8th Grade Science Flash Cards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Acceleration
Change in velocity over time; always produced by force; defined as force divided by mass.
Acid Rain
Rain that has dissolved chemicals containing nitrogen and sulfuric acid. Causes damage to ecosystems.
Activation Energy
Added energy that starts a chemical reaction.
Adaptation
Process of adjusting to a change in environments or to changing environmental conditions.
Algae
Plants made of single cells
Amplitude
Height of a wave; measure of the energy contained in a wave.
Anemometer
Tool used to measure wind speed.
Anion
Ion that has a negative charge.
Asexual reproduction
Type of reproduction that requires only one parent and does not mix genetic material.
Astronomical Unit (AU)
Average distance from the earth to the sun. 1.49 x 10^8 km
Atomic Mass
Sum of an atom's protons and neutrons.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom's nucleus.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element/matter.
Balanced Chemical Equation
Chemical equation that has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.
Barometer
Tool used to measure air pressure.
Biome
A habitat containing a given ecosystem.
Boiling Point
Temperature at which a material changes between liquid and gas states.
Carbon
An element contained in all living things.
Carbon cycle
Changes in the form of carbon as it goes from the rocks to the air to the water and back again.
Carbonate
Form of carbon that is made when carbon dioxide combines with water.
Catalyst
Material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.
Cation
Ion that has a positive charge.
Cell
The most basic component of living systems.
Cell Membrane
Protective outer layer of the cell.
Cell Wall
Rigid structure that provides added protection and support for plant cells.
Cellular Respiration
Process by which cells use oxygen and glucose to produce energy, water, and carbon dioxide.
Chemical bond
Force that holds atoms together.
Chemical energy
Energy created by a chemical reactionor absorbed when a chemical compound is formed.
Chemical equation
Way to show a chemical reaction using chemical formulas.
Chemical formula
Group of chemical symbols that indicate what elements are in a compound and their ratio.
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