
Erythromycin
MAOIs are used to treat what?
Depression
Which foods, (and which specific compound) should one avoid while on MAOIs ?
Aged cheese, red wine, salami all contain tyramine. Tyramine is a natural vasopressin (raises blood pressure). MAO breaks down Tyramine. MAOIs inhibit MAO.
What is the use of auxin?
It is a growth hormone in plants. Introduced to plants too quickly, it will lead to the death of the plant (grow itself to death).
What was operation ranch hand?
Was a move by the US military to spray the Vietnamese forests with Agent Orange to make the trees and dense foliage die.
What is LD50?
The dose in mg/kg of body weight required to kill 50% of test subjects.
Diethylstilbestrol: Qu'es-ce que c'est?
A synthetic hormone that was used to prevent miscarriage in women. It caused an increase in vaginal cancer in female offspring.
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