History of Civ. Chapter 29: The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
containment
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Tito
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 alliance of nations that agreed to band together in the event of war and to support and protect each nation involved
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Israeli State
1948, when israel was given land to become an independent state
Korean War
(1950-1953) The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Khrushchev
Soviet leader, publicly denounced Stalin, free many political prisoners eased censorship
Suez Crisis
Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
Nasser
Egyptian statesman who nationalized the Suez Canal (1918-1870)
The Hungarian Uprising
Hungary established democratic doctrine government, soviets attack and take over. Neither the US nor the UN helped.
Peaceful Coexistence
agreement between opposing countries that they will compete with one another but will avoid war
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
John F. Kennedy
the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963
Prague Spring
was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.
Nixon
he promised to pull American troops out of Vietnam and won the Democratic nomination in 1972
detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
1979
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Walesa
Polish labor leader and statesman who founded the labor union Solidarity: he became president of poland and eliminated police
solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Reagan
40th republican with a strong anti-communist view. influenced fall of communism. talked with Gorbachev to end Cold War
Strategic Defense Initiative
This was Regan's proposed high-tech, anti-nuclear missile, defense system. It was said to be scientiffically impossible. It was nicknamed "Star Wars."
Indian National Conference
founded 1885, also called Congress party; fought for democracy with peaceful protest, maybe for self-rule
Gandhi
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
Jinnah
an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General
fifth french republic
Enhanced the power of the President: Charles de Gaule.1958. Came out during the Algerian Civil War.
ho chi minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975
National Liberation Front
political arm of the Viet Cong, communist guerrilla fighters backed by the North Vietnamese in South Vietnam
Fall of Saigon
1975 Marked the end of the Vietnam War in April, [1975] when North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam, forcing all Americans left to flee in disarray as the capitol was taken
Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms
perestroika
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
1989
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Havel
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia
Ceausescu
Romanian leader, ruthless, anti-revolutionist so the people end up killing him
yeltsin
First person ever elected by popular vote in Russia; drafted a new constitution similar to France's which established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system anchored in a powerful presidency
Commonwealth of Independent States
confederacy of independent states of the former soviet union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
Chechnya
ethnic republic that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994 which led to the death of thousands of civilians
Putin
Russian president that was elected after Yeltsin retired
Disintegration of yugoslavia
war among many ethnics groups which lived in yugoslavia. These groups all vied for supreme power over the government and religious belief. The war ended when the country split and collapsed.
Milosevic
Yugoslavian dictator that used Serbian nationalism to strengthen his position.
Ethnic Cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
September 11, 2001
terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people at the twin towers and the pentagon
Radical Islamism
name given by scholars to those who strictly interpret Islam and its teachings; rejected the ideas of the Western world
Wahhabism
a conservative and intolerant form of Islam that is practiced in Saudi Arabia
1979
Iranian Revolution
Khomeini
leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution
jihad
a doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as "Holy War," Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up the religious standards set by the Qu'ran.
Taliban
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
al qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden.
1991
Persian Gulf War
Saddam Hussein
- Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
Osama bin Laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957). Planned attack of 9-11.
George W. Bush
1946 - 43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Iraq war
Longest conventional war in the 20th century
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