CH4, Human Movement Science (NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training, 3rd Edition) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body is called ...
BIOMECHANICS
Study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body is called ...
p. 58 (NASM)
If the pectoralis major is "superior" to the rectus abdominis, it is ...
POSITIONED ABOVE IT
(Superior = positioned ABOVE a reference point)
If the pectoralis major is "superior" to the rectus abdominis, it is ...
p. 59 (NASM)
If the gastrocnemius is "inferior" to the hamstrings, it is ...
POSITIONED BELOW IT
(Inferior = positioned BELOW a reference point)
If the gastrocnemius is "inferior" to the hamstrings, it is ...
p. 59 (NASM)
If the knee is more "proximal" to the hip than the ankle, it is ...
NEARER TO THE CENTER OF THE BODY (OR POINT OF REFERENCE)
(in this case, the hip is the point of reference)
If the knee is more "proximal" to the hip than the ankle, it is ...
p. 59 (NASM)
If the ankle is more "distal" to the hip than the knee, it is ...
FARTHER FROM THE CENTER OF THE BODY (OR POINT OF REFERENCE)
(in this case, the hip is the point of reference)
If the ankle is more "distal" to the hip than the knee, it is ...
p. 59 (NASM)
If the quadriceps are located on the "anterior" aspect of the thigh, they are ...
ON THE FRONT
(or toward the front of the body)
If the quadriceps are located on the "anterior" aspect of the thigh, they are ...
Anterior
Also referred to as "ventral"

p. 59 (NASM)
If the hamstrings are located on the "posterior" aspect of the thigh, they are ...
ON THE BACK
(or toward the back of the body)
If the hamstrings are located on the "posterior" aspect of the thigh, they are ...
Posterior
Also referred to as "dorsal"

p. 59 (NASM)
If the adductors are on the "medial" side of the thigh, they are ...
ON THE SIDE CLOSEST TO THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
If the adductors are on the "medial" side of the thigh, they are ...
p. 59 (NASM)
If the arms are on the "lateral" side of the torso, they are ...
FARTHEST AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
If the arms are on the "lateral" side of the torso, they are ...
p. 59 (NASM)
"Contralateral" means to be...
ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE BODY
"Contralateral" means to be...
Think of opposing views in a controversy.
p. 59 (NASM)
"Ipsilateral" means to be ...
ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE BODY
"Ipsilateral" means to be ...
p. 59 (NASM)
Which plane bisects the body into right/left halves?
SAGITTAL PLANE
Which plane bisects the body into right/left halves?
Allows both flexion and extension movements

p. 60 (NASM)
Which plane bisects the body into front/back halves?
FRONTAL (or coronal) PLANE
Which plane bisects the body into front/back halves?
Allows abduction/adduction (in the limbs relative to the trunk), lateral flexion (of the spine), and eversion/inversion (at the foot/ankle complex) movements

p. 61 (NASM)
Which plane bisects the body into upper/lower halves?
TRANSVERSE (or horizontal) PLANE
Which plane bisects the body into upper/lower halves?
Allows both internal and external rotation (for the limbs), right/left rotation (for the head and trunk), and pronation/supination (for the radioulnar joint) movements

p. 61 (NASM)
Give 3 examples of movements in the sagittal plane.
- BICEP CURLS
- SQUATS
- TRICEPS PUSH-DOWNS
- FRONT LUNGES
- WALKING
- RUNNING
Give 3 examples of movements in the sagittal plane.
p. 61 (NASM)
Give 3 examples of movements in the frontal plane.
- SIDE LATERAL RAISES
- SIDE LUNGES
- SIDE SHUFFLING
Give 3 examples of movements in the frontal plane.
p. 61 (NASM)
Give 3 examples of movements in the transverse plane.
- TRUNK ROTATION
- THROWING A BALL/FRISBEE
- GOLFING
- SWINGING A BAT
Give 3 examples of movements in the transverse plane.
p. 61 (NASM)
At the ankle, flexion is referred to as _______________ and extension is referred to as _________________.
- DORSIFLEXION
- PLANTARFLEXION
At the ankle, flexion is referred to as _______________ and extension is referred to as _________________.
pp. 60-61 (NASM)
Flexion is ...
A BENDING MOVEMENT IN WHICH THE RELATIVE ANGLE OF A JOINT DECREASES
Flexion is ...
p. 60 (NASM)
Extension is ...
A STRAIGHTENING MOVEMENT IN WHICH THE RELATIVE ANGLE OF THE JOINT INCREASES
Extension is ...
p. 60 (NASM)
Abduction is ...
A MOVEMENT AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
(similar to extension - increase in the angle of a joint, but in the frontal plane)
Abduction is ...
p. 61 (NASM)
Adduction is ...
A MOVEMENT TOWARD THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
(similar to flexion - decrease in the angle of a joint, but in the frontal plane)
Adduction is ...
p. 61 (NASM)
Internal rotation is ...
ROTATION OF A JOINT TOWARDS THE MIDDLE OF THE BODY
Internal rotation is ...
p. 61 (NASM)
External rotation is ...
ROTATION OF A JOINT AWAY FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE BODY
External rotation is ...
p. 61 (NASM)
This is an example of what type of movement?
EXTENSION
This is an example of what type of movement?
A straightening movement where the relative joint ankle increases.
p. 63 (NASM)
This is an example of what type of movement?
FLEXION
This is an example of what type of movement?
A bending movement where the joint angle decreases.
p. 63 (NASM)
This is an example of what types of movements?
ABDUCTION/ADDUCTION
(of the shoulders)
This is an example of what types of movements?
Movement away/toward the midline.
pp. 64-65 (NASM)
This is an example of what type of movement?
EXTERNAL ROTATION
(of the trunk)
This is an example of what type of movement?
p. 61 (NASM)
This is an example of what type of movement?
EXTERNAL SHOULDER ROTATION
This is an example of what type of movement?
Rotating the joint AWAY from the middle of the body.
p. 67 (NASM)
This is an example of what type of movement?
SUPINATION
(the foot/ankle - another example)

Supination is a position of either the forearm or foot; in the forearm when the palm faces anteriorly, or faces up (when the arms are unbent and at the sides). Supination in the foot occurs when a person appears "bow-legged" with their weight supported primarily on the anterior of their feet.

(from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supination)

Supination is the opposite of pronation and refers to the outward roll of the foot during normal motion.

(from http://www.thestretchinghandbook.com/archives/pronation-supination.php)
This is an example of what type of movement?
Rolling movement outward of either the forearm or foot.
p. 67 (NASM)
What is pronation and what is its opposite?
1. Movement of the forearm so that the palm faces downwards. Pronation is the natural position of the forearm when a person is standing in a relaxed position.

INWARD ROLLING MOTION:
During running or walking, an inward rolling motion just after the heel strikes the ground and when the weight is shifted to the middle of the foot. It is a natural action which serves as a shock-absorbing and an energy-return mechanism.

OPPOSITE = SUPINATION
What is pronation and what is its opposite?
from http://www.answers.com/topic/pronation

pp. 66-67 (NASM)
What forces do muscles produce a variety of actions to manipulate?
- GRAVITY
- GROUND REACTION FORCES
- MOMENTUM
- EXTERNAL RESISTANCE
What forces do muscles produce a variety of actions to manipulate?
HINT: The muscle action spectrum is used to produce efficient movement.

pp. 62-63 (NASM)
What is the "muscle action spectrum" (what does it consist of) and what is its purpose?
A RANGE OF MUSCLE ACTIONS CONSISTING OF 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE ACTIONS:

- ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION
- ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION
- CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION

PURPOSE: TO PRODUCE EFFICIENT MOVEMENT
What is the "muscle action spectrum" (what does it consist of) and what is its purpose?
pp. 62-63 (NASM)
When a muscle lengthens, it is contracting ...
ECCENTRICALLY
Actin and myosin crossbridges are pulled apart (sliding filament theory) and reattach and the muscle returns to its resting length.
When a muscle lengthens, it is contracting ...
pp. 63-64 (NASM)
Eccentric contraction is also known as a "negative" because ...
WORK IS DONE ON THE MUSCLE vs. THE MUSCLE DOING THE WORK
Eccentric contraction is also known as a "negative" because ...
pp. 64-65 (NASM)
Eccentric motion moves in the ____________ (same/opposite) direction as the resistance is moving.
SAME DIRECTION
Eccentric motion moves in the ____________ (same/opposite) direction as the resistance is moving.
p. 65 (NASM)
Eccentric motion acts to _________the forces acting on the body.
DECELERATE (or reduce)
Eccentric motion acts to _________the forces acting on the body.
p. 65 (NASM)
When a muscle shortens, it is contracting ...
CONCENTRICALLY
Actin and myosin crossbridges move together (sliding filament theory), allowing the muscle to shorten.
When a muscle shortens, it is contracting ...
p. 68 (NASM)
Concentric motion moves in the ______ (same/opposite) direction as the resistance is moving.
OPPOSITE DIRECTION
Concentric motion moves in the ______ (same/opposite) direction as the resistance is moving.
p. 68 (NASM)
Concentric motion acts to ____________ the forces acting on the body.
ACCELERATE (or produce)
Concentric motion acts to ____________ the forces acting on the body.
p. 68 (NASM)
When a muscle contracts isometrically, the force it exerts is ___________ (equal to, less than, greater than) the force exerted on it.
EQUAL TO
When a muscle contracts isometrically, the force it exerts is ___________ (equal to, less than, greater than) the force exerted on it.
p. 65 (NASM)
_____________ contraction results in no appreciable change in muscle length.
ISOMETRIC
_____________ contraction results in no appreciable change in muscle length.
p. 65 (NASM)
Isometric contractions are used functionally by the body to ...
DYNAMICALLY STABILIZE THE BODY
This can be seen in stabilizers that are isometrically stabilizing a limb from moving in an unwanted direction.
Isometric contractions are used functionally by the body to ...
p. 65 (NASM)
Which muscle isometrically stabilizes the foot/ankle complex?
GASTROCNEMIUS (calf)
Which muscle isometrically stabilizes the foot/ankle complex?
p. 69 (NASM)
Which abdominal muscles isometrically stabilize the lumbar-pelvic-hip complex?
- TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
- RECTUS ABDOMINIS
Which abdominal muscles isometrically stabilize the lumbar-pelvic-hip complex?
p. 77 (NASM)
Name the muscles of the hamstring complex.
- BICEPS FEMORIS
- SEMIMEMBRANOSUS
- SEMITENDINOSUS
Name the muscles of the hamstring complex.
pp. 70-71 (NASM)
Name the muscles of the quadriceps complex.
- VASTUS LATERALIS
- VASTUS MEDIALIS
- VASTUS INTERMEDIUS
- RECTUS FEMORIS
Name the muscles of the quadriceps complex.
pp. 71-72 (NASM)
Name the 3 parts of the triceps brachii.
- LONG HEAD
- SHORT HEAD (posterior humerus)
- MEDIAL HEAD (posterior humerus)
Name the 3 parts of the triceps brachii.
p. 83 (NASM)
What is the integrated function of the biceps brachii?
- ECCENTRICALLY DECELERATES:
* ELBOW EXTENSION
* PRONATION OF RADIOULNAR JOINT
* SHOULDER EXTENSION

- ISOMETRICALLY STABILIZES THE ELBOW AND SHOULDER GIRDLE
What is the integrated function of the biceps brachii?
p. 83 (NASM)
What is the integrated function and insertion point (generally) of the psoas muscle?
- FUNCTION: ECCENTRICALLY DECELERATES HIP INTERNAL ROTATION AND HIP EXTENSION; ISOMETRICALLY STABILIZES THE LUMBO-PELVIC-HIP COMPLEX

- INSERTION: LESSER TROCHANTER OF THE FEMUR
What is the integrated function and insertion point (generally) of the psoas muscle?
p. 75 (NASM)
What is the integrated function of the multifidus?
STABILIZES VERTEBRAE IN LOCAL MOVEMENTS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
What is the integrated function of the multifidus?
The multifidus muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. The multifidus is a very thin muscle.

Deep in the spine, it spans three joint segments, and works to stabilize the joints at each segmental level.

The stiffness and stability makes each vertebra work more effectively, and reduces the degeneration of the joint structures.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multifidus_muscle

p. 79 (NASM)
Which muscles decelerate ankle dorsiflexion?
- GASTROCNEMIUS
- SOLEUS
- PERONEUS LONGUS
Which muscles decelerate ankle dorsiflexion?
pp. 69-70
Name the 3 gluteus muscles and their general insertion and origin.
- GLUTEUS MINIMUS
- GLUTEUS MEDIUS
- GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

ORIGIN: ILLIUM OF THE PELVIS
INSERTION: GREATER TROCHANTER OF THE FEMUR
Name the 3 gluteus muscles and their general insertion and origin.
p. 74 (NASM)
Forces are characterized by ________ and ________.
MAGNITUDE, DIRECTION
Forces are characterized by ________ and ________.
p. 87 (NASM)
The kinetic chain is designed to manipulate ________________ from a multitude of directions to effectively produce _____________.
VARIABLE FORCES, MOVEMENT
The kinetic chain is designed to manipulate ________________ from a multitude of directions to effectively produce _____________.
p. 87 (NASM)
What refers to the length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force?
LENGTH-TENSION RELATIONSHIP
What refers to the length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force?
There is an optimal muscle length at which the actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere have the most amount of overlap. This results in the ability of myosin to make a maximal amount of connections with actin and so results in the potential for maximal force production of that muscle.

p. 87 (NASM)
Lengthening a muscle beyond its optimal length and then stimulating it ________ (increases/decreases) the amount of actin/myosin overlap, ________ (increasing/decreasing) force production.
DECREASES, DECREASING
Lengthening a muscle beyond its optimal length and then stimulating it ________ (increases/decreases) the amount of actin/myosin overlap, ________ (increasing/decreasing) force production.
p. 87 (NASM)
What can cause muscle lengths to become altered, resulting in their not being able to generate proper force to allow for efficient movement?
MISALIGNED JOINTS (I. E., POOR POSTURE)
What can cause muscle lengths to become altered, resulting in their not being able to generate proper force to allow for efficient movement?
p. 87 (NASM)
What is the force-velocity curve?
THE ABILITY OF MUSCLES TO PRODUCE FORCE WITH INCREASING VELOCITY
What is the force-velocity curve?
p. 87 (NASM)
As the velocity of a concentric muscle contraction increases, its ability to produce force _________.
DECREASES
As the velocity of a concentric muscle contraction increases, its ability to produce force _________.
p. 87 (NASM)
As the velocity of an eccentric muscle contraction increases, its ability to produce force _________.
INCREASES
As the velocity of an eccentric muscle contraction increases, its ability to produce force _________.
p. 87 (NASM)
Synergistic action of muscles to produce movement around a joint is also known as ...
FORCE-COUPLE
Synergistic action of muscles to produce movement around a joint is also known as ...
p. 88 (NASM)
All muscles working together for the production of proper movement are said to be working in a ...
FORCE-COUPLE
All muscles working together for the production of proper movement are said to be working in a ...
p. 89 (NASM)
The amount of force that the kinetic chain can produce is dependent on ...
- MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENT
- MUSCLE SIZE
- LEVERAGE OF BONES & MUSCLES
The amount of force that the kinetic chain can produce is dependent on ...
p. 89 (NASM)
The ____________ system is ultimately responsible for manipulating force.
NEUROMUSCULAR
The ____________ system is ultimately responsible for manipulating force.
p. 89 (NASM)
The amount of leverage the kinetic chain will have for any given movement depends on the leverage of the muscles in relation to _____________.
THE RESISTANCE
The amount of leverage the kinetic chain will have for any given movement depends on the leverage of the muscles in relation to _____________.
p. 90 (NASM)
The easiest way to alter the amount of torque generated at a joint is to ...
MOVE THE RESISTANCE
The easiest way to alter the amount of torque generated at a joint is to ...
p. 90 (NASM)
Motor control looks at the involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather all sensory information and integrates it with ....
PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE
Motor control looks at the involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather all sensory information and integrates it with ....
p. 91 (NASM)
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the CNS to provide movement is known as ...
SYNERGIES
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the CNS to provide movement is known as ...
p. 91 (NASM)
Proprioception uses information from _________________ to provide information about ....
- MECHANORECEPTORS
- BODY POSITION, MOVEMENT, AND SENSATION
Proprioception uses information from _________________ to provide information about ....
p. 91 (NASM)
TRUE or FALSE?
Proprioception is altered after injury.
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE?
Proprioception is altered after injury.
p. 91 (NASM)
Proprioception helps the nervous system learn about the environment to produce ....
EFFICIENT MOVEMENT
Proprioception helps the nervous system learn about the environment to produce ....
p. 91 (NASM)
The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information and to select and execute the proper motor response is known as ...
SENSORIMOTOR INTEGRATION
The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information and to select and execute the proper motor response is known as ...
p. 91 (NASM)
If individuals train with improper form, improper sensory information will be delivered to the CNS, leading to ...
- MOVEMENT COMPENSATIONS
- POTENTIAL INJURY
If individuals train with improper form, improper sensory information will be delivered to the CNS, leading to ...
p. 93 (NASM)
The integration and practice of motor control processes leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements is known as ...
MOTOR LEARNING
The integration and practice of motor control processes leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements is known as ...
p. 93 (NASM)
What can lead to a permanent change in one's ability to perform movements efficiently?
PROPER PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE
What can lead to a permanent change in one's ability to perform movements efficiently?
p. 93 (NASM)
Using posture and joint motion as sensory information is an example of ____________ feedback.
INTERNAL
Using posture and joint motion as sensory information is an example of ____________ feedback.
p. 93 (NASM)
Using a heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment is ...
EXTERNAL FEEDBACK
Using a heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment is ...
p. 93 (NASM)
Knowledge of results are used ____________ to help inform a client about ___________.
- AFTER COMPLETING A MOVEMENT
- THE OUTCOME OF THEIR PERFORMANCE
Knowledge of results are used ____________ to help inform a client about ___________.
p. 93 (NASM)
Knowledge of performance provides information about ____________.
THE QUALITY OF MOVEMENT DURING AN EXERCISE
Knowledge of performance provides information about ____________.
p. 94 (NASM)
/ 160
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