CH 15, Nutrition (NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness, 3rd Edition) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is an essential amino acid?
One that the body is NOT ABLE TO MANUFACTURE
What is an essential amino acid?
MUST be obtained from the food supply or other exogenous source.

p. 421 (NASM)
During gluconeogenesis, amino acids (from protein structural proteins) are used to ...
... assist in ENERGY PRODUCTION
During gluconeogenesis, amino acids (from protein structural proteins) are used to ...
This happens during a negative energy balance (caloric deficit)

p. 425 (NASM)
As glycogen during anaerobic or aerobic exercise decreases, gluconeogenesis ...
INCREASES
As glycogen during anaerobic or aerobic exercise decreases, gluconeogenesis ...
Anaerobic or aerobic exercise depletes glycogen available to muscles for energy

p. 425 (NASM)
Number of essential amino acids?
8 (out of approx 20 total)
Number of essential amino acids?
Essential amino acids MUST be supplied by the diet or other exogenous source - the body does not manufacture them in sufficient amounts.

p. 421 (NASM)
What is the name of the absorptive cells in the small intestine lining into which proteins that are broken down into smaller units are absorbed and released into the blood supply?
ENTEROCYTES
What is the name of the absorptive cells in the small intestine lining into which proteins that are broken down into smaller units are absorbed and released into the blood supply?
Once in the bloodstream, the free-form amino acids can be used for protein synthesis, immediate energy, or potential energy (fat storage).

p. 422 (NASM)
Proteins are made up of amino acids linked together by ...
PEPTIDE BONDS

The peptide bond combines two amino acids, or tetrahedrons, and it is formed by a group of atoms from each side of the bond called the peptide group, illustrated here by a rectangle. The first amino acid contributes to the peptide group its cabonyl carbon (C1), a-carbon (alpha 1) and the carbonyl oxygen (Oxygen). The second amino acid contributes its amide nitrogen (N), the a-carbon (alpha 2), and the amide hydrogen (Hydrogen). These molecule schematics are for relative position and not scale.
Proteins are made up of amino acids linked together by ...
Proteins are polypeptide molecules. The enzyme pepsin breaks these peptide bonds, thus breaking protein down into smaller di- and tri-peptides and single amino acids.

pp. 421-422 (NASM)
A food supplying all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios is called a...
COMPLETE PROTEIN
A food supplying all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios is called a...
Protein synthesis works on the all-or-none principle - all amino acids must be present at the site of protein manufacture.

p. 423-424 (NASM)
BV is defined as ...
... a measure of how well a protein satisfies the body's essential amino acid needs - PROTEIN QUALITY

BV = BIOLOGIC VALUE
BV is defined as ...
Higher BV proteins overall means that a person's amino acid requirements would be met with less protein.

p. 422 (NASM)
The process of amino acids assisting in energy production is called ...
GLUCONEOGENESIS
The process of amino acids assisting in energy production is called ...
During a negative energy balance, amino acids are used to assist in energy production.

p. 425 (NASM)
Purpose of protein?
1. BUILD/REPAIR body tissues and structures
2. SYNTHESIS of hormones, enzymes and other regulating peptides
3. SUPPLEMENT ENERGY NEEDS (if carbs or calories are not sufficient)
Purpose of protein?
p. 421 (NASM)
The balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation is called ...
PROTEIN TURNOVER
The balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation is called ...
If protein synthesis is > degradation = anabolic state (builds lean tissue)

If protein synthesis is < degradation = catabolic state (tears down lean tissue)

p. 424 (NASM)
What state exists when protein synthesis is < protein degradation?
CATABOLIC STATE

(opposite is called an ANABOLIC STATE)
What state exists when protein synthesis is < protein degradation?
In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides and amino acids, respectively.

As molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids are made from long chains of these small monomer units (mono = one + mer = part), the large molecules are called polymers (poly = many).

Cells use the monomers released from breaking down polymers to either construct new polymer molecules, or degrade the monomers further to simple waste products, releasing energy.

Cellular wastes include lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The creation of these wastes is usually an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of which is lost as heat, but the rest of which is used to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that make up anabolism. Catabolism therefore provides the chemical energy necessary for the maintenance and growth of cells.

Examples of catabolic processes include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis.
TRUE or FALSE?
Protein has a direct effect on satiety.
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE?
Protein has a direct effect on satiety.
Protein activates specific satiety requirements and may be more satisfying than fats and carbs.

p. 426 (NASM)
A high protein diet is defined as on consisting of more than ...
... 30 PERCENT of total caloric intake
A high protein diet is defined as on consisting of more than ...
Chronic consumption of a high-protein diet is generally associated with a higher intake of saturated fat and low fiber intake. It can cause calcium depletion, fluid imbalance, weight rebound, and energy loss.

p. 426 (NASM)
Typical protein recommendation % range?
15 TO 30%
Typical protein recommendation % range?
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is 15 to 30 percent of caloric intake.

p. 426, 428 (NASM)
How many kg in a pound?
0.454 KG = 1 LB

(1 KG = 2.2 LBS)
How many kg in a pound?
Most of the protein recommendations in the NASM text are in grams of protein per kg of body weight.

So, 0.8 gm/km (RDA) > > 0.36 gm/lb

For a 200-lb man, that would equate to approx 73 gm protein.
For active recreational athletes, what is the minimum acceptable intake of protein?
1.0 GM/KG of body weight

(0.45 GM/LB of body weight)
For active recreational athletes, what is the minimum acceptable intake of protein?
For a 200 lb man: approx 90 gm protein

(200 lb x 0.454 gm)

p. 426 (NASM)
Chronic high protein intake can cause:
- Calcium depletion
- Fluid imbalance
- Eventual hunger
- Slower metabolism
- Weight rebound
- Energy loss
Chronic high protein intake can cause:
See also:
http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=50900

p. 428 (NASM)
Nonessential amino acids can be manufactured from ...
... DIETARY NITROGEN & FRAGMENTS OF CARBS AND FAT
Nonessential amino acids can be manufactured from ...
p. 422 (NASM)
TRUE or FALSE?
The need for fluids is decreased by high protein intake.
FALSE
TRUE or FALSE?
The need for fluids is decreased by high protein intake.
Protein requires approx 7 times the water for metabolism than carbs or fat.

p. 427 (NASM)
What can cause a reduction in performance and contribute to dehydration when consuming a high protein diet?
DECREASED GLYCOGEN STORES
What can cause a reduction in performance and contribute to dehydration when consuming a high protein diet?
Both of these situations can have a negative impact on performance and overall functioning.

p. 427 (NASM)
TRUE or FALSE?
There is strong evidence that protein supplementation provides a constant linear increase in muscle mass.
FALSE
TRUE or FALSE?
There is strong evidence that protein supplementation provides a constant linear increase in muscle mass.
However, there are some compelling reasons to supplement protein:
- to quickly get amino acids into the blood before/after strength training
- to replace whole food proteins fo weight loss
- when whole food proteins are not readily available
- when preparing for competition

p. 427, 429 (NASM)
Which protein has the highest BV of any protein?
WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES
Which protein has the highest BV of any protein?
In addition to whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrate, there is also whey protein hydrolysate. What is whey protein Hydrolysate? Whey Hydrolysate undertakes higher processing than either whey isolate or concentrate. It consequently is the highest quality protein but with this usually comes an increase in retail price.

Whey hydrolysate is easy on the digestive system and has a high absorption rate. The high absorption rate means it is the most effective whey to take either pre or post workout. The high protein content means only a small amount is needed, so please check individual manufacturers for dosages. Whey hydrolysate can be absorbed in anywhere between 10 and 30 minutes*. It is not really suitable for the ‘snack meal’ as it contains so little biologically active proteins (these are destroyed during the amount of processing hydrolysate undergoes.)

*Based on a serving in water on an empty stomach. Absorption rates can vary if taken on empty stomachs or with other delivery systems i.e. milk instead of water.

Based on information gathered from Muscle and Fitness Magazine December 2008

From http://www.wheyproteinking.com/whey-protein-hydrolysate.html

p. 427 (NASM)
What are the characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates and benefits of consuming them?
CHARACTERISTICS:
- highest BV
- very high in branched chain amino acids
- ideal peptide lengths for rapid absorption

BENEFITS:
To healthy athletes preparing for competition (generally over trained and underfed in this stage), these formulations offer a viable way to meet protein requirements with fewer calories
What are the characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates and benefits of consuming them?
pp. 427-428 (NASM)
What inhibits muscle-protein breakdown and contributes to a positive protein balance within 1 hour after heavy strength training?
CARBOHYDRATES CONSUMED
(1 GM/KG > > 0.45 GM/LB)
What inhibits muscle-protein breakdown and contributes to a positive protein balance within 1 hour after heavy strength training?
A 200-lb man would consume a workout recovery beverage with at least 91 gms of carbs.

p. 425 (NASM)
What effect does exercise have on both the oxidation of amino acids and the rate of protein turnover in lean body mass?
INCREASE
What effect does exercise have on both the oxidation of amino acids and the rate of protein turnover in lean body mass?
Sustained dynamic exercise stimulates amino acid oxidation, chiefly of the branched-chain amino acids, and ammonia production in proportion to exercise intensity; if the exercise is intense enough, there is a net loss of muscle protein (as a result of decreased protein synthesis, increased breakdown, or both); some of the amino acids are oxidized as fuel, whereas the rest provide substrates for gluconeogenesis and possibly for acid-based regulation. Protein balance is restored after exercise, but no hypertrophy occurs with habitual dynamic exercise. Resistance exercise causes little change in amino acid oxidation but probably depresses protein synthesis and elevates breakdown acutely. After exercise, protein synthesis rebounds for </=48 h, but breakdown remains elevated, and net positive balance is achieved only if amino acid availability is increased. There is no evidence that habitual exercise increases protein requirements; indeed protein metabolism may become more efficient as a result of training.

From:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940342

p. 424 (NASM)
As total energy intake decrease, protein requirements will ...
INCREASE
As total energy intake decrease, protein requirements will ...
pp. 424-425 (NASM)
With regard to satisfying the majority of energy needs with carbs and fat, saving protein for repairing and growing tissue, carbs are often referred to as ...
PROTEIN SPARING
With regard to satisfying the majority of energy needs with carbs and fat, saving protein for repairing and growing tissue, carbs are often referred to as ...
If one does not eat enough carbs and fats (e.g., when preparing for bodybuilding competitions), more protein will be used for energy by default.

p. 425 (NASM)
Best post-workout strategy
1. RETURN TO REGULAR EATING HABITS.
2. CONSUME CARBOHYDRATES (1GM/KG or 0.45 GM/LB)
Best post-workout strategy
Inhibits muscle breakdown > > positive protein balance

p. 425 (NASM)
One gram of protein = ___ calories?
4 CALORIES
One gram of protein = ___ calories?
p. 428 (NASM)
One gram of carbohydrate = ___ calories?
4 CALORIES
One gram of carbohydrate = ___ calories?
p. 435 (NASM)
One gram of lipids (fat) = ___ calories?
9 CALORIES
One gram of lipids (fat) = ___ calories?
p. 437 (NASM)
One gram of alcohol = ___ calories?
7 CALORIES
Single sugar unit
MONO-SACCHARIDE
Single sugar unit
Includes glucose, fructose and galactose

p. 429 (NASM)
Double sugar unit
DI-SACCHARIDE
Double sugar unit
Includes sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose

p. 429 (NASM)
Carbs that require prolonged enzymatic action to be broken down into simple sugars
STARCHES
Carbs that require prolonged enzymatic action to be broken down into simple sugars
p. 430 (NASM)
Rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release
GLYCEMIC INDEX
Rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release
Determined based on a food consumed by itself AND on an empty stomach.

p. 430 (NASM)
The GI for any food is determined based on ...
1. FOOD CONSUMED BY ITSELF
2. FOOD CONSUMED ON AN EMPTY STOMACH
The GI for any food is determined based on ...
p. 430 (NASM)
The eight essential amino acids include:
- Isoleucine
- Leucine
- Lysine
- Methionine
- Phenylalanine
- Threonine
- Tryptophan
- Valine
The eight essential amino acids include:
Cannot be manufactured by the body

p. 421 (NASM)
Sucrose, lactose and maltose are called ...
DI-SACCHARIDES
Sucrose, lactose and maltose are called ...
2 sugar units
p. 429 (NASM)
Glucose (blood sugar), sucrose (table sugar) and galactose are called ...
MONO-SACCHARIDES
Glucose (blood sugar), sucrose (table sugar) and galactose are called ...
Single sugar units
p. 429 (NASM)
What are lipids?
A GROUP OF COMPOUNDS INCLUDING:
- TRIGLYCERIDES (fats & oils)
- PHOSPHO-LIPIDS
- STEROLS
What are lipids?
p. 436 (NASM)
Percentage of lipids stored in body as triglycerides?
99%
Percentage of lipids stored in body as triglycerides?
p. 436 (NASM)
Percentage of dietary lipids as fats and oils?
95%
Percentage of dietary lipids as fats and oils?
p. 436 (NASM)
Type of fats that are considered a risk factor of heart disease.
SATURATED FATS
Type of fats that are considered a risk factor of heart disease.
Because they raise LDL cholesterol levels

p. 436 (NASM)
Typical fat dietary recommendation % range (especially if the goal is fat loss or to enhance overall health).
10 TO 30%
Typical fat dietary recommendation % range (especially if the goal is fat loss or to enhance overall health).
p. 438 (NASM)
True or False? Fat has a higher thermic effect than other macronutrients.
FALSE
True or False? Fat has a higher thermic effect than other macronutrients.
Thermic effect (TEF) typically amounts to 10% of ingested calories. As the fat % in the diet increases, the amount of heat given off decreases.

p. 438 (NASM)
What role do LPLs have in the absorption of fats?
LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE (LPL) REMOVES TRIGLYCERIDE CONTENT FROM CHYLOMICRONS IN THE BLOOD, WHICH IS THEN ABSORBED BY VARIOUS BODILY TISSUES.
What role do LPLs have in the absorption of fats?
After absorption into the intestinal wall, triglycerides broken down by pancreatic enzymes reassemble and are released into the lymph as a lipoprotein called chylomicron, from which triglyceride content is removed in the blood by another enzyme.

p. 438 (NASM)
These fatty acids have only one point of saturation.
MONOUNSATURATED
These fatty acids have only one point of saturation.
p. 436 (NASM)
Term for "overeating"
HYPERPHAGIA
Term for "overeating"
p. 438 (NASM)
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of symptoms characterized by ...
- OBESITY
- INSULIN RESISTANCE (IR)
- HYPERTENSION
- DYSLIPIDEMIA
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of symptoms characterized by ...
Dislipidemia is a condition involving an increase in the level of lipids (e.g., cholesterol and triglycerides) in the body.

p. 438-439 (NASM)
Water constitutes approximately ___ % of a person's body weight.
60
Water constitutes approximately ___ % of a person's body weight.
p. 439 (NASM)
At fat percentages > 30%, dietary fats stimulate ...
OVEREATING

Because total food volume decreases, less fiber, and other satiety mechanisms get bypassed.
At fat percentages > 30%, dietary fats stimulate ...
Not satiety (which is stimulated at dietary fat levels of < 30%)

p. 438 (NASM)
The average American's fat consumption is between ...
32 TO 42 PERCENT
The average American's fat consumption is between ...
p. 440 (NASM)
To store dietary fat in the body as fat, it only takes __% of its calories.
3 PERCENT
To store dietary fat in the body as fat, it only takes __% of its calories.
This makes it easier for the body to store dietary fat as body fat as opposed to carbohydrates, which take almost 23% of the calories ingested.

p. 440 (NASM)
True or False?
Insulin resistance (IR) is a risk factor for obesity?
FALSE

Obesity is a risk factor for developing insulin resistance (IR), not the other way around.
True or False?
Insulin resistance (IR) is a risk factor for obesity?
p. 439 (NASM)
On average, a person should consume ___ of water daily.
96 OZ.
On average, a person should consume ___ of water daily.
Those participating in a fat-loss program should consume an additional 8 oz. for every 25 pounds over the ideal weight.

p. 440 (NASM)
Which of the following are effects of dehydration?
- improved performance
- decreased heart rate
- increased core temperature
- increased perceived exertion (PE)
- increased use of muscle glycogen
INCR CORE TEMP
INCR PERCEIVED EXERTION
INCR USE OF MUSCLE GLYCOGEN
Which of the following are effects of dehydration?
- improved performance
- decreased heart rate
- increased core temperature
- increased perceived exertion (PE)
- increased use of muscle glycogen
p. 441 (NASM)
How much/how long before exercise should an athlete consume water?
16 OZ - 2 HOURS BEFORE EXERCISE
How much/how long before exercise should an athlete consume water?
p. 441 (NASM)
During exercise, how much water should be consumed?
20-40 OZ. PER HOUR
During exercise, how much water should be consumed?
Additionally, consume 20 oz. per pound of body weight lost.

p. 442 (NASM)
What type of fluid replacement should be used when exercising vigorously for > 60 minutes?
A SPORTS DRINK WITH UP TO 8% CARBOHYDRATES
What type of fluid replacement should be used when exercising vigorously for > 60 minutes?
p. 442 (NASM)
Foods that are _______ on the glycemic index are good sources of complex carbohydrates.
HIGH
Foods that are _______ on the glycemic index are good sources of complex carbohydrates.
This includes sources such as soy beans, lentils, chickpeas, yogurt, apples, etc.

p. 430 (NASM)
Higher intakes of dietary fiber are associated with ...
LOWER INCIDENCE OF HEART DISEASE AND CERTAIN TYPES OF CANCER
Higher intakes of dietary fiber are associated with ...
p. 431 (NASM)
Fiber is beneficial because it ...
- INCREASES SATIETY (from increased bulk)
- LOWERS RISK OF COLON CANCER
- REDUCES RISKS OF HEART & ARTERY DISEASE BY LOWERING CHOLESTEROL
- REGULATES THE ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE (up to 5 hours after eating)
- MAINTAINS INTESTINAL MOTILITY
Fiber is beneficial because it ...
p. 431 (NASM)
Carbohydrates (as muscle glycogen) provide what percentage of energy needs at the following endurance exercise intensities:
- moderate (60%VO2 max)
- high (>79% VO2 max)
50% at moderate intensity (60%VO2 max)
Nearly ALL at high intensity (>79% VO2 max)
Carbohydrates (as muscle glycogen) provide what percentage of energy needs at the following endurance exercise intensities:
- moderate (60%VO2 max)
- high (>79% VO2 max)
Duration of exercise also affects the amount of glycogen used for energy. As duration increases, the amount of glucose and glycogen decreases, increases the reliance off as as energy.

p. 432 (NASM)
The limiting factor for exercise performance is ...
CARBOHYDRATE AVAILABILITY
The limiting factor for exercise performance is ...
p. 432 (NASM)
For the endurance athlete, a ___________________ diet will build ___________________ and aid in ___________________.
- CARBOHYDRATE-RICH
- GLYCOGEN STORES
- PERFORMANCE & RECOVERY
For the endurance athlete, a ___________________ diet will build ___________________ and aid in ___________________.
p. 432 (NASM)
What factors affect how much glucose and glycogen are available to muscles as an energy source?
EXERCISE INTENSITY & DURATION
What factors affect how much glucose and glycogen are available to muscles as an energy source?
"Fat burns in a carbohydrate flame."

p 432 (NASM)
Consumption of a high-fat diet has been shown in studies to improve performance, but at exercise intensities ______________.
AT RELATIVELY LOW INTENSITY (< 70% VO2 MAX)
Consumption of a high-fat diet has been shown in studies to improve performance, but at exercise intensities ______________.
p. 432 (NASM)
For endurance athletes, a diet consisting of approx ____% of caloric intake of carbohydrates is recommended.
60 PERCENT
For endurance athletes, a diet consisting of approx ____% of caloric intake of carbohydrates is recommended.
p. 432 (NASM)
A person should consume a high-carb meal approximately ______ hours before exercising more than 1 hour.
2 TO 4 HOURS
A person should consume a high-carb meal approximately ______ hours before exercising more than 1 hour.
Especially beneficial for morning workouts (when glycogen stores are lower by as much as 80%)

p. 432 (NASM)
What should you do when carb loading prior to exercise to avoid gastrointestinal distress?
EAT SMALLER MEALS
What should you do when carb loading prior to exercise to avoid gastrointestinal distress?
p. 433 (NASM)
What effect can carb loading have on the muscles' glycogen stores?
IT CAN NEARLY DOUBLE MUSCLE GLYCOGEN
What effect can carb loading have on the muscles' glycogen stores?
p. 433 (NASM)
During exercise lasting > 1 hour, endurance athletes should consume between _________ grams of carbohydrates every _________.
30 TO 60 GRAMS PER HOUR
During exercise lasting > 1 hour, endurance athletes should consume between _________ grams of carbohydrates every _________.
p. 433 (NASM)
Consuming ________ oz. of fluid containing between ___ to ___ % carbohydrate will contribute to better performance for endurance athletes.
20 TO 40 OZ.
4 TO 8 %
Consuming ________ oz. of fluid containing between ___ to ___ % carbohydrate will contribute to better performance for endurance athletes.
p. 433 (NASM)
The "window of opportunity" to replenish glycogen stores is within ____ after exercise.
30 MIN
The "window of opportunity" to replenish glycogen stores is within ____ after exercise.
Delaying carb intake by as much as 2 hours can decrease to muscle glycogen synthesis by 66%.

pp. 433-434 (NASM)
Weight lost on a low-carb diet can be attributed to ...
LOW CALORIC INTAKE
LOSS OF FAT-FREE MASS
Weight lost on a low-carb diet can be attributed to ...
When a person restricts carbohydrate-rich foods from their diet, not only are calories reduced, but glycogen stores dwindle as well. For every gram of glucose taken out of glycogen, it takes with it 2.7 gram of water. So, initial weight loss comes mostly from loss of muscle mass and water.

p. 434 (NASM)
What percentage of American adults are not regularly active?
60 PERCENT
What percentage of American adults are not regularly active?
25% participate in NO ACTIVITY AT ALL.

p. 434 (NASM)
Dietary fiber should include about ___ grams.
25 GRAMS - WOMEN
38 GRAMS - MEN
Dietary fiber should include about ___ grams.
p. 435 (NASM)
What is the recommended carbohydrate intake for adults?
- 50 TO 70% OF CALORIC INTAKE
- 25 GRAMS FIBER (MINIMUM)
What is the recommended carbohydrate intake for adults?
Carbohydrate recommendations should be estimated after protein and fat requirements are met.

p. 435 (NASM)
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