Classics 17a Final- UC Berkeley Flashcards

Minoan civilization
Terms Definitions
Hattusha
-Hittite capital in Asia Minor
-13th century fortification walls
-late Bronze Age palace structure
Megaron
-long rectangular buildings/structure
-major entrance in middle of one of the short ends
-permanent features oriented on long axis
-Neolitic--> Archaic-Classical
Megaron
-See:
-Parthenon
-Temple of Zeus @ Olympia
-Dhimini (neolitic "proto-megaron")
Tholos Tombs
"Beehive" Tombs:
-late Bronze Age (14-13th c.)
-conical tombs w/ long sloping entry hall
-built into hillsides
-hall lit by variation on relieving tri.
Tholos Tombs
-Menidi
-"Treasury of Atreus"
-burial chamber off the main beehive chamber.
-Marathon:
-sub-floor burials- two human burials under floor of main chamber, two horse burials near entrance to entry hall
Corbelled Arch or "False Arch"
-made by offsetting the stones upward along the arch.
-forms the relieving triangle
-space can be filled w/ non-weight bearing stones to create a smooth arch
Corbelled Arch or "False Arch"
-"Treasury of Atreus"
Mycenean Chamber Tombs
-Athens: Agora and Areopagus
-entry hall to chamber: similar to Tholos
-chamber sep. from hall by small "doorway"--> could be filled/blocked
-burials were covered, left w/ many goods
Catal Hoyuk
-South-central Anatolia
-neolithic settlement
-"Mycenean"-esque layout: seperate buildings/structure arranged in a palace-esque config.
Shaft Graves at Mycenae
-arranged in two circles: A and B
-A: ca. 1600-1510. Inside citadel walls.
-B: ca. 1650-1550. outside walls.
-A: 6 graves, 19 internments.
-B: 14 graves, 24 internments.
Shaft Graves at Mycenae
-both were marked areas, ringed by stone walls
-graves goods included weapons, vases, gold masks and cups, etc.
-"Mask of Agamemnon:" circle A
Thera
(Santorini)
-pre-explosion settlement: Acrotiri
-Minoan style wall paintings: human and natural figures.
-preserved ca. 1627-1600 BC.
Thera
(Santorini)
-no traditional "palace" structure, but layout is clearly Minoan in style.
-shows extent of Minoan influence in Greece in 2nd millenia BC
Knossos (palace)
-"Hall of the Double Axes"
"Hall of the Double Axes:"
-"I'-shaped piers: held double doors-> pivoted in and out of piers if open or closed.
-allowed the room to be alternately private and public
Knossos (palace)
-"Hall of the Double Axes"
-hall was believed to be the throne room
-3-part room: inner, middle and outer porch.
-Inter and middle had "I"-shaped doors and piers.
Knossos:
-Palace
-massive structure built around a large central court: standard Minoan palace style.
-mix of possible residency, public, religious and storage areas.
Knossos:
-Palace
-unknown if a residential space
-Magazines:
-long storage halls on W. side
-single door access: easy to defend
-filled w/ jars of OO and other ag. wealth.
Crete
-ca. 1500 BC
-viewed as turning point btwn Mid. and Late Bronze Age
-town layout mimics flow of palace structure: many small interconnected structures.
Gobekli Tepe
-SW Turkey
-palaeolithic-neolithic sacred site
-10th mill. BC
-wall of field stones w/ "T"-shaped [ilars
-some w/ human carvings, most w/ animals
-from "crypts:" believed to be sacred sites
Delphi:
Treasury of the Siphians
-city-sponsored treasury @ Delphi
-East Frieze: 9 of 12 Olympians seated along the top, watching the Achaens fighting at Troy: Achilles, Nestor, etc.
Treasury of the Siphinians
North Frieze:
-Olympians in procession, chariots of Zeus and Apollo.
-East end: painted name "HEPHAISTOS" remains, also remains, painted sheild device of giants
-Gigantomachy
Delphi:
Treasury of the Siphinians
Location: just the hair-pin turn in the Sacred Way: approx. half way up the way
-525 BC
-
Olympia:
Temple of Zeus
Pedimental Sculpture
East: Pelops and Oenomaus
-Zeus stands center, largest figure, presiding over the race.
-flanked by P & O and their supporters, all very stiff and rigid.
Olympia:
Temple of Zeus
Pedimental Sculpture
West: Lapiths vs. Centaurs
-Apollo oversees the battle, sides with the humans against the barbarism of the Centaurs.
-lots of movement in sculpture
Olympia:
Temple of Zeus
Metopes
Metopes: 12 total.
-children of Zeus (Athens, etc.) helping Heracles complete his 12 labors.
Olympia:
Temple of Zeus
Cult Icon: seated Zeus holding winged Nike. Carved by Pheidias. Chryselephantine sculpture.
-Built: 470-456 BC.
-Doric temple.
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Kekyra, Corfu:
Temple of Artemis
-very large: 77x161 ft.
-pseudodipteral temple: space exists for an inner row of columns between temple proper and surrounding collonade.
Kekyra, Corfu:
Temple of Artemis
Pedimental Sculpture
West Pediment:
-Gorgon Medusa, flanked by offspring Pegasus and Chrysaor.
-also flanked by panthers, beasts commonly assoc. w/ the Gorgon
Kekyra, Corfu:
Temple of Artemis
Pedimental Sculpture
West Pediment:
-beyond the panthers:
-Left: either Priam and Neop. or Kronos and a God.
-Right: Zeus w/ a Giant/Titan
-Corner Figures: fallen gods? giants? titans?
Aegina:
Sanctuary of Aphaia
Pedimental Sculpture
East: newer of the pediments
-1st Trojan War: Herakles and Telemon vs. Laomedon.
-lots of motion in Athena
-Herakles: lion helmet, stone inserts: fangs, raised cheek flaps
Aegina:
Sanctuary of Aphaia
Pedimental Sculpture
West: older of the pediments
-2nd Trojan War- "THE Trojan War"
-Acheans vs. Priam
-Athena is very still: bronze hair is attached under the sculpted helmet.
Uluburun Shipwreck
-Late Bronze Age wreck off the coast of Western Anatolia.
-merchant ship sank carrying a nearly full payload of trade goods from across the Agean and Med.
Uluburun Shipwreck
Goods: items ranging from Canaanite amphorae and Mycenean-type stirrup jars to bronze swords and barbed tridents.
-evidence of cross-sea and land trading at a much earlier date than originally anticipated: items from all over the sea faring world.
Keftiu
-Egyptian term for people believed to be Minoan
-depicted in wall paintings in Thebes in 15th c. BC.
-both Minoan and Mycenean goods depicted in images w/ figures in both Minoan and Mycenean dress
Vapheio Cups
-from a tholos tomb at Vapheio (s. of Sparta). Mycenean era.
-pair of small gold cups: "Violent" cup and "Quiet" cup.
-dichotomy of civil and wild
Vapheio Cups:
Violent: "netting" of wild bulls
-one is caught, another is trampling the would-be captor. Vegitation is wild, and unkempt
Quiet: domesticated bulls
-one standoffish bull, two almost comically tame, 4th is grazing peacefully. Vegetation is tame and maintained.
Mycenae:
Circle A Grave Goods
Ostrich Egg Vessel:
-body: ostrich egg w/ applied faience dolphins. Wooden bottom covered in gold foil.
-Neck: gold faience w/ "false maender" pattern
Mycenae:
Circle A Grave Goods
Pommels from Grave IV:
-ivory, once covered in gold foil
-four lions in a twisted radial pattern
Mycenae:
Circle A Grave Goods
Gold:
-diadems, masks, applique ornaments in gold sheet, dagger inlays.
-"Mask of Agamemnon:" actually too early to be the Mycenean King, but remarkable none the less.
Mycenae:
Circle A Grave Goods
Cups:
-Cretan/Minoan shapes: think Vapheio.
-Minyan shape: two long thin handles
-"Cup of Nestor:" gold cup w/ later attached handles.
-Sheet metal: large pitcher, several sheets riveted together.
Mycenae:
Circle A Grave Goods
Rhyton:
-funnel-shaped, made of silver.
-depicts a siege: "Silver Siege Rhyton"
-9" high, 4.5" mouth diameter.
Steatopygous Figurines
-neolithic
-fertility figurines: depicted an "ideal" that was basically unattainable given the hard living conditions
-exaggerated female figurines: emphasis on the size of breasts, hips, etc.
-Hacilar and Catal Hoyuk
Catal Hoyuk
Burial Artifacts
-neolithic burial artifacts:
-ceremonial flint dagger
-wooden bowls
-baked clay seals
Neolithic Painted Pottery
-vessels were predominantly basic shapes: bows, wide wine cup-type things, single handled cups
-geometric patters: emphasis on symmetry of design, repeating patterns
Stirrup Jars
-late Bronze Age: Mycenean
-oil container: usually scented perfume oil
-globular or piriform body
-design: jar often split into 3 distinct parts: neck, body and base
-usually delineated by black bands.
Early and Middle Protocorinthian Pottery
-emphasis on natural scenes, repeating patterns and banded designs.
-Cumae, Thebes, Syracuse.
-single handled pitchers, flat-lipped storage jars
Late Geometric Vase Painting
-rough black figure paintings: early human representations
-predominantly mythical scenes
-human/animal representations divided by geometric patters
Coinage
-first seen in Lydia circa 600 BC, spread until Persian Wars in 480, type shift that lasted until 330 BC, type shift until Roman absorption of Greek world
-3 eras: Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic
Coinage 2
-Archaic: Aegina and Athens had 2 dominant weight standards
-Athens won out: drachm = 4.3g
-many polis-specific coins: standard weight allowed them to be used in diff. poli
Coinage 3
Classical:
-rise in coin art: patron gods, city specific designs and markers.
-finer materials: better gold and silver
Coinage 4
Hellenistic: spread of Greek coinage across much of the Med. and known world.
-larger, more mass produced, more gold
-rise in images of rulers on coins during their reign
Dedication to Artemis on Delos
by Nikandre
-marble statue from Delos
-5.5 ft. high
-dedicated by Nikandre ca. 640-30 BC
-Korai statue: highly symmetrical patterning and apperance
Lady of Auxerre
-Cretan (?) kore statue
-ca. 640-630 BC
-found in a collection in Auxerre, France in late 19th.
-now in the Louvre
Lady of Auxerre
-monumental sculpture: appears bery large, despite small size (75cm)
-Egyptian influence: symmetrical hair and face, patterned clothing (painted)
-asymmetrical pose: right arm touching chest, left at side.
Colossal Kouros on Delos
-marble statue to Apollo on Delos
-by islanders of Naxos
-"nearly four times life size"
-date uncertain: some features late 7th c., others ca. 560 BC.
Kouros (Kouroi) and Kore (Kourai)
-votive sculptures heavily influenced by Egyptian sculpture, first appeared at end of Archaic Age
-heavy predominance in temples to Apollo--> youthful male god
-free-standing, usually of marble
-heavy symmetry, at dispense of realism: got more realistic as time went on, but still empasized symmetry
Kouros and Kore
-unlike Egpytian cousins, figures are nude (male).
-unlike Egyptian figures, Kouroi stood w/ left foot foward, weight on both feet vs. feet together.
-
Band Cup
-"made" by Archikles and Galukytes
-ca. 540 BC
-ABV: Attic Black Figure band cup
-discovered in Vulci
-A: Thesues & the Minotaur
-B: Hunt of the Calydonian Boar
-Atalanta is absent
Attic Black Figure Aryballos
-made by Nearchos
-3.16 inches high
-1/2 inch lip. 5 inch diameter
-maker's signiture incised at shoulder
-Lip: Battle of the Pygmies and Cranes
-Handles: Hermes and Perseus
-Handle Back: 3 masturbating satyrs
-Body: 3 registers of whiligig pattern
-4 color: black, white and red, w/ red-brown on two whirls
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