NASM Chapter 15: Nutrition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nutrition
the sum of the processes by which and animal or plant takes in and uses food substances
protein
Amino acids linked by peptide bond
primary function is to build and repair body tissues. Protein can be used for energy if calories or carbohydrate are insufficient in the diet
Essential Amino acids
cannot be manufactured by the body (in sufficient amounts). There are eight
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Mathionine
Phenylalanin
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Nonessential Amino Acids
they body is able to manufacture them from dietary nitrogen and fragment of carbohydrate and fat
Alanine
Asparagine
Aspartic Acid
Cysteine
Glutamic Acid
Glutamine
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine
Semiessential Amino acids
these amino acids cannot be manufactured by the body at a rate that will support growth
Arginine
Histidine
Explain the process of protein absorption
1. We chew and swallow whole proteins
2. The stomach opens up protein strands, and creates peptide chains
3. The small intestines split the chains into tripeptides, dipeptides, and amino acids
4. the small intestine split tripeptides, and dipeptides in amino acids and absorbs them through the lining of the small intestine
Terms to rate dietary protien
Efficiency Ratio (PER)
Net protein utilization (NPU)
Biologic Value (BV)
Biologic Value
Most common measure for protein in popular media.
Measure of protein quality, how well it satisfies the body's essential amino acid requirements.
Consuming more protein then the daily requirement will not allow someone to build muscle to a greater degree
gluconeogenesis
when amino acids are used to assist in energy production during a negative energy balance
Recovery calories should come from
Carbohydrates.

It appear that carbohydrates, not protein, consumed within an hour after heavy resistance training inhibits muscle protein breakdown, resulting in positive protein balance.

It is also shown that the use of protein and carbohydrate supplements before and after weight training can enhance anabolic hormones compared with non-supplemented state
Protein in-take recommendations
10-25% of total caloric intake
Negative side effects of chronic high protein diet
defined at one that consists of 30% of caloric intake from protein
-generally higher intake of saturated fat and lower fiber which increase risk factors for heart disease and some types of cancer. Kidney also have to work harder
-for every gram of protein consumed above tissue maintenance, between 1-1.5mg of calcium is excreted.
-need for fluids increases, protien requires more water to process
-decreases glycogen stores (from reduces carbohydrate intake) which inhibit performance and contribute to dehydration
One gram of protein yields ___ calories
One gram of protein yields 4 calories
Amino acids from protein are used by the body for...
-synthesizing body-tissue protein
-providing glucose for energy (many can be converted to glucose)
-providing nitrogen in the form on amine groups to build nonessential amino acids
-contributing to fat stores
Amino acids are not used to build protein under the following conditions
-not enough available energy from carbohydrate and fat
-consistently low or lacking essential dietary amino acids owing to the exclusive consumption of incomplete proteins
-an excess of necessary protein
The following conditions are necessary for the body to synthesize endogenous protein
-availability of all essential and nonessential amino acids in proper amounts
-an adequate supply of exogenous protein
-adequate energy-yielding carbohydrates and fat
Chronic high protein intake (greater than 2.5 time the RDA) can lead to
calcium depletion
fluid imbalance
eventual hunger
slower metabolism
weight rebound
energy loss
Carbohydrates
compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which make up a large portion on animal foods.
monosaccharide
a single sugar unit, many of which are combined to make starches.

Includes glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and glactose
disaccaharides
Two sugar units.

include sucrose (common sugar) lactose (milk sugar) and maltose
Carbohydrates provide the body with...
-nutrition that fat and protein cannot
-satiety by keeping glycogen stores full and adding bulk to the diet
-proper cellular fluid balance, maximizing cellular efficiency
-proper blood sugar levels (with consistent intake of low glycemic carbohydrates)
-spare protein for building muscle
-
The body needs carbohydrates because
-they are the perfect and preferred form of energy
-they constantly need to be replaces, causing a craving that must be satisfied
-parts of the nervous system rely solely on carbohydrate
-they efficiently burn and use fat and protein
Recommended carbohydrate intake
Daily diet should include 25g of fiber
carbohydrate intake typically should be between 50-70% of total caloric intake
-carbohydrate recommendations should be estimated after protein and fat requirements are met.
-fruits, whole grains, and vegetables are all excellent sources of fiber
Glycemic index
the rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release
Benefits of fiber
-provided bulk in diet, helping satiety
-help retain health and tone of digestive muscles helping to prevent diverticulosis
-aids in prevention of bacterial infections of the appendix
-May reduce risk of heart and artery disease by lowering blood cholesterol
-Regulates body's absorption of glucose
For exercise lasting more than 1 hour athletes should consume _____of carbohydrate every hour
between 30-60g. This help supply glucose, where glucose is dwindling.
NASM says that consuming _____ to ____ml per hour of water that contains between ____ carbohydrate will contribute of better performance for the endurance athlete
600 to 1,200 ml (20-40oz) water
4-8% carbohydrate
one gram of carbohydrate yeilds ____ calories
4
carbohydrates are typically classified as..
sugar (simple), starches (complex), and fiber
lipids
a group of compunds that includes triglycerides (fats and oil), phospholipids and sterols.
95% of lipids in foods are fats and oils. In the body 99% of the stored lipids are triglycerides
polyunsaturated fats
more than one point of unsaturation
provide important essential fatty acids
trans-fatty acids
the result of hydrogenation (the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make them harder at room temperature and increase food shelf-life). Have been shown to increase LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL cholesterol
one gram of fat yield ____ calories
9
Fats are involved in ...
-cellular membrane structure and function
-precursors to hormones
-cellular signals
-regulation and excretion of nutrients in the cells
-surrounding, protecting, and holding in place organs, such as the kidnys heart and liver
-Insulating the body from environmental temperature changes and preserving body heat
-prolonging the digestive process by slowing the stomachs secretions of hydrochloric acid, creating longer lasting sensation of fullness after a meal
-initiating the release of the hormone cholecystokinin, which contribute to satiety
A diet containing _____% calories from fat is recommended
10% - 30%
hyperphagia
overeating
on average an individual should consume ____ ounces of water per day
96

8oz extra for every 25 lbs above idea weight
water constitutes approx _____ of body weight
60%
water benefits the body by
- improved endocrine gland function
- fluid retention alleviated
- improved liver function
- natural thirst returns
- appetite decreases
- metabolic functions improve
-nutrients are distributed throughout the body
-body temperature regulation improves
-blood volume is maintained
Effects of dehydration
decreased blood volume
decreased performance
decreased blood pressure
decreased sweat rate
increased core temperature
water retention
increased heart rate
sodium retention
decreased cardiac output
decreased blood flow to the skin
increased perceived exertion
increased use of muscle glycogen
guideline for fluid replacement in the athlete
consume 16oz of fluid 2 hrs before exercise. Additional 8 to 16 oz may be needed if exercising in warmer weather
-drink 20-40oz of fluid for every hour of exercise
- fluids should be cold because of more rapid gastric emptying
-if exercise exceeds 60min, use of a sports drink can replace both fluid and dwindling muscle glycogen stores
-ingest 20oz of fluid for every pound of body weight lost after and exercise bout
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