NASM Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science - 3rd Edition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
It is a conglomeration of billions of cells forming nerves that are specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body
The Nervous System
What are the three pimary functions of the nervous system?
Sensory, Integrative and Motor function
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
Sensory Function
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret the sensory information to allow for proper decision making and produce the appropriate response.
Integrative Function
The neuromuscular response to the sensory information, such as causing the muscle to initally contract when stretched.
Motor Function
The functional unit of the nervous system
The Neuron
The three main parts of the neuron
- Cell Body
- Axon
- Dendrites
The three main functional classifications of neurons
- Sensory (Afferent)
- Interneurons
- Motor (Efferent)
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Sensory Neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
Interneurons
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the effector sites such as muscles or glands.
Motor Neurons
Consistes of the brain and the spinal cord.Serves mainly to interpret information.
Central Nervous System
Consists of 12 cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves and sensory receptors.
Peripheral Nervous System
Two Functions of peripheral nerves
1. They provide a connection for the nervous system to activate different effector sites such as muscles.
2. Relay information from the effector sites back to the brain via sensory receptors providing a constant update on the relationship between body and environment.
Specialized structures that are designed to transform environmental stimuli (heat, light, sound, taste, motion) into sensory information that the brain and spinal cord can interpret and produce a response.
Sensory Receptors
Specialized structures that are responsible for sensing distortion in tissues.
Mechano Receptors
The major sensory organs of the muscle and sit parallel to the muscles fibers. They are sensetive to change in length and rate of length change.
Muscle Spindles
At the point where the muscle and tendon meet and are sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of the tension change.
Golgi Tendon Organs
Made up of three systems. The Muscular, Nervous and Skeletal systems.
Kenetic Chain
A framework for our structure and movement.
The Skeletal System
Form junctions that are connected by muscles and connective tissue.
Bones
Sites where movement occurs as a result of muscle contraction.
Joints
Made up of the skull, the rib cage, and the vertebral column. 80 Bones
Axial Skeleton
The upper and lower extremeties as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles. 126 Bones
Appendicular Skeleton
The number of joints in the body
300
Flattened or indented portions of the bone that are attachment sites for the supraspinatus and infraspinatous muscles, respectively.
Bone Depressions
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
Bone Processes
Joint motion with three major motion types. Roll, slide and spin.
Arthrokinematics
Classifications of Joints
Synovial and Nonsynovial
Comprising 80% of the joints in the body and are most associated with movement and have the greatest capacity for movement. (The Knee)
Synovial Joints
No joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue; Little or no movement.
Nonsynovial Joints
No axis of rotation; Moves by sliding side-to-side or back and forth. (Carpals of the hand)
Gliding Joint
Formed by fitting of condyles of one bone into elliptical cavities of another; moves predominantly in one plane. (Knee)
Condloid Joint
Uniaxial; moves in one plane of motion - sagittal (Elbow)
Hinge
One bone fits like a saddle on another bone; moves predominantly in two planes - sagittal frontal (Joint of the thumb)
Saddle
Only one axis; moves in one plane of motion - transverse (radioulnar)
Pivot
Most mobile of joints; Moves in all three planes of motion (Shoulder)
Ball-and-socket
Made up of collagen and is the primary conective tissue for a joint. Connect bone to bone and provide static and dynamic stability.
Ligament
Muscles generate internal tension that, under the control of the nervous system, manipulates the bones of our body to produce movements.
The Muscular System
Structures that attach muscles to bone and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force.
Tendons
The wrapped outter layer of the muscle
The Epimysium
Structures that atttach muscle to bone and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force.
The Tendons
A plasma membrane that encases muscle fibers.
The Sarcolemma
The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contration and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin.
Sarcomere
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Neural Activation
A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
Motor Unit
Chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
Neurotransmitter
Muscle Fiber Types
Type 1 (Slow Twitch)
Type 2 (Fast Twitch)
Muscle fiber with;
-More Capillaries, mitochondria and myoglobin
-Increased Oxygen delivery
-Smaller in size
-Less force produced
-Slow to fatigue
Type 1 (Slow Twitch)
Muscle Fiber:
-Fewer capillaries, mitochondrea, and myoglobin
-Decreased oxygen delivery
-Larger in size
-More force produced
-Quick to fatigue
Type II (Fast Twitch)
Four Muscle Types
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion. Also known as Prime Movers.
Agonists
Muscles that act in direct opposition to agonists
Antogonist
Muscles that assist Prime Movers (agonists) during functional movement patterns
Synergists
Muscles that support or stabilize the body while the prime movers and the synergists perform the movement patterns.
Stabilizers
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