CH3, Cardiorespiratory System (NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training, 3rd Edition) Flashcards

bio-energetic pathway
Terms Definitions
What is the area that houses the heart and lungs?
MEDIASTINUM
What is the area that houses the heart and lungs?
p. 40 (NASM)
Approximately how much a typical heart weigh?
10 OZ (300 grams)
Approximately how much a typical heart weigh?
p. 40 (NASM)
TRUE or FALSE?
Cardiac muscle fibers are longer and less tightly connected than skeletal muscle, thus enabling the contraction of one fiber to stimulate the others to contract sequentially.
FALSE
Cardiac muscle fibers are SHORTER and MORE tightly connected than skeletal muscle, thus enabling the contraction of one fiber to stimulate the others to contract SYNCHRONOUSLY.
TRUE or FALSE?
Cardiac muscle fibers are longer and less tightly connected than skeletal muscle, thus enabling the contraction of one fiber to stimulate the others to contract sequentially.
p. 41 (NASM)
Cardiac muscle fibers with the highest __________ determine the heartbeat or heart rate.
CONTRACTION RHYTHM
Cardiac muscle fibers with the highest __________ determine the heartbeat or heart rate.
p. 41 (NASM)
This is called the "pacemaker" because it initiates the heartbeat.
SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE
This is called the "pacemaker" because it initiates the heartbeat.
p. 41 (NASM)
The atrioventricular (AV) node _________ the impulse from the _______ before moving on to the ventricles.
- DELAYS
- SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE
The atrioventricular (AV) node _________ the impulse from the _______ before moving on to the ventricles.
p. 41 (NASM)
How chambers does the heart have?
FOUR:
- right/left atriums
- right/left ventricles
How chambers does the heart have?
p. 41 (NASM)
Which part of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the body?
RIGHT ATRIUM
Which part of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the body?
p. 41 (NASM)
The right atrium receives _________________ from __________.
- DE-OXYGENATED BLOOD
- THE BODY
The right atrium receives _________________ from __________.
p. 41 (NASM)
Which part of the heart receives re-oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the lungs?
LEFT ATRIUM
Which part of the heart receives re-oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the lungs?
p. 41 (NASM)
The left atrium receives ____________ from _______________.
- RE-OXYGENATED BLOOD
- THE LUNGS
The left atrium receives ____________ from _______________.
p. 41 (NASM)
Which are the larger chambers in the heart: atriums or ventricles?
VENTRICLES
They are the main pumps in the heart, pumping blood out to the lungs (right ventricle) and to the rest of the body (left ventricle).
Which are the larger chambers in the heart: atriums or ventricles?
p. 42 (NASM)
The left ventricle receives ___________ from the __________ and then pumps it to the ___________.
- RE-OXYGENATED BLOOD
- LEFT ATRIUM
- REST OF THE BODY
The left ventricle receives ___________ from the __________ and then pumps it to the ___________.
p. 42 (NASM)
The aortic and pulmonary valves are in which heart chambers?
VENTRICLES
- AORTIC: left ventricle > leaving the heart to the body thru the aorta
- PULMONARY: right ventricle > leaving the heart to the lungs thru the pulmonary artery
The aortic and pulmonary valves are in which heart chambers?
p. 42 (NASM)
The tricuspid and mitral valves are in which heart chambers?
TRICUSPID: from right ATRIUM to right VENTRICLE
MITRAL: from the left ATRIUM to the left VENTRICLE
The tricuspid and mitral valves are in which heart chambers?
p. 42 (NASM)
Place the following components of the heart in the correct order of flow, from receiving de-oxygenated blood from the body to resupplying the body with re-oxygenated blood.

1. Lungs
2. Right atrium
3. Left ventricle
4. Right ventricle
5. Aorta out to bod
1. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
2. RIGHT ATRIUM (receiving de-oxygenated blood)
3. RIGHT VENTRICLE
4. LUNGS (via pulmonary arteries)
5. LEFT ATRIUM (via pulmonary veins, receiving re-oxygenated blood)
6. LEFT VENTRICLE
7. AORTA (out to body)
Place the following components of the heart in the correct order of flow, from receiving de-oxygenated blood from the body to resupplying the body with re-oxygenated blood.

1. Lungs
2. Right atrium
3. Left ventricle
4. Right ventricle
5. Aorta out to bod
p. 42 (NASM)
The amount of blood pumped out with each ventricle contraction is called the ...
STROKE VOLUME
The amount of blood pumped out with each ventricle contraction is called the ...
p. 42 (NASM)
_________________ during exercise provides a good gauge for the fitness professional to determine the amount of work the heart is doing at any given time.
MONITORING HEART RATE
_________________ during exercise provides a good gauge for the fitness professional to determine the amount of work the heart is doing at any given time.
p. 43 (NASM)
Blood constitutes approximately __ % of total body weight.
8%
Blood constitutes approximately __ % of total body weight.
p. 43 (NASM)
The average person holds about ___ of blood in their body at any given time.
1.5 GALLONS
The average person holds about ___ of blood in their body at any given time.
p. 43 (NASM)
For a typical adult, the stroke volume of the heart is apoproximately ...
75 to 80 ML/BEAT
For a typical adult, the stroke volume of the heart is apoproximately ...
p. 43 (NASM)
De-oxygenated blood is pumped from the __________ to the lungs through the _______________.
- RIGHT VENTRICLE
- PULMONARY ARTERIES
De-oxygenated blood is pumped from the __________ to the lungs through the _______________.
pp. 42, 50 (NASM)
Re-oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the ____________ through the _______________.
- LEFT ATRIUM
- PULMONARY VEINS
Re-oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the ____________ through the _______________.
pp. 42, 50 (NASM)
____________ pump blood away from the heart, whereas _________ pump blood back to the heart.
- ARTERIES - away from
- VEINS - return to
____________ pump blood away from the heart, whereas _________ pump blood back to the heart.
p. 45 (NASM)
Substances such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones and waste products are exchanged between tissues in the ______________.
CAPILLARIES
Substances such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones and waste products are exchanged between tissues in the ______________.
p. 46 (NASM)
The primary & secondary respiratory muscles for inspiration include ...
- DIAPHRAGM
- EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
- SCALENES
- STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
- PECTORALIS MAJOR
The primary & secondary respiratory muscles for inspiration include ...
p. 47 (NASM)
What type of ventilation requires active contraction of muscles?
INSPIRATION (inhalation)
What type of ventilation requires active contraction of muscles?
p. 47 (NASM)
Expiration requires what type of ventilation?
EITHER ACTIVE OR PASSIVE
Expiration requires what type of ventilation?
p. 47 (NASM)
What is cardiac output (Q)?
THE COMBINATION OF HOW MANY TIMES THE HEART BEATS PER MINUTE AND HOW MUCH BLOOD IS BEING PUMPED OUT WITH EACH BEAT
What is cardiac output (Q)?
p. 43 (NASM, Table 3.1)
What is stroke volume (SV)?
THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD THAT IS PUMPED OUT WITH EACH CONTRACTION OF A VENTRICLE
What is stroke volume (SV)?
p. 43 (NASM, Table 3.1)
What does blood transport?
- OXYGEN & NUTRIENT TO TISSUES
- WASTE PRODUCTS FROM TISSUES
- HORMONES TO ORGANS/TISSUES
- HEAT THROUGHOUT THE BODY
What does blood transport?
p. 43 (NASM, Table 3.2))
What does blood regulate?
- BODY TEMPERATURE
- ACID BALANCE
What does blood regulate?
p. 43 (NASM, Table 3.2)
From what does blood protect?
- FROM EXCESSIVE BLEEDING VIA CLOTTING MECHANISM
- AGAINST DISEASE VIA SPECIALIZED IMMUNE CELLS
From what does blood protect?
p. 43 (NASM, Table 3.2)
What are the 2 forms of inspiratory breathing?
- NORMAL RESTING STATE (quiet)
- DEEP HEAVY BREATHING (forced)
What are the 2 forms of inspiratory breathing?
Both forms of inspiration are ACTIVE.

p. 47 (NASM)
TRUE OR FALSE?
Conduction consists of channeling air coming from the respiratory passageway.
FALSE
Respiration consists of channeling air coming from the conducting passageway.

The conduction passageway consists of all structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory passageway.
TRUE OR FALSE?
Conduction consists of channeling air coming from the respiratory passageway.
The respiratory passageway begins at the alveoli.

p. 48 (NASM)
In what specific location in the respiratory system are gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in and out of the bloodstream through diffusion?
ALVEOLAR SACS
In what specific location in the respiratory system are gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in and out of the bloodstream through diffusion?
p. 48 (NASM)
What is diffusion?
ITHE PROCESS BY WHICH OXYGEN IS TRANSPORTED (IN THE ALVEOLAR SACS) FROM THE OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT TO THE BODY'S TISSUES.
What is diffusion?
p. 48 (NASM)
MET stands for ...
METABOLIC EQUIVALENT TASK
MET stands for ...
A MET indicates (and estimates) the amount of oxygen the body uses at rest and during exercise.

p. 51 (NASM)
Define each constituent of the formula to calculate METs:

VO2 = Q x a - v O2 difference

(no subscripts available, sorry)
- VO2: oxygen consumption
- Q: cardiac output (HR x SV)
- a: blood in the arteries
- v: blood in the veins
Define each constituent of the formula to calculate METs:

VO2 = Q x a - v O2 difference

(no subscripts available, sorry)
p. 51 (NASM)
What is the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximum physical exertion?
VO2 MAX
What is the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximum physical exertion?
p. 51 (NASM)
VO2 max values can range anywhere between ...
11 TO 23 METS
VO2 max values can range anywhere between ...
p. 51 (NASM)
While protocols such as the Rockport Fitness Walk Test and the Step Test provide a general estimate of a client's cardiorespiratory fitness level, they are based on ______________ and can contribute to _______________.
- ASSUMPTIONS THAT ARE RARELY MET
- ESTIMATE ERRORS
While protocols such as the Rockport Fitness Walk Test and the Step Test provide a general estimate of a client's cardiorespiratory fitness level, they are based on ______________ and can contribute to _______________.
Given repeatedly during a period of weeks/months, protocols used to estimate VO2 max may show a cardiorespiratory TREND.

p. 51 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for high-intensity activities for up to 10 seconds?
ATP-CP (PHOSPHAGEN)
(anaerobic system)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for high-intensity activities for up to 10 seconds?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for moderate to high intensity activities for up to 30 to 60 seconds?
GLYCOLYSIS
(anaerobic system)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for moderate to high intensity activities for up to 30 to 60 seconds?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for low intensity, long duration activities that exceed 2 to 3 minutes?
OXIDATIVE
(aerobic system)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the major energy producer for low intensity, long duration activities that exceed 2 to 3 minutes?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway provides energy through the interaction of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) with enzymes (such as myosin ATPase and creatine kinase)?
ATP-CP (PHOSPHAGEN)
Which bio-energetic pathway provides energy through the interaction of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) with enzymes (such as myosin ATPase and creatine kinase)?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway provides energy by using the breakdown of carbohydrates to rapidly produce ATP?
GLYCOLYSIS
Which bio-energetic pathway provides energy by using the breakdown of carbohydrates to rapidly produce ATP?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway relies mostly on carbohydrates and fats to provide energy (ATP) and allows pyruvate to be used for ATP production?
OXIDATIVE
Which bio-energetic pathway relies mostly on carbohydrates and fats to provide energy (ATP) and allows pyruvate to be used for ATP production?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the slowest, but produces the greatest amount of ATP per glucose molecule?
OXIDATIVE
Produces approximately 36 to 38 ATP per glucose molecule.
Which bio-energetic pathway is the slowest, but produces the greatest amount of ATP per glucose molecule?
pp. 52-53 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway is the fastest, but produces only 1 ATP per glucose molecule?
ATP-CP (PHOSPHAGEN)
Limited in its capacity to sustain energy production because it must rely on the minimal storage of ATP and CP in the cells.
Which bio-energetic pathway is the fastest, but produces only 1 ATP per glucose molecule?
p. 52 (NASM)
On which bio-energetic pathway will most fitness workouts typically place the most stress?
GLYCOLYSIS
Since a typical repetition range of 8 to12 reps falls within the time frame of 30 to 50 seconds.
On which bio-energetic pathway will most fitness workouts typically place the most stress?
p. 52 (NASM)
Weightlifting and similar activities that stress power and strength such as short sprints use predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
ATP-CP (PHOSPHAGEN)
(anaerobic system)
Weightlifting and similar activities that stress power and strength such as short sprints use predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
p. 52 (NASM)
A typical set of 8 to 12 repetitions during weight training uses predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
GLYCOLYSIS
(anaerobic system)
A typical set of 8 to 12 repetitions during weight training uses predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
p. 52 (NASM)
Long distance, long-duration activities such as marathons, triathlons, and running on treadmills use predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
OXIDATIVE
(aerobic system)
Long distance, long-duration activities such as marathons, triathlons, and running on treadmills use predominantly which bio-energetic pathway to produce energy?
p. 52 (NASM)
In which bio-energetic pathway is glucose absorbed from the blood and glycogen in muscle tissue converted to ATP and lactic acid?
GLYCOLYSIS
(anaerobic system)
In which bio-energetic pathway is glucose absorbed from the blood and glycogen in muscle tissue converted to ATP and lactic acid?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway produces from 36 to 38 ATP per glucose molecule?
OXIDATIVE
(aerobic system)
Which bio-energetic pathway produces from 36 to 38 ATP per glucose molecule?
p. 52 (NASM)
Which bio-energetic pathway produces from 2 to 3 ATP per glucose molecule?
GLYCOLYSIS
(anaerobic system)
Which bio-energetic pathway produces from 2 to 3 ATP per glucose molecule?
p. 52 (NASM)
What precaution would you give regarding the use of METs applied to an individual's fitness program?
METS WERE DESIGNED TO BE A GENERALIZATION WITH CERTAIN (AND OFTEN UNMET) ASSUMPTIONS. USE THEM MORE FOR DETERMINING OVERALL TRENDS THAN AS A DAILY TARGET.
What precaution would you give regarding the use of METs applied to an individual's fitness program?
p. 51 (NASM)
List at least 5 things that breathing dysfunction can result in.
- MORE SHALLOW BREATHING
- OVERUSE OF SECONDARY RESPIRATORY MUSCLES
- POSTURAL ISSUES
- EXCESS TENSION
- ALTERED CO2 AND O2 BLOOD CONTENT
- FEELINGS OF ANXIETY
- INADEQUATE O2/RETENTION OF METABOLIC WASTE > FATIGUED STIFF MUSCLES
- RESTRICTED JOINTS
List at least 5 things that breathing dysfunction can result in.
p. 53 (NASM)
Breathing dysfunction is a very common predecessor to ...
KINETIC CHAIN DYSFUNCTION
Breathing dysfunction is a very common predecessor to ...
p. 53 (NASM)
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