anth 002 exam 2 psu Flashcards

Terms Definitions
two classifications of dating
absolute vs relative
four types of relative dating
stratigraphy
bone age
pollen dating
faunal dating
type of dating that puts artifacts in chronological order
relative dating
type of dating that determines age of an artifact in years
absolute dating
type of dating; associated materials in a layer are of the same age
stratigraphy
type of dating; uses amount of nitrogen, fluorine, uranium
ex piltdown man

nitrogen in bones decreases over time, while F and Ur increase over time
bone age
type of dating; calculate amount of pollen types at site and compare to known sequences
pollen dating
type of dating; compare sequences of animal species to ID contemporary sites
faunal dating
three types of absolute dating
annual cycles
radioactive clocks
trapped charge methods
type of dating; count number of tree rings
dendrochronology; up to 11,500 BP
most common absolute dating method
radiocarbon, halflife 5730
type of dating; requires volcanic rock, two layers around an object are dated, not the object itself. wide error estimates ~30,000 years
potassium argon dating
type of dating; minerals in stones or pottery trap electrons that absorb radiation at a constant rate. material reheated and gives off radioactive material
thermoluminescence 300 - 100,000BP
limitations of carbon 14 dating
only up to 50,000 BP, potential for contamination; need calibration
needs of radiocarbon dating
organic material so 14C can decay. decay begins at death
date after which a layer of soil was deposited
terminus post quem
determines age before which lower layers were deposited
terminus ante quem
problems with dating methods
security of context - primary context is undisturbed while secondary context is moved from primary context)
contamination of samples by more recent or older materials
excavate at a set depth, such as 1 meter
arbitrary level
excavate at a depth correlated to natural strata
natural level
BP
before present, with present being about 1950
BCE
before the common era (same as BC before christ)
what year is 400 BP
AD 1550
the co-occurrence of two objects, usually in the same matrix
association
a relative dating method which relies principally on measuring changes in the proportional abundance, or frequency, observed among finds (eg counts of tool types, or of ceramic fabrics)

the idea that things go in and out of popularity
frequency seriation
technique that allows assemblages of artifacts to be arranged in a succession or serial order, which is then taken to indicate their ordering in time, or their relative chronology
seriation
curves that deal with seriation
battleship curves
The organization of artifacts or other data by sequence according to changes over time in their stylistic attributes
stylistic seriation
dating objects according to common attributes with other objects; all share common attributes
stylistic seriation
idea that older layers are below younger layers
superposition
way in which societies function with respect to technology, economy, rules, relationships and ideology
sociopolitical organization
two types of ethnographic analogies in archeology
general analogy - broad comparisons across many cultural traditions
specific analogy - comparisons within a single cultural tradition
using observations of behavior among contemporary cultures to make generalizations about the archaeological record
ethnographic analogy (uses ethnographies)
written by explorers, travelers, bureaucrats etc
ethnohistoric documents
Five types of analogies
ethnohistoric documents
written and oral histories
ethnographic analysis
ethnoarchaeology
experimental archaeology
ethnographic research done by archaeologists to understand arch. record
ethnoarchaeology
replicate past objects, behavior and processes
experimental archaeology
problems with the use of analogy
false extrapolation, false correlation/invalid comparison
all societies pass through single developmental trajectory
unilinear evolution
each society's development is conditioned by specific characteristics
multilinear evolution
methods of osteological analysis
macroscopic, histoligical (microscopic), osteometric, chemical, radiographic
measurement of bones
anthropometry
the study of ancient diseases
paleopathology
scales of osteological analysis
element, individual, population
people die because they are sick, so a lot of dead people gives disproportionate amounts
selectivity bias
bone will adapt to the load it is under
wolff's law
study of nonhuman bones
zooarchaeology
studying a site and then extrapoliting information into prehistory
direct historical approach
socially organized armed combat between members of different territorial units
warfare
small combat between loosely organized groups
conflict
evidence of warfare
fortifications, weapons, trauma, documentary evidence
crow creek
500 people killed, village burned; bodies left exposed and reburied much later; culmination of small scale ambushes
norris farm
16% of 264 people in cemetery were killed; ambushes of small groups away from willage over a long period of time
a specific rule or status
social rule
a combination of all rules or statuses
social persona
cultural practices relating to an individual from death till some time afterward
mortuary practice
analyzing graves
mortuary analysis
factional competition seen in this social organization
chiefdoms
3 ways chiefs maintain power
ideology, economy, coercive force
classification of societies varies according to
scale and internal organization
statistical study of all populations
demography
high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
demographic transition
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