Kinesiology glossary chap 1,2,and 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
acceleration
change in velocity of a body over time
accessory movements
joint play; slight, passive, nonvolitional movements allowed in most joints
active force
generated by stimulated muscle
agonist movement
muscle group that is directly related to the initiation of the and execution of a particular movement
angle of insertion
angle formed between a tendon and the long axis of a bone into which it inserts
antagonist muscle
muscle or muscle group that is considered to have the opposite action of a particular agonist
arthrokinematics
motion that occurs between the articular surfaces of joints
axis of rotation
pivot point for angular motion of the body or body parts
canter of mass
located just anterior to the sacrum
close packed position
position of maximal congruency; joint's ligaments and parts of the capsule are pulled taunt, which provides stability,with minimal accessory movements
concentric activation
muscles produces a pulling force as it contracts
creep
progressive strain of material when exposed to a constant load over time
degrees of freedom
number of independent directions of movements allowed at a joint; up to 3
displacement
change in the linear or angular position of an object
distal on proximal segment kinematics
open kinematic chain; distal segment of a joint rotates on a fixed proximal segment
eccentric activation
muscle produces a pulling force as it lengthens
elasticity
ability of a material to return to it original length after the removal of a deforming force
external force
forces outside the body
external torque
product of the external force (i.e. gravity) and the external moment arm
force
a push our pull that can produce, arrest, or modify movement
force couple
2 or more muscle produce forces at the same time in different linear direction, although in the same rotary direction; i.e. turning a steering wheel and both hands are rotating right, but the right is puling down and the left is pulling up
internal force
produced from structures within the body
isometric activation
muscle produces a pulling force while maintaining a constant length
kinematics
describes motion in the body without regard to the forces or torque that may cause the motion
kinematic chain
series of articulated segmented links; i.e. the pelvis, thigh, leg and foot are connected
kinetics
study of mechanics that describes the effect of forces on the body
line of force
spatial orientation of a muscle force
load
force that acts on the body
loose packed position
any position other than a close packed
moment arm
perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation of the joint and the force
muscle action
potential of a muscle to cause torque in a particular rotation direction and plane
osteokinematics
motion of bones relative to the sagittal,frontal and horizontal planes of the body
passive force
generated by tension in stretched periarticular connective tissues
passive movement
movement caused by something other than a muscle contraction
plasticity
behavior of an overstretched tissue
proximal on distal kinematics
closed chain; proximal segment rotating on a fixed distal segment
roll
rolling a bones articular surface against another bone's articular surface
rotation
assumed rigid body part moves in a circular path around some pivot point
shear
force produced as to compressed objects slide past each other in opposite directions. i.e. action of 2 blades on scissors
slide
single point on the articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface
spin
single point on the articular surface contacts a single point on another articular surface
synergists
when muscle cooperate during a particular movement
torque
moment; product of a force and its moment arm
translation
linear motion in which all parts of a rigid body move in the same direction and parallel as every other part of the body
viscoelasticity
property of a material expressed by a changing stress-strain relationship over time
convex on concave movements
convex surface rolls and slides in opposite directions
concave on convex movement
concave surface rolls and slides in same directions
first class lever
axis of rotation between the opposing forces
2nd class lever
axis is located at one end of the bone; internal force is greater than external force
3rd class lever
axis at one end of the bone; external weight supported always has greater leverage than the muscle force
synarthrosis
joint that allows slight to no movement
fibrous joints
synarthrosis joint that is stabilized by a high concentration of dense connective tissue
cartilaginous joint
synarthrosis joint that is stabilized by varying forms of flexible fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage, often mixed with collages
diarthrosis
articulation that allows moderate to extensive motion; also known as synovial joints
hinge joint
flexion and extension only
pivot joint
spinning of one member around a single axis of rotation; proximal radio-ulnar joint
ellipsoid joint
bi-planar motion; radiocarpal joint
ball-and-socket joint
tri-planar motion; GH joint
plane joint
slide (translation), or slide and rotation; CMC joint of thumb and SC joint
condyliod joint
bi-planar joint; MCP joint and knee
Type I collagen
thick fibers that elongate little when placed under tension; tendons and ligaments
Type II collagen
much thinner than type I and less tensile strength; hyaline cartilage
elastin fibers
net like inter-weaving of small fibrils that resist tensile forces, but have more give when elongated
ground substance
water-saturated matrix or gel that contains collagen and elastin fibers. consists of GAGs, water, and solutes
fibroblasts
primary cells within ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissue
chondrocytes
primary cells in hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage
dense connective tissue
fiborous layer of the joint capsule, ligaments and tendons; irregular and regular
irregular dense CT
irregular and haphazard orientation of collagen fibers within its ground substance; better at resisting tensile forces from multiple directions; fibrous layer of the joint capsule
regular CT
orderly or near parallel orientation of collagen fibers within its ground substance; ligaments and tendons; fxn better when stretched nearly parallel to the long axis of the ligament
articular cartilage
type of hyaline cartilage that forms the load bearing surface of joints; avascular and aneural
fibrocartilage
mix of dense CT and articular cartilage; provides resilience and shock absorption of articular cartilage and the tensile strength of ligaments and tendons; menisci, vertebral disks and pubic symphysis; limited blood supply, aneural
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