KINESIOLOGY FLSM Flashcards

transverse processes
Terms Definitions
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
P-Prox, ant, lat tibia and interosseous membrane

D-plantar surface cuneiform #1, base metarsal #1

A-dorsiflexion, inversion
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS
P-lat condyle of tibia, interosseous membrane and prox fibula

D-dorsal surface of middle and distal phalanges of toes 2-5

A-dorsiflexion, extend toes 2-5, eversion
EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
P-ant surface of mid-interosseous membrane and medial fibula

D-dorsal surface of distal phalange #1

A-dorsiflexion, extend big toe, inversion
PERONEUS LONGUS
P-prox 2/3 lat fibula

D-plantar surface of cuneiform #1 and base of metatarsal #1 (crosses under foot)

A-assists plantarflexion; eversion
PERONEUS BREVIS
P-distal 2/3 lat fibula

D-tuberosity of metatarsal #5

A-assists plantarflexion; eversion
GASTROCNEMIUS
P-post surface of medial and lateral condyles of the femur

D-calcaneus via achilles tendon

A-plantarflexion, flex knee
SOLEUS
P-post surface of the tibia, prox, post surface of fibula

D-calcaneus via achilles

A-plantarflexion
FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS
P-mid half of post fibula

D-plantar surface of distal phalange of big toe

A-plantarflexion, flex big toe, inversion
FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS
P-post mid surface of tibia

D-plantar surface of distal phalanges of toes 2-5

A-plantarflexion, flex toes 2-5, inversion
TIBIALIS POSTERIOR
P-prox post shaft of tibia, prox fibula, interosseous membrane

D-plantar surface of cuneiforms 1,2,3, cuboid, navicular, calcaneus, bases of metatarsals 2-4 (all tarsals EXCEPT talus)

A-plantarflexion, inversion
DORSIFLEXORS (3)
Tibialis Anterior
Extensor Digitorum
Extensor Hallucis Longus
PLANTARFLEXORS (7)
Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Peroneus Longus
Peroneus Brevis
INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE
-tough membrane of connective tissue that helps hold the tibia and fibula in place
-attachment site for extensor hallucis longus
BONES OF THE FOOT
Phalanges 1-5
Metatarsals
cuneiform 1-3
cuboid
navicular
talus
calcaneus
SUBTALAR JOINT
-between talus and calcaneus
-a gliding joint
TALOCRURAL JOINT
-between the talus and distal ends of the tibia and fibula
TARSALS
calcaneus
talus
cuboid
navicular
3 cuneiforms
MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR LOWER LEG (5)
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Tibialis Posterior
MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR LOWER LEG (3)
Tibialis anterior
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Extensor Digitorum Longus
MUSCLES OF THE LATERAL LOWER LEG (2)
Peroneus Longus
Peroneus Brevis
QUADRICEPS (4)
-VASTUS LATERALIS
-VASTUS MEDIALIS
-VASTUS INTERMEDIUS
-RECTUS FEMORIS
What is the common distal attachment site for the quadriceps?
The tibial tuberosity
Which muscles make up the "stirrup of the foot" ? Where do they both attach distally?
-tibialis anterior
-peroneus longus

-both attach at cuneiform #1 and the base of the 1st metatarsal
-they are exact synergists
What is the ASIS?
Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
What is the AIIS?
Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine
What are the MENISCI?
-C-shaped fibrocartilaginous rings on top of the tibia
-shock absorbers for the knee
-lubricate the joint and increase the stability of the knee joint by increasing the area of articulation between tibia and femur
What is the PATELLA?
-Largest sesamoid bone, dwells inside the tendons of the quads
-a tracking device to keep the knee joint aligned during flexion and extension
-also protects quad tendon from external impact
What is a sesamoid bone?
It doesn't directly articulate with any other bone. It is suspended in ligament
What are the COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS?
-Medial or tibial collateral ligament
-lateral or fibula collateral ligament

-they provide medial and lateral stability to the knee
What is the LINEA ASPERA?
Rough lines up and down the posterior femur
Where are the GLUTEAL TUBEROSITIES?
on the proximal posterior femur
What is the S.I. JOINT?
Where the Ilium articulates posteriorly with the sacrum

SACROILIAC JOINT
What bones make up the PELVIS?
Each os coxae (hipbone) consists of three bones: the ilium, ischium, and the pubis.
What is the ILIUM?
The ilium is the largest and upper most part of each hip bone
What is the ISCHIUM?
the ischium is the posterior-inferior (back-lower) part of each hip bone (os coxae)
What is the PUBIS?
the anterior (front) part of the hipbone.
What is the PUBIC SYMPHASIS?
Where the hip bones join anteriorly
Where do the hip bones join posteriorly?
The sacrum
What kind of joint is the HIP?
a ball and socket joint
What actions take place at the hip? (7)
flexion
extension
adduction
abduction
lateral rotation
medial rotation
circumduction
HIP FLEXORS (6)
psoas major
iliacus
pectineus
tensor fasciae latae
sartorius
rectus femoris
PSOAS MAJOR
P-the bodies, discs and transverse processes of L1-L5

D-the lesser trochanter of femur

A-flex hip, flex trunk, laterally rotate hip, adduct hip
What is the ACETABULUM?
The cup that forms the socket for the head of the femur
ILIACUS
P- iliac fossa

D- lesser trochanter of femur

A- flex hip, laterally rotate hip, adduct hip
PECTINEUS
P- superior ramus of pubis

D- just inferior to lesser trochanter and pectineal line of femur

A- adduct hip, medially rotate hip, assist in flexion of hip
TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE
P- Iliac crest and posterior surface of ASIS

D- proximal iliotibial (IT) band (which attaches to lateral tibia)

A- flexes, abducts hip, tenses the ITB, medially rotates hip
SARTORIUS
P- ASIS

D- Medial to tibial tuberosity (PES ANSERINE)

A- Flex hip, abduct hip, laterally rotate hip ("tailor position"), flex knee
CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS
-support the knee posteriorly and anteriorly
-prevents medial to lateral rotation
-anterior cruciate ligament (front to back)
-posterior cruciate ligament (back to front)
Which cruciate ligament is more likely to get injured?
ACL
KNEE FLEXORS (7)
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
biceps femoris
popliteus
gastrocnemius
gracilis
sartorius
Where is the INTERCONDYLAR EMINENCE?
the top of the tibia
Where is the TIBIAL TUBEROSITY?
Proximal anterior tibia
What is another name for the knee joint, and what kind of joint is it?
-the tibiofemoral joint
-hinge
KNEE EXTENSORS
the QUADS:
rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus medialis
vastus intermedius
THE HAMSTRINGS (3)

What proximal attachment do they all share?
-semitendinosus
-semimembranosus
-biceps femoris

-ischIal tuberosity
BICEPS FEMORIS
P-ischial tuberosity and lateral lip of linea aspera
D-head of fibula

A-flex knee, extend hip, tilt pelvis posteriorly, lat. rotate hip
SEMIMEMBRANOSUS
P-ischial tuberosity

D-posterior medial condyle of tibia

A-flex knee, extend hip, tilt pelvis posteriorly, medially rotate hip
SEMITENDINOSUS
P-ischial tuberosity

D-pes anserine (medial to tibial tuberosity)

A-flex knee, extend hip, tilt pelvis posteriorly, medial hip rotation
Which is more superficial--semitendinosus or semimembranosus?
Semitendinosus
RECTUS FEMORIS
P-anterior, inferior iliac spine (AIIS)

D-tibial tuberosity

A-flex hip, extend knee
VASTUS MEDIALIS
P-medial lip of linea aspera

D-tibial tuberosity

A-extend knee
VASTUS LATERALIS
P-lateral lip of linea aspera and gluteal tuberosity
D-tibial tuberosity

A-Extend knee
VASTUS INTERMEDIUS
P-Anterior and lateral shaft of femur

D-tibial tuberosity

A-Extend knee
POPLITEUS
P-posterior lateral condyle of femur

D-posterior proximal tibia

A-flex knee
What are the symptoms of POSTERIOR PELVIC TILT?
-decreased lordosis in lumbar vertebrae
-ASIS moves up
-ischial tuberosity moves down
-shortened hamstrings
-overstretched, weak rectus femoris
-back pain, tight hamstrings, tight quads
What are the symptoms of ANTERIOR PELVIC TILT?
-increased lordosis in lumbar vertebrae
-ASIS moves down
-ischial tuberosity moves up
-rectus femoris becomes contracted
-hamstrings become stretched
-backpain, ight quads, tight hamstrings (overstrectched and weak)
What muscles is doing the work in sit-ups done with straight legs?
Psoas
What is the IT Band?
-iliotibial band or tract
-a ligamentous structure with inferior attachment at the tibia
-it is both tendon and ligament
What is the SACROTUBEROUS LIGAMENT?
It connects the ischium to the sacrum and is an extension of the hamstrings (one reason why tight hamstrings can cause back problems)
HIP EXTENSORS (7)
biceps femoris
semimembranosus
semitendinosus
adductor magnus
piriformis
gluteus medius
gluteus maximus
GLUTEUS MEDIUS
P-superior external surface of ilium

D-greater trochanter

A-abduct hip, flex and extend hip, medial and lateral rotation of hip
GLUTEUS MINIMUS
P-inferior interior surface of ilium

D-greater trochanter

A-abduct hip, medially rotate hip, flex hip
HIP MUSCLES THAT ARE THEIR OWN AGONISTS? (3)
Adductor Magnus
Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Maximus
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
P-Posterior iliac crest, sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous and sacroiliac ligaments
D-proximal posterior femur, gluteal tuberosity and ITB
A-extend hip, laterally rotate hip, assist in adduction (lower fibers) and abduction (upper fibers)
Which is the only adductor that does NOT attach to the linea aspera?
Gracilis. It attaches distally to the pes anserine.
Besides adduction, what two actions do all adductors have in common?
Medial rotation of hip
Assist in flexion
HIP ADDUCTORS (8)
Adductor magnus
Adductor brevis
Adductor longus
Pectineus
Gracilis
Psoas
Iliacus
Gluteus maximus (assists)
ADDUCTOR MAGNUS
P-ischial tuberosity and inferior ramus of pubis
D-linea aspera and adductor tubercle

A-adduction, extension (post. fibers), medial rotation and assists in hip flexion
ADDUCTOR BREVIS
P-inferior ramus

D-linea aspera

A-adduction, medial rotation, assists in flexion
ADDUCTOR LONGUS
P-anterior pubis

D-linea aspera

A-adduction, medial rotation, assists in hip flexion
GRACILIS
P-inferior ramus

D-pes anserine (medial to tib tub)

A-adduction, medial rotation, assist in hip flexion
What are the primary hip abductors? (3)
Tensor fasciae latae
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

(gluteus maximus only assists in abduction and adduction)
LATERAL HIP ROTATORS (11)
Piriformis
Gemellus superior
Gemellus inferior
Obturator internus
Obturator externus
Quadratus femoris
Iliacus
Psoas
Sartorius
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
PIRIFORMIS
P-anterior surface of sacrum

D-greater trochanter

A-lateral rotation, abducts thigh when hip is flexed
GEMELLUS SUPERIOR
P-spine of the ischium

D-upper border of greater trochanter

A-lateral rotation of hip
OBTURATOR INTERNUS
P-obturator membrane and pelvic surface

D-medial surface of greater trochanter

A-lateral rotation of hip
GEMELLUS INFERIOR
P-ischial tuberosity

D-upper border of greater trochanter

A-lateral rotation of hip
OBTURATOR EXTERNUS
P-superior and inferior ramus of pubis

D-trochanteric fossa of the femur

A-lateral rotation of hip
QUADRATUS FEMORIS
P-lateral border of ischial tuberosity

D-posterior surface of femur between trochanters

A-laterally rotates hip
Name the FACIAL bones:
2 NASAL
2 MAXILLARY
2 ZYGOMATIC
MANDIBLE
Name the CRANIAL bones:
FRONTAL
2 PARIETAL
OCCIPITAL
2 TEMPORALS
SPHENOID
Which bone is called the "keystone" of the skull?
SPHENOID
SPHENOID BONE
-articulates with all cranial bones
-lies just behind the eyes, inside the head
-called the "keystone" of the skull
Which vertebrae is called the ATLAS?
C1

It has NO spinous process
Which vertebrae is called the AXIS?
C2
What are the actions of the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (JAW)?
LATERAL DEVIATION
PROTRACTION
RETRACTION
ELEVATION
DEPRESSION
WHAT ARE THE POINTS OF ARTICULATION BETWEEN VERTEBRAE?
2 FACETS AND DISC
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE SPINAL COLUMN (INTERVERTEBRAL JOINTS)?
FLEXION
EXTENSION
LATERAL FLEXION
ROTATION
TRANSVERSE FORAMINA
A hole on the transverse processes of a vertebrae that accommodates a pathway for blood vessels

Only found on cervical vertebrae
What is the NUCHAL LIGAMENT?
-on back of neck
-a place for muscle attachment
-prevents hyperflexion of neck
-from occiput to spinous processes of C2-C6
What makes the ATLAS different from other vertebrae?
-it has no body, no spinous process
-instead, it has anterior and posterior tubercles
There is NO DISC between which vertebrae?
-C1 and occiput
-C1 and C2
ATLANTO OCCIPITAL JOINT
-BETWEEN ATLAS AND OCCIPUT
-FLEXION AND EXTENSION OF NECK ("YES")
ATLANTO AXIAL JOINT
-BETWEEN C1 AND C2
-ROTATION OR PIVOT OF NECK ("NO")
OCCIPUT
-POSTERIOR WALL OF CRANIUM
-LANDMARK IS THE EXTERNAL OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE
WHERE IS THE TEMPORAL BONE AND WHAT ARE ITS PRIMARY LANDMARKS?
-SIDE OF HEAD
-LANDMARKS: MASTOID PROCESS (BEHIND EAR), EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS (EAR HOLE) AND ZYGOMATIC ARCH
WHAT ARE THE DEEPEST MUSCLES ON THE POSTERIOR NECK?
SUBOCCIPITALS (8 separate muscles)
When ROM is decreased, inhibited or limited, look at the ...
antagonist
When a client experiences pain during an action, look at the ...
agonist
SUBOCCIPITALS
U-occipital bone, transverse processes of atlas
L-posterior tubercle of atlas, spinous processes of axis and transverse processes of atlas
A-bilaterally extend neck, unilaterally do lateral flexion and rotation to same side
SPLENIUS CERVICUS
U-Transverse processes of C1-C3

L-spinous processes of T3-T6

A-bilaterally, extension; unilaterally, lateral flexion and rotation to same side
SPLENIUS CAPITUS
P-mastoid process, lateral occiput

D-inferior nuchal ligament

A-bilaterally, extension; unilaterally, lateral flexion and rotation to same side
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID (SCM)
U-mastoid process of temporal bone

L-manubrium, medial 1/3 clavicle

A-bilaterally: flexion, assist in inhalation. unilaterally: lateral flexion, rotation to opposite side
SCALENES
ANTERIOR:
U-transverse processes of C3-C6
L-rib 1
MIDDLE:
U: transv. processes of C2-C7
L-Rib 1
POSTERIOR:
U: transv. processes of C5-C6
L: Rib 2

A-BILAT: ant. scalenes flex neck; all elevate ribs in respiration
UNILAT: rotation to opp side; with ribs fixed, flexes head to same side
TEMPORALIS
U: temporal fossa and fascia

L: coronoid process of the mandible

A: elevates and retracts mandible
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT?
mandible and temporal bones
MASSETER
U-zygomatic arch

L-angle and ramus of mandible

A-elevation of mandible
MEDIAL PTERYGOIDS
U-SPHENOID AND MAXILLA

L-MEDIAL RAMUS AND ANGLE OF MANDIBLE

A-BILAT: elevates (closes) jaw, protracts mandible. UNILAT: lateral deviation of opposite side
LATERAL PTERYGOIDS
U-sphenoid

L-condyle of mandible and disc of temporomandibular joint

A-BILAT: depress and protract
UNILAT: lateral deviation of opp. side
Name the abdominal muscles and the direction in which their fibers run
Transverse Abdominus <-- -->
Rectus Abdominus l l
Internal Obliques / \
External Obliques \ / (hands in pockets)
Which is the deepest abdominal muscle?
transverse abdominus
Which muscle is called the "seatbelt of the spine?"
Transverse abdominus
TRANSVERSE ABDOMINUS
M-midline linea alba

L- lat. 1/3 of inguinal ligament, crest of ilium, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, inner surface of cartilages of ribs 7-12

A-Compression
RECTUS ABDOMINUS
U-cartilage of ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process
L- crest of pubis and pubic symphasis

A-flex trunk and compress abdominal contents
Which abdominal muscle has transverse tendons?
Rectus Abdominus ("six pack")
EXTERNAL OBLIQUES
M-anterior iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis
L-External surface of ribs 5-12

A-BILAT: flex trunk, compress abdominal contents
UNILAT: lateral flexion, rotation to opposite side
INTERNAL OBLIQUES
M-ABDOMINAL APONEUROSIS, INTERNAL SURFACE RIBS 10-12
L-INGUINAL LIGAMENT, ANTERIOR ILIAC CREST, THORACOLUMBAR APONEUROSIS
A- BILAT: FLEX TRUNK, COMPRESS AB. CONTENTS
UNILAT: LATERAL FLEXION AND ROTATION TO SAME SIDE
Which muscles lie immediately lateral to rectus abdominus and have diagonal fibers that follow a "hands in pockets" slant? \ /
EXTERNAL OBLIQUES
TRANSVERSE ABDOMINUS
M-Midline liea alba

L- lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament, crest of ilium, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, inner surface of cartilages of ribs 7-12

A-compress abdominal contents
DIAPHRAGM
U- central tendon

L- xiphoid process, inner surface of ribs 6-12, bodies and discs of L1-3

A- principle muscle in respiration, increases volume of thoracic cavity, draws down central tendon of diaphragm, contracts/lowers on inhalation
Which three internal body structures pass through the diaphragm?
esophagus, inferior vena cava, abdominal artery
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
U- inferior border of the rib above

L- superior border of the rib below

A- draw the vental part of the ribs upward, increasing the space of the thoracic cavity
Which intercostals work on inhalation? Which intercostals work on exhalation?
Externals inhale--pull ribs up, make more space
Internals exhale--pull ribs down, decrease space
INGUINAL LIGAMENT
-Runs from the ASIS to the anterior pubis
-is a continuation of the external obliques
LINEA ALBA
-white line at midline of abdomen, a thickening of the abdominal aponeurosis
THORACOLUMBAR APONEUROSIS
The fascia which covers the deep muscles of the back; it is attached to the angles of the ribs and to the spines of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae, to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, to the lower border of the twelth rib and to the iliac crest, as well as to the lumbocostal, iliolumbar, intertransverse, and supraspinous ligaments.
WHAT ARE THE MUSCLES OF THE ERECTOR SPINAE GROUP, FROM MEDIAL TO LATERAL? (3)
Spinalis
Longissimus
Iliocostalis
WHAT MUSCLES MAKE UP THE TRANSVERSOSPINALIS GROUP, FROM DEEP TO SUPERFICIAL? (3)
ROTATORES
MULTIFIDI
SEMISPINALIS
WHICH IS THE ONLY MUSCLE OF THE ERECTOR SPINAE GROUP THAT FLEXES THE HEAD?
LONGISSIMUS
AS A GROUP, WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE ERECTOR SPINAE?
Bilaterally--extend the spine

Unilaterally--lateral flexion
WHICH IS THE MOST MEDIAL ERECTOR MUSCLE?
SPINALIS
SPINALIS
-IN THE LAMINA GROOVE
-ATTACHES TO SPINOUS PROCESSES CERVICAL TO LUMBAR
What are the attachments of LONGISSIMUS, from superior to inferior?
mastoid process
transverse proc. of cervical vertebrae
transverse proc. of thoracic vertebrae
ribs
transverse proc. of lumbar vertebrae
sacrum
Which muscle is the highest part of the ERECTOR SPINAE (the "mound" on the back)?
LONGISSIMUS
WHICH IS THE MOST LATERAL ERECTOR?
ILIOCOSTALIS
What are the attachments of ILIOCOSTALIS, from superior to inferior?
transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
ribs
transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
ilium
What are the actions of the TRANSVERSOSPINALIS GROUP?
-UNILATERALLY ROTATE TO OPPOSITE SIDE
-BILATERALLY EXTEND THE TRUNK
WHAT ARE THE THREE PARTS OF SEMISPINALIS?
CAPITUS
CERVICUS
THORACIS
WHAT ARE THE ATTACHMENTS OF SEMISPINALIS?
-spinous processes of thoracic and cervical vertebrae (except C1) and superior nuchal line of occiput
-transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
-articular processes of lower cervicals
MULTIFIDI
U- spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae through second cervical vertebrae (span 2-4 vertebrae)
L- sacrum and transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae
A- BILAT: extend the vertebral column,
UNILAT: rotate the vertebral column to the opposite side
ROTATORES
U- spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae through second cervical vertebrae (span 1-2 vertebrae)
L- Transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae
A- BILAT: extend the vertebral column,
UNILAT: rotate to the opposite side
QUADRATUS LUMBORUM
U- 12TH RIB, TRANSVERSE PROCESSES OF L1-5
L- POSTERIOR ILIAC CREST AND ILIOLUMBAR LIGAMENT
A- UNILAT: lateral flexion, elevates hip
BILAT: extend trunk, fixes last rib in respiration
SERRATUS POSTERIOR SUPERIOR
M- spinous processes of C7-T3

L- upper borders of ribs 2-5

A- Elevates ribs 2-5, increases volume of thoracic cavity
SERRATUS POSTERIOR INFERIOR
M- spinous processes of T11-L3

L- Inferior border of ribs 9-12

A- draws ribs 9-11 downward, decreases volume of thoracic cavity
What are the three points of articulation for vertebrae?
2 facets and the intervertebral disc
What are the two parts of an intervertebral disc?
-nucleus pulposus
-anulus fibrosus
What is the NUCLEUS PULPOSUS?
the round, gel-filled center of an intervertebral disc
What is the ANULUS FIBROSUS?
the fibrous outer layer of the disc that hold the nucleus pulposus in place
How many cervical vertebrae are there? Thoracic? Lumbar?
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
How many ribs are there?
24
What are the three parts of the STERNUM?
Manubrium
Gladiolus
xiphoid process
What is the difference between a bulging intervertebral disc and a ruptured intervertebral disc?
-with a bulging disc, the anulus fibrosus tears a little on the inside only
-with a ruptured disc, the AF tears all the way through and the nucleus propulsus leaks out
What does COSTAL mean?
Ribs.
The costal surface if the surface facing the ribs, and costal cartilage is between the ribs and sternum
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
-the clavicle and the scapula
What are the movements of the SHOULDER GIRDLE? (6)
ELEVATION
DEPRESSION
PROTRACTION
RETRACTION
UPWARD ROTATION
DOWNWARD ROTATION
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER JOINT?
SCAPULA AND PROXIMAL HUMERUS
WHAT ARE THE THREE JOINTS OF THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
STERNOCLAVICULAR (gliding)
ACROMIOCLAVICULAR (gliding)
SCAPULOTHORACIC (false)
WHAT IS THE ANATOMICAL NAME FOR THE SHOULDER JOINT?
GLENOHUMERAL JOINT
WHAT KIND OF JOINT IS THE GLENOHUMERAL JOINT?
BALL AND SOCKET
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE SHOULDER JOINT?
-FLEXION AND EXTENSION
-ABDUCTION AND ADDUCTION
-HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION AND ADDUCTION
-MEDIAL AND LATERAL ROTATION
WHAT ARE THE POSTERIOR MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
TRAPEZIUS
RHOMBOIDS
LEVATOR SCAPULA
WHAT ARE THE ANTERIOR MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
PECTORALIS MINOR
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
SUBCLAVIUS
TRAPEZIUS
M- Occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes C7-T12
L- spine of the scapula, acromion process, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
A- Elevation (upper fibers), adduction (middle fibers), depression (lower fibers), and upward rotation of scapula; stabilizes scapula; bilaterally, extends the head; unilaterally, flexes the head and neck; rotates to opp. side
RHOMBOIDS
M- spinous prcesses of C7-T5

L- medial border of scapula between spine of scapula and inferior angle

A- adduction, elevation and downward rotation
LEVATOR SCAPULA
U- transverse processes of C1-C4

L- superior angle and medial border of the scapula

A- elevation, downward rotation, lateral flexion of neck, rotation of neck to same side, extends neck
PECTORALIS MINOR
U- CORACOID PROCESS

L- RIBS 3, 4, 5

A- ABDUCTION OF SCAPULA, DEPRESSION, TILTS SCAPULA ANTERIORLY, ASSISTS IN FORCED INHALATION WHEN SCAPULA IS FIXED
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
ANT--lateral aspect of upper 8-9 ribs

POST- costal surface of medial border of scapula

A- abduct scapula, depress scapula, holds medial border of scapula against ribcage, may act in forced inhalation
SUBCLAVIUS
U- inferior surface of clavicle

L- 1st rib and cartilage

A- draws clavicle inferiorly and anteriorly, elevate ribs when inhaling, stabilizes sternoclavicular joint
WHAT ARE THE 4 MUSCLES OF THE ROTATOR CUFF?
SUPRASPINATUS
INFRASPINATUS
TERES MINOR
SUBSCAPULARIS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE ROTATOR CUFF?
IT HOLDS THE HUMERUS IN THE GLENOID CAVITY (STABILIZES THE GLENOHUMERAL JOINT)
WHICH MUSCLE IS MOST OFTEN AFFECTED IN THE CASE OF A "TORN ROTATOR CUFF"?
SUPRASPINATUS
WHAT ARE THE BONEY LANDMARKS OF THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS?
-GREATER TUBERCLE (lateral)
-LESSER TUBERCLE (medial to biccipital groove)
-BICCIPITAL OR INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE
WHICH TWO ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES ARE EXACT SYNERGISTS?
INFRASPINATUS AND TERES MINOR
SUPRASPINATUS
M- SUPRASPINOUS FOSSA

L- GREATER TUBERCLE OF HUMERUS

A- ABDUCTION, LATERAL ROTATION, STABILIZE HUMERUS IN SCAPULA
INFRASPINATUS
M- INFRASPINOUS FOSSA

L- GREATER TUBERCLE OF HUMERUS

A- LATERAL ROTATION, ADDUCTION, EXTENSION, HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION, STABILIZES HUMERUS IN GLENOID CAVITY
TERES MINOR
M- DORSAL MID-LATERAL SCAPULA

L- GREATER TUBERCLE OF HUMERUS

A- LATERAL ROTATION, ADDUCTION, EXTENSION, HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION, STABILIZES HUMERUS IN GLENOID CAVITY
SUBSCAPULARIS
M- SUBSCAPULAR FOSSA

L- LESSER TUBERCLE OF HUMERUS

A- MEDIAL ROTATION, STABILIZES HUMERUS
WHICH IS THE ONLY ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE THAT MEDIALLY ROTATES THE SHOULDER?
SUBSCAPULARIS
WHICH IS THE ONLY ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE THAT ATTACHES AT THE LESSER TUBERCLE OF THE HUMERUS?
SUBSCAPULARIS
TERES MAJOR
M- posterior surface of lateral border of scapula near the inferior angle
L- bicipital groove

A- medial rotation of shoulder, extend shoulder, adduct shoulder

'LATS' LITTLE HELPER"
LATISSIMUS DORSI
M- spines of T6-S5, ribs 9-12, posterior iliac crest
L- bicipital groove

A- medial rotation of shoulder, extend shoulder, adduct shoulder

"handcuff position"
PECTORALIS MAJOR
M- medial clavicle (clavicular head), sternum (sternal head), ribs 1-6 (costal head)
L- bicipital groove

A- medial rotation of shoulder, flex shoulder, horiz. adduction of shoulder, adduction, lower fibers may do extension
DELTOID
M- lateral clavicle (anterior fibers), acromion process (middle fibers), spine of scapula (posterior fibers
L- deltoid tuberosity
A- medial/lateral rotation of shoulder, extend/flex shoulder, abduct shoulder, horizontal abduction and adduction of shoulder
CORACOBRACHIALIS
M- coracoid process

L- midshaft of humerus

A- flex shoulder, adduct shoulder
WHICH SHOULDER MUSCLE IS CALLED THE "GLUTEUS MEDIUS OF THE SHOULDER JOINT" AND WHY?
DELTOID--does all movements EXCEPT ADDUCTION!
DELTOID SHARES ATTACHMENTS WITH WHICH MUSCLE THAT ACTS ON THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?
TRAPEZIUS
(spine of scapula, acromion process, clavicle)
WHICH IS THE MOST SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE OF THE MID-LOWER BACK?
LATISSIMUS DORSI
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TERES MINOR AND TERES MAJOR?
TERES MAJOR--synergist to lats, bigger, lower posterior scapula, inferior angle to bicipital groove, goes from back of shoulder to front

TERES MINOR--synergist to infraspinatus, smaller, higher posterior scapula, on back of shoulder only
WHAT IS KYPHOTIC POSTURE?
C-shaped vertebral column, head forward, face up, rounded shoulders
WHICH IS THE MOST SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE ON UPPER BACK?
TRAPEZIUS
WHAT ARE THE MUSCLES THAT ACT ON THE SCAPULA?
TRAPEZIUS
LEVATOR SCAPULA
RHOMBOIDS
PEC MINOR
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
WHAT ARE SOME PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM KYPHOTIC POSTURE?
PROTRACTED SCAPULA
SERRATUS ANTERIOR SHORTENED
PEC MINOR SHORTENED
RHOMBOIDS OVERSTRETCHED
LEVATOR SCAPULA OVERSTRETCHED
MID AND UPPER TRAPS OVERSTRETCHED
HUMEROULNAR JOINT
the trochlea of the distal humerus is received by the trochlear notch of the ulna
HUMERORADIAL JOINT
where the capitulum of the distal humerus articulates with the head of the radius
WHICH JOINTS MAKE UP THE ELBOW?
HUMEROULNAR
HUMERORADIAL
WHAT KIND OF JOINT IS THE ELBOW AND WHAT ARE ITS ACTIONS?
A HINGE JOINT.
FLEXION AND EXTENSION
RADIOULNAR JOINT
the head of the radius is received by the radial notch of ulna
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE RADIOULNAR JOINT?
IT PIVOTS.
PRONATION AND SUPINATION
WHICH TWO MUSCLES OF THE UPPER ARM SHARE A TENDON AT THE CORACOID PROCESS?
CORACOBRACHIALIS
BICEPS BRACHII
WHERE IS THE SUPRAGLENOID TUBERCLE?
ABOVE THE GLENOID CAVITY
WHERE IS THE INFRAGLENOID TUBERCLE?
BELOW THE GLENOID CAVITY
WHICH MUSCLE IS THE "DRINKING MUSCLE"?
BRACHIORADIALIS
HOW MANY HEADS OF TRICEPS BRACHII CROSS THE SHOULDER JOINT?
ONE
WHICH IS THE DEEPEST MUSCLE IN THE ANTERIOR FOREARM?
PRONATOR QUADRATUS
WHAT IS THE ANATOMICAL NAME FOR THE WRIST AND WHAT KIND OF JOINT IS IT?
RADIOCARPAL JOINT

ELLIPSOIDAL
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE WRIST?
FLEXION AND EXTENSION
ADDUCTION AND ABDUCTION
WHAT ARE THE BONES OF THE WRIST? (8)
SCAPHOID
LUNATE
TRIQUETRUM
PISIFORM
TRAPEZIUM
TRAPEZOID
CAPITATE
HAMATE
WHICH WRIST BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE THUMB?
TRAPEZIUM
WHAT IS THE ANATOMICAL NAME FOR THE BONES OF THE PALM OF THE HAND?
METACARPALS
WHAT ARE METACARPALPHALANGEAL JOINTS?
WHERE THE METACARPALS ARTICULATE WITH THE BASES OF THE PHALANGES
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE METACARPALPHALANGEAL JOINTS?
FLEXION, EXTENSION, ABDUCTION, ADDUCTION
WHAT IS THE ATTACHMENT SITE FOR THE COMMON FLEXOR TENDON?
MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF THE DISTAL HUMERUS
HOW MANY PHALANGES DO DIGITS 2-5 OF THE HANDS HAVE?
THREE:
PROXIMAL--touch metacarpals
MIDDLE
DISTAL--fingertips
WHAT KIND OF JOINTS ARE THE INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS?
HINGE.
FLEXION AND EXTENSION.
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE RADIOCARPAL JOINT (WRIST)?
RADIUS + SCAPHOID AND LUNATE
WHAT IS GOLFER'S ELBOW?
INFLAMMATION OF THE COMMON FLEXOR TENDON AT THE MEDIAL EPICONDYLE (MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS)
WHAT PARTS OF THE WRIST MAKE THE "CARPAL TUNNEL"?
-FLEXOR RETINACULUM IS THE ROOF
-TRAPEZIUM IS THE LATERAL WALL
-PISIFORM AND HAMATE ARE THE MEDIAL WALL
NAME THE WRIST FLEXORS FROM SUPERFICIAL TO DEEP
-SUPERFICIAL LAYER:
FLEXOR CARPE ULNARIS
PALMARIS LONGUS
FLEXOR CARPE RADIALIS
-INTERMEDIATE LAYER:
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS
-DEEP:
FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDIS
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IS ASSOCIATED WITH WHICH MUSCLE GROUP?
WRIST FLEXORS
WHAT IS TENNIS ELBOW?
INFLAMMATION OF THE COMMON EXTENSOR TENDON AT THE LATERAL EPICONDYLE (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS)
WHAT KIND OF JOINT IS THE THUMB?
SADDLE JOINT (THE ONLY ONE IN THE BODY)
WHAT MUSCLES MAKE UP THE "ANATOMICAL SNUFF BOX"?
UPPER BORDER: EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS

LOWER BORDER: EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS AND ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS
WHAT ARE THE INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND? (5)
ADDUCTOR POLLICIS
OPPONENS POLLICIS
DORSAL INTEROSSEI
PALMAR INTEROSSEI
LUMBRICALS
WHAT MUSCLES MAKE UP THE THENAR EMINENCE?
ABDUCTOR POLLICIS
OPPENENS POLLICIS
WHAT MUSCLES ARE INVOLVED IN SHIN SPLINTS?
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
TIBIALIS POSTERIOR
WHAT IS AN ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION?
-A MUSCLE IS LENGTHENED BUT ENGAGED
WHAT IS AN ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION?
NO MOVEMENT AT JOINT
BOTH AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST ARE ENGAGED
FOR EXAMPLE, PUSH-UP POSITION
WHAT IS A SYNOVIAL JOINT?
A MOVEABLE JOINT WHERE TWO BONES ARTICULATE
Which tendons run behind the lateral malleolus?
peroneus brevis
peroneus longus
Which tendons run behind the medial malleolus?
tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus
which tendons run anteriorly on the lower leg between the medial and lateral malleoli? (list medial to lateral)
tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis
extensor digitorum
WHAT ARE SHIN SPLINTS AND WHAT MUSCLES ARE INVOLVED?
-Can be anything from muscle tear to bone fracture
-tibialis anterior or posterior can be involved
-if pain is experienced with resisted plantarflexion, the problem is TP
-if pain with resisted dorsiflexion, problem is TA
What are the three classifications of functional joints?
SYNARTHROSIS--no movement
AMPHARTHROSIS--some movement
DIARTHROSIS--lots of movement
What are the three classifications of structural joints?
CARTILAGINOUS--discs
FIBROUS--dense fibrous tissue
SYNOVIAL--smooth cartilage and synovial membrane
Where is the PES ANSERINE?
proximal medial tibia
BICEPS BRACHII
P- SUPRAGLENOID TUBEROSITY

D- RADIAL TUBEROSITY AND APONEUROSIS OF BICEPS BRACHII

A- FLEX SHOULDER, FLEX ELBOW, SUPINATE FOREARM
BRACHIALIS
P- ANTERIOR, DISTAL HALF OF HUMERUS

D- ULNAR TUBEROSITY

A- FLEX ELBOW
BRACHIORADIALIS
P- DISTAL, LATERAL HUMERUS

D- STYLOID PROCESS OF RADIUS

A- FLEX ELBOW, ASSIST IN SUPINATING AND PRONATING FOREARM
TRICEPS BRACHII
P- INFRAGLENOID TUBEROSITY, PROXIMAL POSTERIOR HUMERUS, DISTAL POSTERIOR HUMERUS
D- OLECRANON PROCESS
A- EXTENDS SHOULDER, EXTENDS ELBOW, ADDUCTS SHOULDER
ANCONEUS
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- SHAFT OF ULNA

A- EXTEND ELBOW
SUPINATOR
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- LATERAL PROXIMAL RADIUS

A- SUPINATE FOREARM
PRONATOR TERES
P- MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- LATERAL MID SHAFT OF RADIUS

A- PRONATES FOREARM, FLEXES ELBOW
PRONATOR QUADRATUS
P- ANTERIOR DISTAL ULNA

D- ANTERIOR DISTAL RADIUS

A- PRONATE FOREARM
WHAT POWERFUL ELBOW FLEXOR LIES DEEP TO BICEPS BRACHII?
BRACHIALIS
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
P- MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- BASE OF METACARPAL 2 & 3

A- FLEX WRIST, FLEX ELBOW, ABDUCT WRIST
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
P- MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- PISIFORM (SOMETIMES 5TH METACARPAL)

A- FLEX WRIST, FLEX ELBOW, ADDUCT WRIST
PALMARIS LONGUS
P- MEDIAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- FLEXOR RETINACULUM AND PALMAR APONEUROSIS

A- FLEX WRIST, FLEX ELBOW, TENSES PALMAR FASCIA

NOTE!!! NOT EVERYBODY HAS ONE!
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS
P- CFT, ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT, CORONOID PROCESS OF ULNA, RADIAL SHAFT
D- BY FOUR TENDONS INTO SIDES OF MIDDLE PHALANGES OF SECOND THROUGH FIFTH FINGERS
A- FLEX SECOND THROUGH FIFTH FINGERS, FLEX WRIST
FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDIS
P- ANTERIOR AND MEDIAL SURFACES OF PROXIMAL 3/4 OF ULNA
D- BY FOUR TENDONS INTO BASES OF DISTAL PHALANGES, PALMAR SURFACES
A- FLEX SECOND THROUGH 5TH FINGERS, MAY FLEX THE WRIST
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- DORSAL SURFACE OF MIDDLE AND DISTAL PHALANGES 2-5

A- EXTEND WRIST, EXTEND FINGERS 2-5
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- BASE OF METACARPAL 2

A- EXTEND WRIST, ABDUCT WRIST (RADIAL DEVIATION), ASSIST ELBOW FLEXION
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- BASE OF METACARPAL 3

A- EXTEND WRIST, ABDUCTS WRIST (RADIAL DEVIATION), ASSIST WITH ELBOW FLEXION
EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS
P- LATERAL EPICONDYLE OF HUMERUS
D- BASE OF METACARPAL 5

A- EXTEND WRIST, ADDUCT WRIST
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND?
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES CROSS THE RADIOCARPAL (WRIST) JOINT.
INTRINSIC MUSCLES ARE TOTALLY CONTAINED IN THE HAND.
FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS
P- ANTERIOR SURFACE OF RADIUS, DEEP TO FLEXORS
D- DISTAL PHALANGE OF THUMB

A- FLEXES THE THUMB
ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS
P- POSTERIOR SURFACE OF RADIUS AND ULNA, DEEP TO EXTENSORS
D- BASE OF 1ST METACARPAL

A- ABDUCTS THUMB, EXTENDS THUMB
EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS
P- POSTERIOR SURFACE OF ULNA AND INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE, DEEP TO EXTENSORS
D- DISTAL PHALANGE OF THUMB

A- EXTENDS THE THUMB
EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS
P- POSTERIOR SURFACE OF RADIUS AND INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE, DEEP TO EXTENSORS
D- PROXIMAL PHALANGE OF THUMB

A- EXTENDS THE THUMB
Peptidoglycan:
1. Functionhjgfjhgfhjgf
2. chemical composition
1. Support, protection against osmotic pressure
2. Sugar backbone with cross linked peptide side chains
OPPONENS POLLICIS
P- FLEXOR RETINACULUM AND TUBERCLE OF THE TRAPEZIUM
D- ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE FIRST METACARPAL BONE, RADIAL SIDE
A- OPPOSITION OF THE THUMB AT THE CARPOMETACARPAL JOINT
INTEROSSEI
P- METACARPAL BONES

D- DORSAL EXPANSIONS OF DIGITS 2-5

A- ABDUCT FINGERS (DORSAL), ADDUCT FINGERS (PALMAR), FLEX METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINTS, EXTEND INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS
LUMBRICALS
P- FOUR TENDONS OF FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDIS MUSCLE
D- RADIAL SIDE OF DORSAL DIGIT EXPANSION OF DIGITS 2-5

A- FLEX METACARPALPHALANGEAL JOINTS, EXTEND INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS
WHAT KIND OF JOINTS ARE THOSE BETWEEN THE CARPALS?
GLIDING
WHAT KIND OF JOINTS ARE BETWEEN THE BASE OF THE CARPALS AND THE METACARPALS 2-5?
ELLIPSOIDAL
WHAT IS SNUFF BOX SYNDROME?
TENDONITIS OF EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS, ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS AND EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS
THE HEEL BONE IS THE ...
CALCANEUS
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE SUBTALAR JOINT?
INVERSION AND EVERSION
WHAT ARE THE ACTIONS OF THE TALOCRURAL JOINT?
PLANTARFLEXION AND DORSIFLEXION
WHAT IS THE COMMON PROXIMAL ATTACHMENT OF THE HAMSTRINGS?
ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY
WHAT IS THE COMMON DISTAL ATTACHMENT OF THE QUADRICEPS?
TIBIAL TUBEROSITY
WHAT DOES THE TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE USE AS ITS TENDON?
ITB (ILIOTIBIAL BAND)
PSOAS, ILIACUS AND PECTINEUS ALL HAVE A LOWER ATTACHMENT AT THE...
LESSER TROCHANTER
WHICH HIP FLEXOR IS PART OF THE QUADRICEPS GROUP?
RECTUS FEMORIS
WHICH HIP FLEXOR CONNECTS THE AXIAL SKELETON TO THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON?
PSOAS
What three bacteria have IgA protease as a virulence factor?
SHiN: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B; Neisseria.

Helps to cleave IgA to colonize the respiratory mucosa.
WHAT IS PIRIFORMIS SYNDROME?
IMPINGEMENT OF THE SCIATIC NERVE WHEN PIRIFORMIS IS CONTRACTED, LEADING TO PAIN SHOOTING DOWN THE LEG
WHAT ARE THE MOST SUPERIOR MUSCLES ON THE POSTERIOR HIP?
THE LATERAL ROTATORS ("PIRIFORMIS AND THE GOGOQ's"), WHICH LIE DEEP TO GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
WHAT CAUSES CHRONIC CONTRACTURE OF A MUSCLE?
-LACK OF MOBILITY--MUSCLE STAYS IN A SHORTENED POSITION
-REPETIVE CONTRACTIONS
WHAT IS THE INGUINAL LIGAMENT?
The thickened lower portion of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle extending from the anterior superior spine of the ileum to the tubercle of the pubis and the pectineal line.
THE NAME OF THE JOINTS BETWEEN THE SKULL BONES IS...
SUTURE JOINTS
WHAT IS THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME?
IMPINGEMENT OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS, OFTEN DUE TO CONTRACTURE OF THE SCALENES
WHAT IS A UNIQUE FEATURE OF CERVICAL VERTEBRAE?
TRANSVERSE FORAMEN
THE CENTRAL TENDON IS LOCATED ON WHICH MUSCLE?
DIAPHRAGM
THE PROXIMAL END OF THE ULNA IS THE...
OLECRENON PROCESS
THE RADIAL NOTCH IS FOUND ON WHICH BONE?
ULNA
WHAT ARTICULATES WITH THE CAPITULUM?
HEAD OF THE RADIUS
WHICH ELBOW FLEXOR PRONATES AND SUPINATES?
BRACHIORADIALIS
How to palpate Adductor Magnus?
Client on side, leg on top bent forward, exposing medial thigh of leg on bottom. Locate adductor tendons at top of thigh near pubic bone. Most prominent one is either gracilis or adductor longus. Adductor magnus lies posterior to this tendon.
How to palpate Teres Minor?
Client is prone with arm off the side of table. Locate superior half of lateral border of scapula. Slide laterally off scapula onto Teres Minor. Have client laterally rotate shoulder to feel it contract.
How to palpate Teres Major?
Client prone with arm off the side of the table. Grab Lats between fingers and thumb. Move fingers and thumb medially to where you feel the scapula's lateral border--the fibers here that connect directly to lateral scapula are Teres Major (have client medially rotate to differentiate TM from lats)
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