BioMechanics Exam II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Whats the difference between mobility and stability
mobitliy tends to rotate mucles and stability tends to do translatory
3 Specific Isokenetic proproties
1. fixed velocity, resistance varies

2. resistant is dependant upon effort

3. resistance is parallel to the lever arm
Define Strength
Ability to apply force and active tension
What is passive tension?
after toe region, when stretch is taken into the plastic or elastic region
Muscle force is dependant on what type of factors?
- muscle size
- architecture
- length-tension relationship
- age and gender
Action Tension =
contraction due to cross bridge formation
Discribe end rage elongation with active insufficiency
no actin/myosin overlap
Discribe the facet joints orientation
thoracis- frontal
cervial- tranvserse
Intervertebral disk is composed of?
water, collagen and proteogylcans
What is the most common type of bulge
thinner posterior- bulges anteriorly
What is the rectus abdominus responsible for?
flex trunk
upward pelvis rotation(the same thing as posterior pelvic tilt)
What is responsible for hip hike? (lateral flexion)
quadratus lumborum
Spinal Mobility is determined by-
1. orientation of facet joints

2. inherent mobility
3. height of disk
4. disk mobility
T/F there is a lot of rotation between C1 and C2
In rotation- superior facet glides in same/Opposit Direction of the rotation
lumbar-pelvic rhythm relationship
lumbar flexion occurs first- then pelvis tilts during forward bending
How does the spine resist torsion
- outer layer of the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral disks resists torsional forces
What is the most effective structure in the lumbar spine for resisting torsion?
Normal lumbosacral angle-
what creates the greatest force on a disk?
combines tension, axial compression and bending all from SITTING!
if you have a disk gerniatioin at L4-L5 what is it caused by?
rupture of posterior anulus fibrosis
scoliosis humps are due to-
rotation of the vertebra to the complexity of the lateral curvature
what regions are more free for lateral bending?
thorasic Spine
what regions are more free for flexing
which region has most extension?
what spinal region is most stable?
what type of forces are common in the spine?
shearing forces (due to poor posture)
Discribe forward head posture
ears should be above acromian process of spine

moment- upper flexion an dlower extension of the spine
c1 lacks....
vertbral body and a spinous process
in cervical osteology, spinous processes are usually?
what provides support from axis to occiput?
anterior cruciform liament
what helps limit facet joint distraction?
articular capsules
what type of joint is A-A
pivot joint
Is there a disk in A -A joint?
With lower cervical spine, where is the most movement occuring?
C4/5 and C5/6
what type of moevement is c 4/5
side bends / rotations
what type of movement is c 5/6
flex/ ext
iliac crest lines up with what vertebrae
PSIS is at what vertebrae level
C-1 transverse process can be found where?
T7 is around what landmark
inferior angle of scapula
Functions of thorax
- respiration
- protect lungs, and other organs
- arm attachement
- added stability
- rib attachements
where are the demi-facets on vretebral bodies
concave- where ribs attach
rib 1 attaches to the
Whats the difference between true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
T- attach directly to the sternum (2-7)

F- attach to cartilginous structure (8-10)

FL- end articulation (11-12)
As the ribs meet the spine,m discribe their orientation
comes FROM postero, latero, infero angle
What is unique to the ribs?
radiate ligament
thoracic facets favor what movement?
sidebend and rotation over flexion and extension
Movement frame of reference of facet joints
- superior moves on stationary inferior
Lateral flexibitiliy of the spine increases you move up or down the spine?
what joint would permit you to have forefoot pronation and normal rearfoot position?
Transverse Tarsal Joint (TTJ)
What joint is working if entire foot is pronated or supinated?
Subtalar Joint (STJ)
dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of foot occurs in what plane?
inversin and eversion of foot occur in what plane?
What muscle inverts the foot?
tibialis anterior and posterior
What is the reference for foot deformites
dscribe subtalor nutral position
calcaneous can invert twice as much as evert
Adduction and Abduction of foot occurs mostly at what joint and in what plane?
TTJ Transverse plane
talus - adducts
calcanius- evert (or pronate)

- rearfoot valgus
- equinovalgus

- very common
- CACL is inverted/supine
- Talus is aBducted

- rearfoot Varus
- equinovarus
Foot valgus means=
increase in medial angle

as a varus decreased this angle
Forefoot Varus looks like-
forefoot supination
TTJ problem
If calc inversion in STJ...
rearfoot VARUS
purpose of arches
shock absorption
Discribe the rays of the foot
(1-3) phalanges, metarsal and medial cuniform

(4-5) doesnt include the cubiod
what joint would permit you to have forefoot pronation and normal rearfoot position?
Transverse Tarsal Joint (TTJ)
What joint is working if entire foot is pronated or supinated?
Subtalar Joint (STJ)
inversin and eversion of foot occur in what plane?
Pronation (foot) =
Supination (foot) =
Eccesive pronation during heel strike -
soft foot
rearfoot valgus
cant push off well
CCP for talocrural

MAX Dorsiflex

10deg flex, midway between inver and eversion
CCP for Subtalor


midway between extreme range of movement
- ant talofibular ligamant
- MOST COMMon sprained ankle!
(the second most common is calcaneofibular ligaments)
position feet are in when the ankle usually gets sprained-
- plantarflex and inverted
Angle of torsion
femur rotated 15 degrees
Anteversion of Femur =
Angle of torsion increased
What could cause pigeon toes?
anteversion of femur
what could cause ASHI toes?
retroversion of femur
(decreased angle of torsion)
L5 and S1 angle degree-

Normal Q angle-

a coxa valgus could cause a genu?
A genu Varum does what to Q angle?
Whats another world for bowlegs?
Relate a Coxa Valgus to a decreased Q angle
coxa valgus-> genu Varum->

-> decreased Q angle
Discribe a possible process of the Q angle being increased starting from the hip?
coxa VARUM -> Genu VALGA ->

-> increased Q
whats another name for knock knees?
genu valgus
how many degrees of freedom does the knee have?
CPP of Knee
full extension
LPP of knee
25 degrees flexion
ACL attachments
anterior TIBIAL
posterior FEMUR
PCL attachements-
posterior TIBIA
anterior FEMUR
what protects against valgus and varus stresses in the posterior aspect of the knee?
OPL - protects VALGUS

arcuate - protects VARUS
Q angle "attachements"
Mid patella
Tibial Tuberosity
q angle is normally how many degrees?
If the Q angle is increased, what will happen to the patellar tracking?
lateral pull
what is the knee in postition for the most lateral tibial rotation?
flexed to 90 degrees
discribe kinetic chains with respect to tibia and femur movements
tibia of femur = OPEN

femur on tibia = CLOSED
"unlocking" the knee =
during squatting, the femur rotates laterally on a fixed fibia
"locking of the knee in a closed kinetic chain"
femur rotates medially on tibia during full extension
what posiiton must the knee be in for greatest mechanical position of the quads?
30-70 degrees flexion
patella femoral joint arthralgia
wrt to the muscles, how could there be a lateral patellar pull?
vastus medialis insufficiency

and/or tight lateral retinaculum
what represents bucket handles?
lower ribs during respiration
what represents a pump handle?
upper ribs during inspiration
what kinetic chain must be mimicked if there are compensations in other body regions?
reference of SI joint movement
sacrum moving on ilium
flexion at SI joint can be called-

(limited by sacrospinous and sacrotuberous)
LLP for Hip
30 flex
30 abducted
lateral rotation
almost all support of pubic symposis is due to...
aponeurotic expansion
discribe lateral tilt of the hips-
Right hip hikes
BUT its because left hip drops
when your body is making a left forward rotational movement, what happens to femur?
internal rotation on weight bearing limb
Hat is approx ___ body weight
most common painful condition of the hip
First palpatable spinous process =
What is the name for the very upper and very lower thorasic vertebrae?
transition vertibrae
When are the ribs involved in synovial joints?
only when they attach to the sternum (1-7)
Annulus protecs against ___ forces, while pulposis protects against ______ forces.

If LT Lateral Flexion...

Vertibral bodies LEFT
Spinous processses RT
if LT Lateral Bend...

Vertibral bodies RT
Spinous processes LEFT
what side of the spinous processes would a hump be on?
opposite side to the direction they are pointing.
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