CH2, Basic Exercise Science (NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness, 3rd Edition) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The combination and interrelation of nervous, skeletal and muscular systems is known as ...
THE KINETIC CHAIN
The combination and interrelation of nervous, skeletal and muscular systems is known as ...
p. 16 (NASM)
Match the following terms of the nervous system with their respective functions:

1. Sensory function
2. Integrative function
3. Motor function

A. Sense changes
B. Respond to changes
C. Analyze & interpret
1. SENSORY FUNCTION - sense changes in either the internal or external environment

2. INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION - analyze and interpret sensory information

3. MOTOR FUNCTION - neuromuscular response to sensory information
Match the following terms of the nervous system with their respective functions:

1. Sensory function
2. Integrative function
3. Motor function

A. Sense changes
B. Respond to changes
C. Analyze & interpret
p. 16 (NASM)
The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of ...
THE BRAIN & SPINAL CORD
The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of ...
p. 17 (NASM)
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of ...
CRANIAL/SPINAL NERVES AND SENSORY RECEPTORS
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of ...
p. 17 (NASM)
It becomes important to train the nervous system efficiently to ensure that _____________, which enhances performance and decreases the risk of injuries.
PROPER MOVEMENT PATTERNS ARE BEING DEVELOPED
It becomes important to train the nervous system efficiently to ensure that _____________, which enhances performance and decreases the risk of injuries.
p. 16 (NASM)
The function of the Peripheral Nervous System is to ...
- PROVIDE A CONNECTION FOR THE NERVOUS SYSTEM TO ACTIVATE DIFFERENT EFFECTOR SITES (e.g., muscles)

- RELAY INFORMATION FROM EFFECTOR SITES BACK TO THE BRAIN VIA SENSORY RECEPTORS
The function of the Peripheral Nervous System is to ...
pp. 17, 19 (NASM)
What are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
- SENSE CHANGES IN EITHER INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (SENSORY)

- ANALYZE & INTERPRET SENSORY INFORMATION (INTEGRATIVE)

- PROVIDE THE NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE TO THE SENSORY INFORMATION (MOTOR)
What are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
p. 16 (NASM)
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (e.g., hand) to the brain/spinal cord.
SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (e.g., hand) to the brain/spinal cord.
p. 17 (NASM)
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
INTERNEURONS
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
p. 17 (NASM)
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain/spinal cord to various effector sites (e.g., muscles, glands).
MOTOR (EFFECTOR) NEURONS
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain/spinal cord to various effector sites (e.g., muscles, glands).
p. 17 (NASM)
Sensory receptors are specialized structures located throughout the body that are designed to transform ______________________ into ______________________ that the brain & spinal cord can then interpret to produce __________.
- ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI (heat, light, sound, taste, motion)

- SENSORY INFORMATION

- A RESPONSE
Sensory receptors are specialized structures located throughout the body that are designed to transform ______________________ into ______________________ that the brain & spinal cord can then interpret to produce __________.
There are 4 types of sensory receptors:
- mechano-receptors
- noci-receptors
- chemo-receptors
- photo-receptors

p. 19 (NASM)
Mechano-receptors are responsible for sensing ________ in body tissues.
DISTORTION
Mechano-receptors are responsible for sensing ________ in body tissues.
p. 19 (NASM)
What are the three types of mechano-receptors, and to what are they sensitive?
- MUSCLE SPINDLES: sense changes in muscle length and rate of length change

- GOLGI TENDON ORGANS (GTO): sense changes in tension and rate of tension change

- JOINT RECEPTORS: sense pressure and acceleration/deceleration of the joint
What are the three types of mechano-receptors, and to what are they sensitive?
pp. 19-20 (NASM)
LOCATION:
Located in or around the joint capsule
JOINT RECEPTORS
LOCATION:
Located in or around the joint capsule
p. 20 (NASM)
LOCATION:
Located where the muscle and tendon meet (musculotendinous junction)
GOLGI TENDON ORGAN (GTO)
LOCATION:
Located where the muscle and tendon meet (musculotendinous junction)
p. 19 (NASM)
LOCATION:
Are parallel to a muscle's fibers
MUSCLE SPINDLES
LOCATION:
Are parallel to a muscle's fibers
p. 19 (NASM)
If one system of the _____________ is not working properly, it will affect the other systems and ultimately affect _____________.
- KINETIC CHAIN

- MOVEMENT
If one system of the _____________ is not working properly, it will affect the other systems and ultimately affect _____________.
p. 16 (NASM)
Name the parts of a neuron.
- CELL BODY
- AXON
- DENDRITES
Name the parts of a neuron.
p. 17 (NASM)
The framework for both structure and __________ is called:
- MOVEMENT
- SKELETAL SYSTEM
The framework for both structure and __________ is called:
p. 21 (NASM)
Growth, maturation and functionality of the skeletal system are greatly affected by ...
- POSTURE
- ACTIVITY
- NUTRITION
Growth, maturation and functionality of the skeletal system are greatly affected by ...
p. 21 (NASM)
The _________ junction where 2 or more bones meet is called a ...
- MOVABLE
- JOINT
The _________ junction where 2 or more bones meet is called a ...
Movement occurs here as a result of muscle contraction.

p. 21 (NASM)
What causes movement at a joint?
MUSCLE CONTRACTION
What causes movement at a joint?
p. 21 (NASM)
This consists of some 80 bones in the skull, rib cage and vertebral column.
AXIAL SKELETON
This consists of some 80 bones in the skull, rib cage and vertebral column.
p. 22 (NASM)
This consists of some 126 bones in the upper/lower extremities as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles.
APPENDICULAR SKELETON
This consists of some 126 bones in the upper/lower extremities as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles.
p. 22 (NASM)
What does this image depict?
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
What does this image depict?
p. 22 (NASM)
How many joints are there in the body?
> 300
How many joints are there in the body?
There are closer to 230 to 250 movable or semi-movable joints. This does not include non-movable joints in the skull.

p. 22 (NASM)
Why do bones have surface markings?
TO PROVIDE INCREASED STABILITY AND ATTACHMENT SITES FOR MUSCLES
Why do bones have surface markings?
There are 2 types of surface marking: depressions and processes.

p. 22 (NASM)
What is the purpose of bone depressions?
- PROVIDE SITES FOR ATTACHMENT OF MUSCLES (fossa)
- ALLOW SOFT TISSUE TO PASS THROUGH (sulcus)
What is the purpose of bone depressions?
Examples:
- Fossa - supraspinous and infraspinous fossa on the scapula (shoulder) - to attach the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles respectively

p. 22 (NASM)
What type of process is located above a condyle, such as in the humerus to form the elbow joint or in the femur to form the knee joint?
EPICONDYLE
What type of process is located above a condyle, such as in the humerus to form the elbow joint or in the femur to form the knee joint?
p. 23 (NASM)
Condyles are _________ projections at a joint that usually articulate with a another bone, such as in ... (provide example)
- LARGE ROUNDED
- THE BOTTOM (INSIDE/OUTSIDE) OF THE FEMUR & TOP OF THE TIBIA TO FORM THE KNEE JOINT
Condyles are _________ projections at a joint that usually articulate with a another bone, such as in ... (provide example)
p. 23 (NASM)
_________ are large rounded projections at a joint that usually articulate with another bones, such as in ... (provide example)
- CONDYLES
- THE BOTTOM (INSIDE/OUTSIDE) OF THE FEMUR & TOP OF THE TIBIA TO FORM THE KNEE JOINT
_________ are large rounded projections at a joint that usually articulate with another bones, such as in ... (provide example)
p. 23 (NASM)
These joint types comprise about 80% of all joints in the body, are most associated with movement, and have the greatest capacity for motion.
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
These joint types comprise about 80% of all joints in the body, are most associated with movement, and have the greatest capacity for motion.
p. 25 (NASM)
What are the 3 major motion types?
- ROLL

- SLIDE

- SPIN
What are the 3 major motion types?
Arthrokinematics = joint motion

p. 24 (NASM)
What is arthrokinematics?
- JOINT MOTION
What is arthrokinematics?
p. 24 (NASM)
During a squat, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the femoral condyles move over the tibial condyles?
ROLL MOVEMENT
During a squat, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the femoral condyles move over the tibial condyles?
p. 24 (NASM)
During a knee extension, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the tibial condyles move across the femoral condyles?
SLIDE MOVEMENT
During a knee extension, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the tibial condyles move across the femoral condyles?
p. 24 (NASM)
During pronation and supination of the forearm, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the head of the radius moves on the end of the humerus?
SPIN MOVEMENT
During pronation and supination of the forearm, what major type of joint motion is exhibited as the head of the radius moves on the end of the humerus?
p. 24 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- Simplest movement of all joints
- back & forth/side-to-side movement
- Example: carpals of the hand
GLIDING (plane) JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- Simplest movement of all joints
- back & forth/side-to-side movement
- Example: carpals of the hand
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 25 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- Fitting of the condyle of one bone into the elliptical cavity of another to form the joint
- Movement occurs mostly in 1 plane: flexion/extension in the sagittal plane
- Movement occurs minimally in the
CONDYLOID (ellipsoidal) JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- Fitting of the condyle of one bone into the elliptical cavity of another to form the joint
- Movement occurs mostly in 1 plane: flexion/extension in the sagittal plane
- Movement occurs minimally in the
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 25 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- uni-axial
- movement mostly in the sagittal plane
- Examples: elbow, ankle
HINGE JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- uni-axial
- movement mostly in the sagittal plane
- Examples: elbow, ankle
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 26 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- an articulating bone straddling another
- movement mostly in 2 planes: sagittal plane (flexion/extension) and frontal plane (adduction/abduction)
- Example: only found in the caropmetacarpal joint of the
SADDLE JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- an articulating bone straddling another
- movement mostly in 2 planes: sagittal plane (flexion/extension) and frontal plane (adduction/abduction)
- Example: only found in the caropmetacarpal joint of the
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 26 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- movement mostly in one plane (transverse plane - rotation, pronation and supination)
- Example: radioulnar joint (at the elbow)
PIVOT JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
- movement mostly in one plane (transverse plane - rotation, pronation and supination)
- Example: radioulnar joint (at the elbow)
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 26 (NASM)
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
-movement in all 3 planes
- Examples: shoulder (humerus/scapula), hip
BALL & SOCKET JOINT
What type of joint is exhibited by the following?
-movement in all 3 planes
- Examples: shoulder (humerus/scapula), hip
Also see "The Anatomy Lesson" at http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/

p. 26 (NASM)
What are the characteristics of a non-synovial joint? Give one example.
- IN THE UNITING STRUCTURE, THERE IS:
* NO JOINT CAVITY
* NO FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
* NO CARTILAGE

- EXHIBIT LITTLE OR NO MOVEMENT

EXAMPLES:
- SUTURES OF THE SKULL
- DISTAL JOINT OF THE TIBIA & FIBULA (ANKLE)
What are the characteristics of a non-synovial joint? Give one example.
p. 26 (NASM)
________ provide stability, allowing for movement to take place without unwanted movement.
JOINTS
________ provide stability, allowing for movement to take place without unwanted movement.
p. 27 (NASM)
Why is it important that the fitness professional understands that one joint affects the motion of others?
- IT CREATES AWARENESS OF BODY FUNCTIONALITY
- IT IS THE PREMISE BEHIND KINETIC CHAIN MOVEMENT
- IT INFLUENCES FITNESS MOVEMENT ASSESSMENTS, DESIGNING FITNESS PROGRAMS, AND MONITORING EXERCISE TECHNIQUE
Why is it important that the fitness professional understands that one joint affects the motion of others?
p. 27 (NASM)
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY CONNECTIVE TISSUE FOR A JOINT?
LIGAMENTS
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY CONNECTIVE TISSUE FOR A JOINT?
p. 28 (NASM)
Joints __________ bones, provide ________ and input to ___________, are made of ___________ and ___________.
- CONNECT
- DYNAMIC STABILITY
- NERVOUS SYSTEM
- COLLAGEN & ELASTIN
Joints __________ bones, provide ________ and input to ___________, are made of ___________ and ___________.
p. 28 (NASM)
Collagen fibers provide ligaments with the ability to ...
WITHSTAND TENSION
Collagen fibers provide ligaments with the ability to ...
p. 28 (NASM)
Elastin gives a ligament some ___________ to withstand ______________________________.
- FLEXIBILITY
- BENDING & TWISTING
Elastin gives a ligament some ___________ to withstand ______________________________.
p. 29 (NASM)
Ligaments are characterized by _____________, which means that ligaments do not _________________.
- POOR VASCULARITY
- HEAL/REPAIR WELL
Ligaments are characterized by _____________, which means that ligaments do not _________________.
p. 29 (NASM)
The actual muscle itself is wrapped by an outer layer called _________ and an inner layer immediately surrounding the muscle called the ______________.
- FASCIA
- EPIMYSIUM
The actual muscle itself is wrapped by an outer layer called _________ and an inner layer immediately surrounding the muscle called the ______________.
The fascia and epimysium are intimately connected with the bone and help to form the muscle's tendon.

p. 30 (NASM)
From the outermost layer surrounding each muscle to the innermost layer of tissue, place the following the correct order:

- Sarcolemma
- Epimysium
- Fascia
- Sarcoplasm
- Perimysium
- Fascicle
- Muscle fiber
- Endomysium
- Myofibril
- Sarcomere
- Muscle
1. FASCIA (outer layer surrounding entire muscle bundle)
2. EPIMYSIUM (immediately surrounds muscle belly)
3. MUSCLE BELLY
4. PERIMYSIUM (surrounds each fascicle)
5. FASCICLE (bundle of muscle fiber)
6. ENDOMYSIUM (surrounds individual muscle fibers)
7. MUSCLE FIBER
8. SARCOLEMMA (surrounds each individual muscle fiber)
9. SARCOPLASM
10. MYOFIBRIL
11. SARCOMMERE
From the outermost layer surrounding each muscle to the innermost layer of tissue, place the following the correct order:

- Sarcolemma
- Epimysium
- Fascia
- Sarcoplasm
- Perimysium
- Fascicle
- Muscle fiber
- Endomysium
- Myofibril
- Sarcomere
- Muscle
See www.getbodysmart.com for more information.

p. 30 (NASM)
What role do tendons play in movement?
- ALLOW FORCES TO BE TRANSFERRED FROM MUSCLE TO BONE
- ATTACH MUSCLE TO BONE, PROVING ANCHORS FROM WHICH MUSCLES CAN CONTROL THE JOINT/BONE.
What role do tendons play in movement?
p. 31 (NASM)
Like ligaments, why are tendons susceptible to slow repair and adaptation?
POOR VASCULARITY (BLOOD SUPPLY)
Like ligaments, why are tendons susceptible to slow repair and adaptation?
p. 31 (NASM)
What is the function of the mitochondria?
TRANSFORM ENERGY FROM FOOD INTO ENERGY FOR CELLS
What is the function of the mitochondria?
p. 31 (NASM)
Which are the actual contractile components of muscle tissue?
MYOFILAMENTS
Which are the actual contractile components of muscle tissue?
p. 31 (NASM)
__________ and ________ form repeating sections within a myofibril called ______________.
- ACTIN
- MYOSIN
- SARCOMERES
__________ and ________ form repeating sections within a myofibril called ______________.
A sarcomere is the functional unit of the muscle, like the neuron is the functional unit for the nervous system.

p. 31 (NASM)
Two protein structures important to muscle contractions are ____________ and ____________. Located on the actin filament, __________________ blocks myosin (thick filament) binding sites on the actin (thin) filament while the muscle is relaxed.
- TROPOMYOSIN (keeps muscles relaxed)
- TROPONIN (aids in/causes muscle contraction)

- TROPOMYOSIN
Two protein structures important to muscle contractions are ____________ and ____________. Located on the actin filament, __________________ blocks myosin (thick filament) binding sites on the actin (thin) filament while the muscle is relaxed.
p. 31 (NASM)
Two protein structures important to muscle contractions are ____________ and ____________. Located on the actin filament, __________________ provides binding sites on the actin (thin) filament for both calcium and tropomyosin when a muscle needs to contra
- TROPOMYOSIN (keeps muscles relaxed)
- TROPONIN (aids in/causes muscle contraction)

- TROPONIN
Two protein structures important to muscle contractions are ____________ and ____________. Located on the actin filament, __________________ provides binding sites on the actin (thin) filament for both calcium and tropomyosin when a muscle needs to contra
p. 32 (NASM)
What 3 methods are involved in muscle contraction?
- NEURAL ACTIVATION
- SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
- EXCITATION-CONTRACTION-COUPLING MECHANISM
What 3 methods are involved in muscle contraction?
p. 32 (NASM)
When a muscle contracts from neural stimulation, this is called ...
NEURAL ACTIVATION
When a muscle contracts from neural stimulation, this is called ...
p. 32 (NASM)
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ...
MOTOR UNIT
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ...
p. 32 (NASM)
Existing as a small gap called a "synapse" at which a neuron meets an individual muscle fiber, the ______________________ is where neurotransmitters transmit electrical impulses from nerve to muscle.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
Existing as a small gap called a "synapse" at which a neuron meets an individual muscle fiber, the ______________________ is where neurotransmitters transmit electrical impulses from nerve to muscle.
These electrical impulses are called "action potentials."

p. 32 (NASM)
What happens at the neuromuscular junction?
NEUROTRANSMITTERS TRANSPORT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES FROM NERVE TO MUSCLE.
What happens at the neuromuscular junction?
p. 32 (NASM)
Neurotransmitters are ___________________ that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse), transporting ________________ from the nerve to the muscle.
- CHEMICAL MESSENGERS
- ELECTRICAL IMPULSES
Neurotransmitters are ___________________ that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse), transporting ________________ from the nerve to the muscle.
p. 32 (NASM)
What is the name of the neurotransmitter used by the neuromuscular system to stimulate muscle fibers to produce contractions?
ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
What is the name of the neurotransmitter used by the neuromuscular system to stimulate muscle fibers to produce contractions?
p. 32 (NASM)
A protein that forms the thin filaments is called ...
ACTIN
A protein that forms the thin filaments is called ...
p. 31 (NASM)
A protein that forms the thick filaments is called ...
MYOSIN
A protein that forms the thick filaments is called ...
p. 31 (NASM)
What is the functional unit of the muscle that produces contractions, consisting of repeating sections of actin and myosin?
SARCOMERE
What is the functional unit of the muscle that produces contractions, consisting of repeating sections of actin and myosin?
p. 31 (NASM)
A protein that binds oxygen in muscle allowing for improved oxygen delivery is called ...
MYOGLOBIN
A protein that binds oxygen in muscle allowing for improved oxygen delivery is called ...
p. 33 (NASM)
What is the following muscle fiber type:
- slow twitch
- higher # of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
- often referred to as "red fibers"
- less force produced
- slow to fatigue
- used for aerobic activity
- long-term contractions (stabi
TYPE I
What is the following muscle fiber type:
- slow twitch
- higher # of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
- often referred to as "red fibers"
- less force produced
- slow to fatigue
- used for aerobic activity
- long-term contractions (stabi
Type I, slow oxidative, slow twitch, or "red" muscle is dense with capillaries and is rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle tissue its characteristic red color. It can carry more oxygen and sustain aerobic activity.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle

p. 33 (NASM)
What is the following muscle fiber type:
- fast twitch
- larger in size
- often referred to as "white fibers"
- quick to fatigue
- produce more force
- short-term contractions (force & power)
TYPE II
Type II is further broken down into 3 sub-categories:
- Type IIa
- Type IIx (or IId)
- Type IIb
What is the following muscle fiber type:
- fast twitch
- larger in size
- often referred to as "white fibers"
- quick to fatigue
- produce more force
- short-term contractions (force & power)
Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major kinds that are, in order of increasing contractile speed:
* Type IIa, which, like slow muscle, is aerobic, rich in mitochondria and capillaries and appears red.
* Type IIx (also known as type IId), which is less dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. This is the fastest muscle type in humans. It can contract more quickly and with a greater amount of force than oxidative muscle, but can sustain only short, anaerobic bursts of activity before muscle contraction becomes painful (often incorrectly attributed to a build-up of lactic acid). N.B. in some books and articles this muscle in humans was, confusingly, called type IIB.
* Type IIb, which is anaerobic, glycolytic, "white" muscle that is even less dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. In small animals like rodents this is the major fast muscle type, explaining the pale color of their flesh.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle

p. 33 (NASM)
Which muscle type functions as a prime mover?
AGONIST
Which muscle type functions as a prime mover?
For an agonist to be effective as a mover in the skeletal system it must actually cross one or more structure(s) that can move. This is typically where the muscle crosses a joint by way of a connecting tendon. As the myofibrils of a muscle are excited into action and then contract, they will create tension and pull through the tendon and pulling the lever arm of bone on the opposite side of the joint closer to the muscles origin.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agonist_(muscle)

p. 35 (NASM)
An agonist acts as a ...
PRIME MOVER
An agonist acts as a ...
For an agonist to be effective as a mover in the skeletal system it must actually cross one or more structure(s) that can move. This is typically where the muscle crosses a joint by way of a connecting tendon. As the myofibrils of a muscle are excited into action and then contract, they will create tension and pull through the tendon and pulling the lever arm of bone on the opposite side of the joint closer to the muscles origin.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agonist_(muscle)

p. 35 (NASM)
A synergist acts as to ...
ASSIST A PRIMER MOVER
A synergist acts as to ...
Synergist is a kind of muscle which performs, or assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as the agonists. Synergists are muscles that act on movable joints . Synergists are sometimes referred to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synergist

p. 35 (NASM)
Which muscle type functions to assist a prime mover?
SYNERGIST
Which muscle type functions to assist a prime mover?
Synergist is a kind of muscle which performs, or assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as the agonists. Synergists are muscles that act on movable joints . Synergists are sometimes referred to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synergist

p. 35 (NASM)
During a chest press, which muscle acts as a prime mover?
PECTORALIS MAJOR
During a chest press, which muscle acts as a prime mover?
p. 35 (NASM)
During the squat, which muscle acts as the synergist?
HAMSTRINGS
During the squat, which muscle acts as the synergist?
p. 35 (NASM)
During the overhead press, which muscle acts as a stabilizer?
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
During the overhead press, which muscle acts as a stabilizer?
p. 35 (NASM)
During the row, which muscle acts as the antagonist?
PECTORALIS MAJOR
During the row, which muscle acts as the antagonist?
p. 35 (NASM)
During the chest press, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
Agonist - PECTORALIS MAJOR
Synergist - ANTERIOR DELTOID, TRICEPS
Stabilizer - ROTATOR CUFF
Antagonist - POSTERIOR DELTOID
During the chest press, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
p. 35 (NASM)
During the overhead press, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
Agonist - DELTOID
Synergist - TRICEPS
Stabilizer - ROTATOR CUFF
Antagonist - LATISSIMUS DORSI
During the overhead press, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
p. 35 (NASM)
During the row, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
Agonist - LATISSIMUS DORSI
Synergist - POSTERIOR DELTOID, BICEPS
Stabilizer - ROTATOR CUFF
Antagonist - PECTORALIS MAJOR
During the row, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
p. 35 (NASM)
During the squat, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
Agonist - GLUTEUS MAXIMUS, QUADRICEPS
Synergist - HAMSTRINGS
Stabilizer - TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
Antagonist - PSOAS
During the squat, name which muscles act as:
- Agonist
- Synergist
- Stabilizer
- Antagonist
p. 35 (NASM)
Which muscle type functions to support while agonist and synergist work?
STABILIZERS
Which muscle type functions to support while agonist and synergist work?
- Chest press: rotator cuff
- Overhead press: rotator cuff
- Row: rotator cuff
- Squat: transversus abdominis

p. 35 (NASM)
Which muscle type functions to oppose the prime mover?
ANTAGONIST
Which muscle type functions to oppose the prime mover?
- Chest press: posterior deltoid
- Overhead press: latissimus dorsi
- Row: pectoralis major
- Squat: psoas

p. 35 (NASM)
A stabilizer acts to ...
SUPPORT WHILE AGONIST AND SYNERGIST WORK
A stabilizer acts to ...
The muscles that stabilize one joint so a desired movement can be performed in another joint.

http://exercise.about.com/library/Glossary/More%20Definitions%202/bldef-stabilizers.htm

p. 35 (NASM)
An antagonist acts to ...
OPPOSE THE PRIME MOVER
An antagonist acts to ...
An "antagonist" is a classification used to describe a muscle that acts in opposition to the specific movement generated by the agonist and is responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antagonist_(muscle)

p. 35 (NASM)
What is the functional unit of the muscle that produces contraction, consisting of repeating sections of actin and myosin?
SARCOMERE
What is the functional unit of the muscle that produces contraction, consisting of repeating sections of actin and myosin?
p. (NASM)
What is the protein that forms thin filaments within each segment of sarcomere?
ACTIN
What is the protein that forms thin filaments within each segment of sarcomere?
p. (NASM)
What is the protein that forms thick filaments within each segment of sarcomere?
MYOSIN
What is the protein that forms thick filaments within each segment of sarcomere?
p. (NASM)
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