Chs. 1-3 Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is a neutron?
an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
What exposes relatedness of organisms?
Common structure (consier whole systems, not just individiuals)
What is a central unifying theme?
Evolution is a central unifying theme.
What is descent with modification?
Multiple species coming from one common ancestor. (diversification) More species emerge through time.
What are the two types of stem cells?
1. embryonic stem cells (cause the controversy, are infinitely variable since they haven't developed into anything yet) 2. adult stem cells (are not infinitely variable)
If the structure of two things are alike...
it implies their function will be the same, too.
Difference between homologous and analygous?
Homologous: Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry. Analygous: structures similar, but internal origin isn't necessarily the same.
Talk about Bacteria.
prokaryotes loaded with ribosomes. aeroboic: live with oxygen.
Talk about Eucarya
the problem was, cells with walls couldn't digest other cells. walless need separate places to digest. protect the DNA, an envelope was built around it --> NUCLEUS!
Molecules... funfunfun!
They are all based on Carbon.
To identify monosaccharides, you use 1_______. 2______ when put with the monosaccharide.
1 Benedict's2 It changes from translucent blue to orange, then to a milky deep red when heated.
To identify polysaccharides, you use 1_______. 2______ when put with the polysaccharide.
1 Lugol's iodine test2 The solution changes to a deep blue-black instantaneously without heat
To identify lipids, you use 1_______. 2______ when put with the lipid.
1 Sudan III/IV2 The meniscus changes to a deeper red than the rest of the test tube.
To identify proteins, you use 1_______. 2_______ when put with the protein.
1 Biuret (dark blue)2 Pink/violet color
Instead of the known sample, ___ was used in the lab.
Distilled water
The number of protons in an uncharged atom...
equals the number of electrons.
The word "organic" means
carbon containing.
How does dehydration synthesis work?
AKA condensationH- and OH- form a covalent bond --> H20. In humans, it's found in the digestive tract.
There are__ elements
contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio to each other
Isotopes of an element will always differ in ___.
atomic mass number.
What is hydrolysis?
The opposite of dehydration synthesis (regain lost monomers)
"water-loving." soluble in H2o, which is important for living things (otherwise we would melt when it rains). Cytosol.
Membranes are hydrophobic (not water-soluble).
CO-aldehydes, ketones
COOH-carboxylic acids
NH2-amines (amino acids build protein)
How many amino acids make up proteins?
DNA from ___ nucleotide types?
How are carbohydrates made?
by hooking together monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis.
What do carbs contain chemically?
C, H, O... usually multiples of CH20 (glucose: C6H12O6)
Carbons can be arranged in
chains or rings
What is a disaccharide?
Two monomers covalently bonded by dehydration synthesis. (glucose + glucose= maltose)
Cellulose is a
Which of the following is a “macromolecule”?
a. glucoseb. Sucrosec. Glycogend. Glycerol
The monomers of macromolecules are connected to one another by
a. ionic bondsb. hydrogen bondsc. covalent bondsd. more than one of the above
Polymers are synthesized from monomers by the process of
a. Hydrolysisb. Dehydration synthesisc. Digestiond. Both b and c
The breakdown of starch into its subunits, involving the enzyme salivary amylase, is an example of
a. Hydrolysisb. Dehydration synthesisc. Digestiond. Both a and c
The bonding of glucose to fructose to form sucrose is accompanies by
a. the additon of waterb. formation of hydrogen bondsc. removal of water (H, OH)d. loss of carbon dioxide
This molecule is most likely a
a. Proteinb. Fatc. Polysaccharided. Simple sugar
Amino acids are to proteins as _______ are to starches
a. Glucose moleculesb. Nucleotidesc. Fatty acidsd. Glycerol molscules
Nucleotides contain
a. Glycerolb. Pentosesc. Sulfurd. Glucose molecules
An example of a polymer of nucleotides is
a. any polypeptideb. proteinc. cellulosed. RNA
Biological catalysts are examples of
a. proteinsb. carbohydratesc. lipidsd. nucleic acids
Which of the following is/are not true of enzymes?
a. They are proteinsb. They are sensitive to environmental changec. Their 3-dimensional shapes are not related to their functionsd. More than one
“Electrons lost or gained” best describes _____ bonding.
a. Hydrogen b. Covalentc. Ionicd. Both a and c
A bond that results from the sharing of electrons is said to be
a. ionicb. hydrogenc. covalentd. none of these
The number of water molecules necessary to hydrolyze a triglyceride is
a. 0b. 1c. 2d. 3
Weak bonds that result from the attractions of water molecules for one another are _______ bonds.
20. Weak bonds that result from the attractions of water molecules for one another are _______ bonds.a. ionicb. hydrogenc. covalentd. none of these
Hydrogen bonds are important in proteins because they
a. make peptide bonding possibleb. determine primary protein structurec. are important in determining 3- dimensional shaped. are stronger than covalent bonds
Both DNA and RNA are made of monomers called
a. nucleotidesb. nitrogenous basesc. pentosesd. phosphates
The “folding” of a protein is also known as its ___ structure.
a. primaryb. secondaryc. tertiaryd. quaternary
A, T, G, and C are abbreviations for the names of
a. nucleotides b. nitrogenous basesc. pentosesd. phosphates
Steroids are examples of a kind of
25. Steroids are examples of a kind ofa. carbohydrateb. proteinc. nucleic acidd. lipid
A deep blue-black color produced during a lugol’s test indicates the presence of
26. A deep blue-black color produced during a lugol’s test indicates the presence ofa. monosaccharideb. polysaccharidec. proteind. DNA
A molecular building block of complex steroids which is also a steroid in its own right is
a. cholesterolb. triglyceridec. phospholipidd. insulin
Reddish droplets are indicative of a positive _____ test for ______.
a. Benedict’s fat testb. biuret, proteinc. Iodine, polysaccharided. sudan IV, lipid
A feature of saturated fats is
a. liquid at room temperatureb. solid at room temperaturec. soluble in waterd. hydrophilic
RNA differs from DNA in that
a. uracil replaces thymineb. it consists of a single chain instead of a double helixc. it contains deoxyribose instead of ribosed. both a and b
Heating is required for which analytical test used in the lab?
a. Benedict’s b. Lugol’sc. Biuretd. Sudan IV
An unknown that produced a purple color with the addition of Biuret reagent contains a
a. polysaccharideb. proteinc. lipidd. nucleic acid
The process of digestion consists of the type of reaction generally known as
a. dehydration synthesisb. condensationc. hydrolysisd. anabolic
“Quaternary struture” applies to
a. the sequence of amino acidsb. multiple chain proteinsc. enzymes onlyd. covalent bond formation
The central unifying theme of modern biology is
a. biochemistryb. evolutionc. physiology d. metabolism
The most commonly used classification system includes _____ kingdoms.
a. 2b. 3c. 4d. 5
An assumption of modern biology is that commonality of structures mirrors _______.
a. relatednessb. evolutionc. physiology d. metabolism
Starch is essentially a long chain of repeating ______ units.
a. glucoseb. sucrosec. fructosed. lactose
“Triglyceride” may be used interchangeably with________
a. waxb. steroidc. hormoned. fat
A type of protein belonging to the “transport” group of proteins is
a. hemoglobinb. an antibodyc. a catalystd. a hormone
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