Apush progressives- great depression Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The Comstock Law(s) (1873)
Federal law: no mailing obscene stuff.
Jack London and The Call of the Wild: (1903)
Naturalist literature, dog goes into the wild.
Charles Darwin
Guy who talked about natural selection, evolution, caused controversy.
YMCAs and YWCA
General social and recreational centers for men and women.
American Tobacco Company
One of the monopolizing companies broken up by trustbusting.
Mary Harris Jones
Organizer for labor unions, really influential.
closed shop
Company only hires union people, eventually declared illegal.
Labor Day
created in relation to the pullman strike to appease workers (cleveland wanted to improve his image with industrial workers)
Billion-Dollar Congress
republicans lining their pockets
Sherman Silver Purchase
more silver!! this was because of popular complaint (again, farmers and miners)
Pendelton Act
reform in civil service jobs- said assignment should be based on merit (change from the unfair spoils system)
Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act
silver put back into circulation as currency, upset conservatives but miners/farmers thought it didn't do enough
Williams vs Mississippi
supreme court upholds literacy tests, OK to discriminate, poll tax and literacy tests
Eight Box Law
ballots complicated to prevent african americans from voting
Birth of a Nation
incredibly racist film that portrayed african americans unfairly and inspied KKK action near stone mountain
New Republic
liberal journal associated with Roosevelt
Alice Paul and National Women's Party
huge demonstrations in the 1910s in favor of woman suffrage
Carrie Chapman Catt and National American Woman Suffrage Association
she was president after Susan B. Anthony. they fought for the vote, etc.
Women's Peace Party
national women's political organization. included Carrie Chapman Catt and Jane Addams.
19th Amendment
women get the right to vote.
Danbury Hatter's Case
Hatters struck, got sued, lost. Later led to reform.
Muckrakers
journalists who dig up dirt on people
17th Amendment
direct election of senators
Progressive Party of 1912
Republicans split, Roosevelt favored reform and progressivism.
National Child Labor Committee
Sought to increase working conditions for children, pass related acts.
John Dewey and Progressive era education ideas
founded pragmatism, children needed more interactive curriculum.
President appointed Neill-Reynolds Investigation
roosevelt created investigation after horrors of meatpacking industry were publicized in sinclair's novel
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Women working in clothing factory burn down with the bulding when it catches on fire because all the doors were locked for their "safety."
Lewis Hine
American sociologist and photographer against child labor
Gifford-Pinchot
politician who reformed the forestry/park service
Federal Trade Commission
formed in 1914 to protect consumers against harmful business practices such as monopolies (anti-competitive practices)
Federal Reserves Act of 1913
created the first national bank since andrew jackson destroyed the existing charter.
Reclamation Act of 1913
can't find anything, assuming it's similar to 1902
Reclamation Act of 1902
funded irrigation projects in 20 dry states in the west.
Hepburn Act
ICC was given the power to set railroad rates.
Standard Oil Decision
Supreme Court said Standard Oil was monopolizing, trustbusting ensued.
New Freedom of Wilson
Supported competitive business and small government. Believed in limited role of president, but also put in regulations like the Clayton antitrust
New Nationalism of Roosevelt
POWERFUL government to regulate and provide for the people. Compromised and believed in GOOD trusts only
Sherman Antitrust Act
legislation that attempted to deal with trusts and monopolies, but ineffective because of the many loopholes
Northern Securities Case
Supreme Court sided with the government, and forced the NSC to break up.
Trust-busting
TEDDY Roosevelt pushed for many lawsuits against big businesses.
Cowboy Diplomacy
When countries use intimidation, military deployment, etc to resolve international conflicts
John Hay
Open Door Policy in China, as welll as enacting the Hay-Herran treaty
Little Brown Brothers
Term used by Americans to refer to filipinos during the U.S. control over the country.
The Insular Cases
about territories that the United States gained during the Spanish-American War and the rights they get.
The Platt Amendment
promised that the United States WOULD take part in Cuban domestic and international affairs.
Emilio Aquinaldo
philippine revolutionary against spain
Teller Amendment
U.S. was not able to annex Cuba, and left the power in the Cuban's hands. They did not want the U.S. to have permanent control over Cuba.
General "Butcher" Weyler
behind the cuban imprisonment camps right before the S-A war
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute
US fixes boundary dispute between Venezuela and British.
Pan-American Conference in Washington DC
conference to open trade between latin america and america
"Big Sister" Policy
policy for open trade and dominance over latin america
Henry Cabot Lodge
senator who opposed the ratification of the treaty of versailles because he believed that wilson had gone behind the backs of americans
Expansionism
involvement in Latin America
General Tojo
He was a general in the Japanese army; some hold him responsible for Pearl Harbor.
Jacob Lawrence
African-American Painter. Did dynamic cubism. Painted a lot of harlem.
Battle at Stalingrad
terribly deadly battle between nazi germany and ussr for control of stalingrad, a city in russia.
Yalta Conference
big three conference (ally) on how to handle war-torn europe post-war
Battle of the Bulge
huge german offensive, one of their last efforts of the war (happened at the beginning of 1945)
Fair Employment Practices Committee
attempt by roosevelt to stop racial discrimination in the workplace
A. Philip Randolph
proposed the initial idea of the March On Washington, but FDR compromised
Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service
given more opportunities as men became more scarce!
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps
Women's branch of the United States Army that was created in 1943.
Bracero Program
sent mexican americans back to mexico
Dwight D. Eisenhower
general during the war and budding politician because of his success
Chester Nimitz
SUPER IMPORTANT HEAD DUDE FOR PACIFIC THEATER MILITARY
Douglas MacArthur
general in the pacific theater who won an award for his defense of the phillipines when the japanese attacked
V-E Day
ally win in europe!
V-J Day
ally win in japan
Manhattan Project
secret project to develop the atomic bomb.
D-Day
Allied forces invaded normandy. First step into the final victory of the Allied forces. This is when America really starts taking part in WW2
Battle of Midway
America's response to Pearl Harbor. One of the most important naval battles in the pacific in WW2.
Island hopping
the ally forces basically hopped around japanese islands in order to approach mainlands and avoid japanese bases
Operation Overlord
code name for the battle of normandy when ally powers regained control of france, and through this, a foothold back in europe to counter germany's craziness
Operation Torch
It was a British-American invasion of French North Africa during WW2.
War Production Board
regulate the war materials that were being used by the military during WW2.
Matthew C. Perry
american admiral who went into Japan, served as ambassador.
War Powers Act
federal govt had more power in times of war
Atlantic Charter
Agreement between Britain and America about post war
Lend-Lease Act
US supplied allied nations with war material.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Allowed arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash and carry basis
Executive Order No 9066
order to relocate the Japanese in America.
Japanese Americans
put in internment camps away from the coast areas.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
Made government jobs unable to discriminate by race or religion.
Mary McLeod Bethune
African-American educator/civil rights leader who created a school for blacks,
Marian Anderson
African American singer that was publicly renowned for her amazing voice.
John Maynard Keynes and Keynesian economics
put money into the economy to get anything out, get it going again
Fair Labor Standards Act
Created a national minimum wage for workers and also guaranteed "time and half" when working overtime, also prohibited child labor.
Sit-down strike
striking in the site of the job. Literally, you just sit down so you can't be replaced. Like Flemons' class, you sit there and do nothing.
John L. Lewis
President of the United Mine Workers of America and played a large role in the coal mining industry
Congress of Industrial Organizations
proposed by John Lewis in 1932. Federation of unions.
Supreme Court reorganizational plan
roosevelt tries to get new supreme court, dislikes their decision, but its deemed unconstitutional.
Huey Long
Share Our Wealth program, for poor people, assassinated
Francis Townsend
had the idea for the pension that was used as part of the Social Security Act
Social Security Act (1935)
Part of the new deal. It was to alleviate hardships for elderly, unemployed, widowed, fatherless, and poverty
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner 1935)
reboot of clayton antitrust, unions good.
Works Progress Administration
to stimulate the economy and get people back to work
Second New Deal
help to workers
Federal Housing Administration
allowed home buyers to take out loans so they could afford to buy
Securities and Exchange Commission
make sure that the stock market runs smoothly and doesn't crash again
Schechter v. U.S
roosevelt's attempts to control the farm/poultry industry were unconstitutional because these should be set by the state.
National Recovery Administration
less harmful competition through more companies and opportunities
Tennessee Valley Authority
provided flood control, electricity, and other tools that would help develop their economy.
Civilian Conservation Corps
gave unemployed, unskilled workers jobs in nature conservation projects
Federal Writers Project
encourage writers to publish stories even during the Great Depression.
Public Works Administration
major public constructions like dams and bridges.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
insurance for bank deposits- one can reclaim up to $250,000 from a single institution.
Neutrality Acts of 1935
after Italy invaded Ethiopia, embargo on trading arms and stuff with everyone.
Neutrality Acts of 1936
renewed Neutrality Acts of 1935
Neutrality Acts of 1937
joint with Spain, outlawing arms trade. Cash and carry provision. first signs of non-isolationist behavior.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
Prez can reduce initial taxes without permission.
Good Neighbor policy
US will not mess with Latin America, sorry about that.
Fireside chats
FDR talks on the radio, keeps people in the loop.
Repeal of Prohibition
People still drinking post-18th, gov wasting money. Legalized booze.
Bank holiday
Banks closed. Some opened again, some didn't. FDR.
Frances Perkins
Main woman behind the New Deal, worked as FDR's secretary
Brain Trust
close advisers (experts in certain fields) that a president has to help him make decisions.
Twentieth Amendment
2 term presidency, time crunches for more efficiency in gov't.
Bonus March (1932)
People P-O'd by depression, marched for early $, violent reaction.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Loans to businesses, kinda like a bailout, by Hoover.
Farm Board
Hoover's idea to balance farm crisis and stabilize stuff.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
Taxed foreign goods, backfired, hindered international trade
Herbert Hoover
President did well, failed at depression, then unpopular.
Gross National Product
measure of how much income everyone in the united states makes in one year, and it fell 50% during the Great Depression
Elections of 1900
MCKINLEY
Colonel George Washington Goethals
supervised building of the panama canal
Colonel William Gorgas
controlled malaria/yellow fever through dealing with the mosquitoes in panama
The Great White Fleet
Nickname for the naval fleet that circled around the globe from 1907-1909
Algeciras Conference
some squabbling europeans need to work out their problems (pre ww1)
Council of National Defense
coordinated resources for ww1
Chateau-Thierry
ally victory in ww1
Sgt. Alvin York
beast american soldier in ww1
Sedition Act of 1918
Forbid Americans from using profane language when they were talking about the American government
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