Anatomy Questions for HESI entrance exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A cut along the median plane; cuts the body into left and right.
Sagittal
A cut along the frontal section; cuts the body into anterior and posterior sections.
Coronal
A cut through the middle of the body; cuts body into superior and inferior portions.
Transverse
This body cavity includes the cranial and spinal cavities.
dorsal
This body cavity includes the orbits & the nasal, oral, thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities.
Ventral
Study of tissues
histology
Group of cells that act together to perform specific functions.
Tissue
The 4 fundamental tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle & nerve
Tissue that covers, lines & protects the body and its internal organs
epithelial tissue
Tissue that is the framework of the body, providing support & structure for the organs.
connective tissue
Tissue composed of neurons & connective tissue cells that are called neuralgia
nerve tissue
Tissue that has the ability to contract or shorten; it is classified as voluntary or involuntary.
muscle tissue
voluntary muscle tissue
skeletal muscle tissue
Involuntary muscle tissue
smooth muscle & cardiac muscle tissue
Basic unit of life; building block of tissues and organs
cell
______ include the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions in the body.
proteins
Where does meiosis take place?
gonads
Mucous, serous, synovial & cutaneous are membranes composed mainly of ______ tissue
Epithelial
What is replaced by bone during embryonic development?
cartilage
______ is mainly found in joints, thorax & various rigid tubules.
Cartilage
The largest organ of the body
skin
Layer of skin that rests on the subcu. tissue that connects the skin to superficial muscles.
dermis
Name the layers of the epidermis from the outer layer to the inner layer:
Stratum corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum granulosum, stratum germinativum
Layer of epidermis where mitosis occurs
stratum germinativum
Protein pigment that protects against the suns radiation
melanin
The layer of skin composed of fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles & glands.
dermis
Two types of sweat glands
eccrine & apcorine
Sweat gland that regulates body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin.
eccrine
Sweat glands that are mainly in the groin and armpits and contain bits of cytoplasm in the secretion
apocrine
The ______ skeleton is make up of the pelvic girdle (os coxae) & the lower extremity.
lower appendicular skeleton
List the bones of the os coxae
ilium, ischium, & pubis
Muscle contraction results from the sliding together of what 2 filaments within the muscle cell or fiber?
actin & myosin
What are myofibrils made up of?
sarcomeres
What must be present for muscles to contract?
ATP & calcium
Skeletal muscle = ______ muscle
voluntary
Muscles that work in coordination with primary movers.
Synergists
Muscles that reduce the angle at the joint.
flexors
Muscles that increase the angle at the joint.
extensors
The ______ system is made up of the brain, spinal cord & nerves.
nervous
What are the main parts of a neuron?
cell body, dendrite, axon
______ of a neuron transmit impulse toward the body of the cell.
dendrites
______ of a neuron transmits impulses away from the cell body.
axon
The 2 parts of the nervous system
CNS & PNS
The division of the nervous system that consists of all of the nerves that transmit info to & from the central nervous system.
PNS
2 divisions of the PNS
Sensory (afferent) neurons & Motor (efferent) neurons
Neurons that transmit nerve impulses towards the CNS.
sensory (afferent) neurons
Neurons that carry nerve impulses away from the CNS, and toward the effector organs such as muscles, glands & digestive organs
motor (efferent) neurons
The major parts of the brain
cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata
Part of the brain associated with movement & sensory input
cerebrum
Part of the brain responsible for muscular coordination
cerebellum
Part of the brain that controls many vital functions such as respiration & heart rate
medulla oblongata
How long is the spinal cord?
18 inches
The spine extends from the ______ to the ______.
foramen magnum (base of the skull), L1 or L2
There are ______ pairs of spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord.
31
The reflexes in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only & don't reach the brain.
Simple reflexes
The impulses that enter the dorsal horns of the spinal cord.
sensory
The impulses that leave through the ventral horns of the spinal cord
motor
The system that assists the nervous system with homeostasis
endocrine system
The system that plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation
endocrine system
The gland that governs the pituitary & is controlled by the feedback of hormones in the blood.
hypothalamus
Chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation & metabolism of specific target cells.
hormones
2 major groups of hormones
steroid hormones & protein hormones
The hormones that enter the target cells and have direct effect on DNA of the nucleus.
Steroid hormones
The hormones that remain at cell surface and act through a second messenger AMP
Protein hormones
Hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of __________.
protein synthesis
The cortisol released from the adrenal cortex reduces ______, raises ______ and inhibits release of _______.
body temperature, blood sugar level, histamine
The master gland
pituitary gland
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the ________.
infundibulum
2 major portion of the pituitary gland
anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) & posterior lobe (neurohypophysis).
Hormones of the adenohypophysis
tropic hormones
STH, GH, ACTH, THS, FSH, LH are all hormones of _________.
anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Oxytocin & ADH are hormones of ______.
posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Whole blood: ______ whole blood & ______ formed parts.
55%, 45%
What make up the formed elements of blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets
What are ways to distinguish leukocytes?
size, nucleus, staining properties, & presence/absence of visual cytoplasmic granules
Leukocytes are active in ______ & ______.
phagocytosis & antibody formation
_____ are active in blood clotting.
platelets
Blood serves to transport _____ & _____ to body cells and to carry away ______ & ______.
oxygen & nutrients; CO2 & metabolic wastes
______ contains 10% proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products & hormones.
proteins
Double pump organ
heart
The heart sends blood to the lungs for ______ through the pulmonary circuit & to the remainder through the ______ circuit.
oxygenation; systemic circuit
Where blood is received
atria
After blood is received by the atria, it is pumped into circulation by the ______.
ventricles
Valve on the right side of the heart
tricuspid
Valve on the left side of the heart
bicuspid
_______ valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk & aorta.
Semilunar
Blood is supplied to the myocardium (heart muscle) by the ______.
coronary arteries
Blood drains from the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the _______.
coronary sinus
The hears intrinsic beat is initiated by the ______.
SA node
Device that measures the hearts wave of electrical activity
ECG
The period from the end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction.
cardiac cycle
The contraction phase of ventricular cycle
systole
The relaxation phase of ventricular contraction
diastole
carry blood away from the heart
arteries
carry blood toward the heart
veins
Microscopic vessels through which exchanges take place between the blood & cells of the body
capillaries
The systemic arteries begin with the ______, which sends branches to all parts of the body.
aorta
The smallest arteries
arterioles
As arteries get further away from the heart, they become ______.
thinner
The large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart.
superior & inferior venae cavae
The walls of the ______ are thick & elastic and carry blood under high pressure.
arteries
Vasoconstriction & vasodilation result from constriction & relaxation of ________ in the arterial walls.
smooth muscle
Vasoconstriction & vasodilation influence _____ & blood distribution to ________.
blood pressure; tissues
Walls of ________ are thinner, less elastic & carry blood under lower pressure than arteries.
veins
Mechanisms that help draw venous blood back to the heart: (3)
Pressure of skeletal muscle on veins; expansion of the chest during inhalation; valves in veins of legs that keep blood moving in a forward direction
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, diaphragm, muscles around the ribs & alveoli are all components of the ________ system.
respirator system
What part of the brain controls respiration?
medulla
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and blood through alveoli.
external respiration
The exchange of gasses between blood and body cells.
internal respiration
_______ passage ways of the nasal cavity serves to warm, filter and moisten incoming air.
Upper
The upper respiratory tubules are lined with ________ that keep dirt & debris from entering the lungs.
cilia
The contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the chest cavity & draw air into the lungs.
inhalation
The process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size.
exhalation
Apocrine glands secretion traps debris & bacteria causing _________.
odor
Glands that release sebum through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin & prevents drying.
Sebaceous gland
Oil is produced by ______ secretion.
holocrine
Bones are classified by ______.
shape
What kind of bone has an irregular epiphysis at each end, composed mainly of spongy bone & a shaft (diaphysis) composed of compact bone
long bone
Cells that form compact bone
osteoblasts
Axial skeleton consists of ______ bones of the skull.
28
The bones of the axial skeleton are categorized as ______.
14 facial bones & 14 cranium bones
List the 14 facial bones
2 nasal bones, 2 maxillary bones, 2 zygomatic bones, one mandible, 2 palatine bones, 1 vomer, 2 lacrimal bones, 2 inferior nasal conchae
14 bones of the cranium
occipital, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, and the ossicles of the ear (mallus, incus, stapes)
The axial skeleton also holds ______ bones of the vertebral column.
33
# of cervical vertebrae
7
# of thoracic vertebrae
12
# of lumbar vertebrae
5
# of sacral vertebrae
5
Another name for coccygeal bone
tail bone
Skeleton that houses girdles & limbs
appendicular skeleton
The pectoral/shoulder girdle, clavicle, scapula & upper extremity are housed in the __________.
upper appendicular skeleton
Most of the oxygen carried in the blood is bound to _________ in RBC's.
hemoglobin
Regulator of blood pH
CO2
The digestive tube
alimentary canal
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, recutm & anus are components of the ____________.
alimentary canal/digestive tract
Accessory organs of digestion
liver, pancreas, gallbladder
Mechanical process of breaking down food with the teeth & tongue
mastication
Substance that lubricates & dilutes chewed food
saliva
Enzyme in saliva that starts digestion of complex carbohydrates
amylase
A ball of food
bolus
Narrow tube leading from the pharynx to stomach
esophagus
4 main layers of the digestive tract (inner to outer)
mucous membrane, submucous layer, muscular layer and serous layer
After food enters the stomach, gastric glands secrete ________ that breaks down food.
hydrocholoric acid
The stomach churns & mixes the bolus, turning it into a soupy substance called ______.
chyme
the stomach regulates the movement of food into the ______.
small intestine
Where does digestion & absorption of food occur?
small intestine
Digestion in the small intestine is acted on by enzymes from _______ & ______ and by bile from the ______.
small intestine & pancreas; liver
The ________ contributes water to dilute chyme & bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
pancreas
Regions of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Nutrients are absorbed through the wall of the __________.
small intestine
The amino acids & simple sugars derived from proteins & carbohydrates are absorbed directly into ________.
blood
Most fats are absorbed into the lymph by the ________.
lacteals
After fats are absorbed & added to the blood stream, all nutrients enter the ________ to be routed to the _______ for decontamination.
hepatic portal vein; liver
small finger-like projections that greatly increase surface area of the intestinal wall
villi
Digestive organ that reabsorbs water and stores & eliminates undigested food.
large intestine
Abundant bacteria of the large intestine
intestinal flora
Portions of the large intestine
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
opening for defecating
anus
parts of the urinary system
2 ureters, 2 kidneys, urethra, and urinary bladder
The tubes that transport urine to the urinary bladder
ureters
The place where urine is stored
urinary bladder
How urine exits the body
urethra
Functional units of the kidney
nephrons
Nephrons are small coiled tubules that filter waste material out of the blood brought to the kidney by the ________.
renal artery
the filtration process occurs through the ________ in the bowmans capsule of the nephron.
glomerulus
Filtration of the blood occurs under the force of _______.
blood pressure
As the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron, components needed by the body leave the nephron by _______ & reenter the blood.
diffusion
Water is reabsorbed at the _______ of the nephron.
tubules
What is the final product of the nephrons?
urine
2 functions of the reproductive system
production of gamates; production of hormones
Functions of the sex organs are under control by ______ hormones.
tropic
reproductive activity is ______ in women and ________ in men.
cyclic; continuous
What are gamates formed by?
meiosis
Where do spermatozoa develop?
seminiferous tubules of each testis
The interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules, produce _________.
testosterone
Hormone that influences sperm cell development and produces body hair and deep voice.
testosterone
Where are sperm stored?
epididymis
Pathway for sperm during ejaculation
vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
Glands that produce semen
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowpers gland
Hormones that control testicular activity
FSH & LH
Hormone that stimulates sperm production
FSH
Hormone that stimulates intersitial cells to produce testosterone.
LH
__________ produced by the follicle initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy.
estrogen
At day ______ of the cycle, LH is released from the _______, which stimulates ovulation and the coversion of the follicle to the _______.
14; pituitary; corpus luteum
What hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum?
progesterone
After ovulation, the egg is swept into the __________.
fallopian tube
If fertilization occurs, it occurs while the egg is in the ________.
oviduct
Name for a fertilized egg
zygote
In the uterus, the developing embryo is nourished by the ______, which is formed by materials and embryonic tissues.
placenta
Cavity composed of the abdomen & pelvis
abdominopelvic cavity
Movement of nutrients from the digestive tube into the bloodstream.
absorption
Protein making up the I band of the sarcomere
actin
Building block of proteins
amino acid
Special proteins that protect the body from foreign substances.
antibody
Adenosine triphosphate, which is the energy of the cell
ATP
Upper chambers of the heart
atria
Product of the liver that emulsifies fat
bile
Tissue made of cells & fibers that connect and support
cartilage
Gland of the ear that produces earwax
Ceruminous gland
Bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called histones.
chromosomes
Nervous system made up of the brain & spinal cord
CNS
Imaginary line passing through the body from head to toe that divides the body into front & back portions
coronal plane
Body containing the brain
cranial cavity
Dome-shaped breathing muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
diaphragm
Movement of materials from high concentration to lower concentration
diffusion
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
digestion
Crescent-shaped projection of gray matter within the spinal cord where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord
dorsal horn
Prenatal development time between the zygote and the fetus
embryo
Inner lining of the uterus
endometrium
Functional proteins; names usually end in -ase
enzymes
A passage in the skull bone through which the spinal cord enters the spinal column
foramen magnum
The blood cells
formed elements
Simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits
glucose
Physiologic steady state that is naturally maintained within the body
homeostasis
Portion of the brain that regulates body temperature, sleep and appetite
hypothalamus
Articulates between adjoining bones
joints
Though, fibrous, insoluble protein forming the primary component of skin, hair, nails and tooth enamel
keratin
Dead cells of the epidermis
keratinized epithelium
Found within the villi of intestinal wall, where fat nutrients are absorbed
lacteal vessel
Tissue connecting bone to bone
ligaments
An imaginary line dividing the body into left and right portions
median plane
Space within the thoracic cavity that houses all the organs of the chest except the lungs
mediastinum
Thin sheets of tissue cells that line the body openings or canals that open to the outside of the body.
Mucous membrane
Protein that makes up nearly half of the proteins in muscle cells
myosin
Mouth; AKA buccal cavity
oral cavity
Cavities surrounding the eyes
orbits
Structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific function
organelle
Measurement associated with acids and bases
pH
Engulfing of materials by certain cells of the body
phagocytosis
Liquid portion of the blood
plasma
Blood flow through a network of vessels between the heart and the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and the removal of CO2
Pulmonary circulation
Organelle of the cell where protein synthesis takes place
ribosomes
An imaginary line running from the front to back that divides the body into left and right sections.
sagittal plane
Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
Oil glands of the skin
sebaceous glands
Thin sheets of tissue that line body cavities not having to exist to the outside
serous membrane
The backbone that protects the spinal cord, which runs inside of it.
Spinal column
Layer of tissue under the dermis that contains adipose tissue
subcutaneous tissue
Sweat glands
sudiferous glands
Loose, connective tissue that lines the joint cavity
synovial membrane
General blood circulation of the body, not including the lungs
systemic circulation
The chest cavity
thoracic cavity
Imaginary line dividing the body into top and bottom portions
transverse plane
Narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel
vasoconstriction
Widening of the diameter of a blood vessel
vasodilation
Anterior columns of the gray matter of the spinal cord
Ventral horns
Lower chambers of the heart
ventricles
The fertilized egg, from the time it is fertilized until its implanted into the urterus
zygote
The ankle is ______ in relation to the knee.
distal
The serous membrane surrounding the heart.
pericardium
The actively mitotic layer of the epidermis.
stratum germinativum
What is the total number of phalanges?
56
the flexor carpi ulnaris located?
wrist
The master gland
pituitary
The largest gland of the human body
liver
The storage area of urine
urinary bladder
The portion of the uterus under direct hormonal effect.
endometrium.
The contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs
inhalation
The process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size.
exhalation
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