TExES (Generalist 191) - Science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A report by The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2002) took the position that students learn science best under these conditions:
>Students are actively in firsthand exploration of scientific concepts.
>Instruction is related and built on the abilities and experiences of the learners.
>Instruction is organized thematically.
>Mathematics and communications skills are integrated.
>Curriculum should emphasize the contributions of people from a variety of cultur
Competency 024: Safe and Proper Laboratory Process:
The science teacher manages classroom, field, and laboratory activities to ensure the safety of all students and the ethical care and treatment of organisms and specimens.
Some of the principles and practices that teachers can follow to reduce risk and protect children:
>Use of appropriate personal protective gear, goggles, lab coats and gloves.
>Appropriate procedures for cleaning and disposing of materials.
>appropriate disciplinary procedures to avoid accidents, don't' let kids play with water or other materials.
>Substitute less hazardous equivalent materials when possible, using cleaning products instead of chemical in the pure form
>Use polyethylene or metal containers instead of glass
>Advise children to avoid tasting or ingesting substances or materials.
>Label containers appropriately to avoid confusion.
>Control the use of sharp objects that can puncture the skin.
>Supervise the use of living organism and the cleaning of
>Avoid experimenting with human cells and bodily fluids.
>Share the responsibilities for safety of the students with the group; that is, students should motivate one another to stay focused.
>Make provision for the movement and handling of equipment and materials for students with special needs.
Some of the principles and practices that teachers can follow to reduce risk and protect children (continued):
>Prepare, review and send home an age-appropriate safety contact requiring parent/guardian signature.
>Organize all materials by placing them in separate bins for a member of each student group to pick up for use for the lab activity and for returning materials afterwords.
>Prepare and practice emergency plans with students.
>Clearly label and demonstrate the use of safety equipment with students, such as the eyewash station and fire blanket.
>Document all accidents, regardless of how minor, and have another teacher sign as a witness if possible.
>Clearly write and read to students the safety precautions for the lab before beginning the activity.
>Place posters around the room emphasizing the safety rules of the classroom and laboratory.
>Keep all chemicals and glassware in locked cabinets.
>Maintain regular inventory of all lab materials and chemicals.
>Store acids and other caustic chemicals in cabinets close to the floor in case they fall when retrieving for use.
>If using an open flame, such as lit candles, students must tie long hair back and tape or roll up loose sleeves to avoid contact with the fire.
Can a simple tool like a mercury thermometer be hazardous?
Follow these steps in order to maintain safety.
>Assess the relative danger of each chemical used in the classroom
>Label and store chemicals appropriately.
>Implement safety procedure for the use and handling of materials and equipment.
>Follow appropriate procedures for cleaning containers and disposing of chemicals.
Beyond our basic senses sight, hearing, fealing, tasting, scientific instruments are necessary for scientific experiment, name some instruments;
balances, microscopes, beakers, and graduated cylinders all aid in precise measurements and observation.
The metric system, international system uses kilos, liters, and meters unlike the English system that uses pounds, gallons and inches for measurement. Which system is used scientifically throughout the world?
The metric System
How is the Metric system more precise than the English system?
The metric system uses a system of fractions and multiples of unites that are related to each other by powers of 10, allowing conversion and comparison of measures simply by shifting a decimal point, and avoiding the lengthy arithmetical operations required by the English system.
Does the TEKS require the teaching of both the metric and english systems?
According to TEKS do all scientific data have to be reported using the metric system?
Competency 025: Scientific Inquiry:
The teacher understands the history and nature of science, process and role of scientific inquiry, and the role of inquiry in science instruction.
The experiences conducting scientific experiments allow the students to acquire information firsthand and develop problem solving skills?
Because children in grades EC-6 are inquisitive and want to understand the environment around them, this gives the teacher an opportunity to use electronic and printed sources to find answers to the questions and to expand their knowledge of the topic.
It is crucial that children develop inquiry skills. This can only be done by allowing them to experience science for themselves in hands-on investigations. This well help them with the teaching learning of the following science inquiry and thinking skills
The best known model of inquiry is known as the:
Learning Cycle
Exploration, concept invention, and application are steps of:
The Learning Cycle, this was introduced in the 60's and would later include two new phases.
The Learning Cycle is known as what today?
5-E model (Bybee 1989)
>Taught in a way consistent with the nature of science, discovery and investigation, must be taught as an active process. Therefore, the children need to have the opportunity to experience the true nature of science by doing science exploration for themselves through direct experiences and hands-on investigaton.
Concept Invention
>Focused on promoting the main purpose of education, to promote the students ability to think critically and independently. This is done by not telling students the "answers" or information, but instead providing hands-on or direct experiences which they use logic and reasoning to find the "answer".
Science must be taught in a way that matches how students learn. Piaget (1964), individuals learn through mentally experiencing the following three-phase mental process:
>Assimilate (take in information) - He defined this step as a sense of "disequilibrium-confusion of the info.
>Accommodation (when enough information is processed and made sense of it. This is the "aha" moment.
>Organize (make the information a part of our mental structure that we can further use to relate, compare or adapt with concepts previously learned and come up with a new observation.
How do the 3 steps explained by Piaget help teachers?
Given what you know about your students, you should teach in a sequence or way that matches this learning pattern. Fist provide children with an Exploration phase in which students can assimilate information using their senses. Guide them through this sense making process (don't tell), Carry out discussion in the Concept Invention phase in which students share their observation and findings. Use careful questioning to guide students to review their data/observations to wards the aha moment., encourage application by guiding them through new contexts in which students can connect the concept with what they observe in everyday life.
What modifications were made to the 3 steps Exploration, Concept Invention and Applications?
Science educators added the Engage phase, the purpose to do something that will gain the students attention before beginning the exploration phase. This changed the learning cycle.
This learning cycle is defined by these phases: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate!
5-E Model the five E's.
>Exploration from Piaget's model was changed to the two steps Exploration and Engage
>Concept Invention was changed to Explain
>Application changed to Elaborate
The most important factors for both learning cycles:
>Students are not told the science concept or information before beginning the inquiry, but must discover the concept through hands-on investigation, observation and collection of data.
>The engage phase begins with the teacher posing one or more questions, giving an interesting demonstration, or providing a laboratory guide, therefore capturing their curiosity and motivates them to learn.
The following questions will further explain the 5-E model and how it should be applied as a teacher.
Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate
The students will be given stimulus in the form of a question, giving an interesting demonstration, or lab guide that captures their curiosity and motivates them to learn:
Students make observations and gather data on a science idea or topic area. The experimental design can be pre-determined by the teacher or an experimental design. Most important though is that students are doing the work themselves.
Students present the shared data with their classmates in a teacher-guided discussion of findings. The teachers question guides students thinking and encourages the use of logic and reasoning as they interpret their data. At the end of this phase, the stu
Central Science Concept
Overall statement that summarizes their data and observation. Found at the end of the Explain phase.
Students use new concept they learned as it is applied in new context. For example, students can create new questions to investigate or hypotheses to test based on what they just learned (the concept) and develop a way to answer their questions or test th
For further help go to:
Page 269 and 270, Figure 4-1 and 4-2.
Planning and Conducting Experiments:
> know the use of instruments that can yield measurable data.
>The procedure must be clear and tangible enough to allow replications by other students.
>Teach the concept of controlling variables and testing only one variable at a time.
>Encourage the student to be precise in the collection of data and ensure that the metric system is used in all measurement data.
ELL's and Experiments:
Explain the data collection and display o findings to them, demonstrate and provide a model of what the end result should look like. The students should work in groups so they can interpret and exchange idea about data and scientific reasoning.
Analyzing experiments:
this is the "explain" phase of the 5-E model. In any application or "elaborate" activities which data has been collected. After the data has been collected from the students exploration phase, they display their data in charts and graphs. This data is used to form conclusions and new research questions or hypotheses. They are also able to present pertinent data using the material and communicate their findings.
When is vocabulary introduced in the 5-E model?
after students have had hands-on experiences in the (engage and ) exploration phase and have used their observations and data to construct meaning from their experiences in the "explain" phase. The new vocabulary is used in extended experimentation, discussion, readings, writing, and other learning experiences. Especially important for ELL's.
Making a connection between the hands-on activities and scientific vocabulary is beneficial to students because this can link the actions with the appropriate concept and vocabulary words without engaging in translations.
This is especially crucial for ELL's
What area may children have the most difficulty in scientific reasoning?
Interpreting results. It's easy to discuss the observable results but they might have trouble interpreting the meaning. The teacher has to use developmentally appropriate practices to approach this. (Competency 028)
Tools and equipment tested by TEKS, Kindergarten:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses
>Cups and bowls
Tools and equipment tested by TEKS, 1st:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses
>Cups and bowls
Tools and equipment tested by TEKS, 2nd:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses
>Cups and bowls
>Meter sticks
Tools and equipment tested by TEKS, 3rd:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses>Computers
>Balances>Cups and bowls
>Meter sticks>Microscopes
>Safety goggles>Magnets
Tools and equipment required by TEKS for 4th:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses>Computers
>Balances>Cups and bowls
>Meter sticks>Microscopes
>Safety goggles>Magnets
>Compasses>Timing devices
>Calculators>Sound Recorders
Tools and equipment required by TEKS for 5th/6th:
>Nonstandard measurements
>Hand lenses>Computers
>Balances>Cups and bowls
>Meter sticks>Microscopes
>Safety goggles>Magnets
>Compasses>Timing devices
>Calculators>Sound Recorders
>Hot plates>Burners>Beakers
>Graduated cylinders>Flasks
>Test tubes and holders
Understanding the history of Science:
The teaching should promote the idea that science is changing and dynamic rather than fixed and tentative. This will encourage them to stay motivated, because you can show them how the science can change their life.
Competency 026: Impact on Daily Life/Environment:
The teacher understands how science impacts the daily lives of students and interacts with and influences personal and societal decision.
In the 5-E model, the best time to help students make connections between the classroom and in their world is in the application/elaboration phase.
The teacher should help them relate the new concept to their everyday lives and see how the works in differing concepts.
The teacher must teach the ethical, personal, societal and economic concerns that some science and technology has on us/nature:
For example using animals for testing, global warming, fossil fuels.
Competency 027: Unifying Concepts and Processes in Science:
The teacher knows and understands the unifying concepts and processes that are common to all sciences.
Note:Competency 027: Unifying Concepts and Processes in Science:
Science is a way of knowing, a process-it is a systematic way of looking at the world and how it works.
Note:Competency 027: Unifying Concepts and Processes in Science:
This competency focuses on how science uses a regular consistent method of collecting and reporting data about scientific phenomena. Science is a way of organizing observations and then seeking patterns regularity in order to make sense of the World.
Note:Competency 027: Unifying Concepts and Processes in Science:
We make predictions and hypotheses and test our predictions and hypotheses through controlled experimentation, meaning all variables of the experiment remain constant except for the variable being tested. Repeating the experiment multiple times and seeking constancy in our finding in form and/or function. Seeking patterns and consistency in our observations and data in order to construct explanations and make new predictions.
Name the three types of sciences studied:(All three are interrelated)
Life science, physical science, and earth science.
Example application of Ecosystem:
>Teacher must understand the (biological aspects) lining organisms)
>how they interact, as in predator-prey relationships and symbiotic relationships (parasitism, commensalism)
>the chemical aspects of the ecosystem (nitrogen cycle)
>the geologic or earth science aspects(landscape, water, climate)
>the physics aspects (energy transfer, motion)
>Eco-systems, the unity of what makes organisms "living" they must all carry on life functions and are composed of one or more cell.
Competency 027: Unifying Concepts and Processes in Science:
All scientific observations can be described by their characteristics or "properties." These properties organize the observations according to commonalities, or classification. Observed properties and patterns are centered on space, time, energy and matter.
Competency 028: Theory and Practice of Teaching Science:
The teacher has theoretical and practical knowledge about teaching science and about how students learn science.
What must a teacher be most aware of when teaching the science concepts:
Aware of the stages of cognitive, social, and emotional development of children to appropriately introduce children to science concepts.
Students in Ec-6 need:
direct experiences in order to understand concepts.
The learning cycle or 5-E model promotes conceptual change, helps students resolve misconceptions, and leads to more scientifically accurate understandings:
Know this because children have limited experience and have a tendency to establish misconceptions that are hard to change.
An example of beginning lessons with concrete activities and giving students experience with objects, and then move to a more abstract reasoning is teaching the concept of density.
>Fist the students must have objects to touch, feel, weigh, (take the mass of) and measure first-"Exploration"
>From the direct experience with these objects, students should understand that "a certain amount of matter (mass) is packed into a given amount of space (volume)
>The term taught should be "density"
>Furthermore, applications can help develop their abstract abilities by having them solve problems using the formula for density, d=m/v.
>Finally, this knowledge can be later used to teach buoyancy, because the of the acquired knowledge
When questioning children, how must the questions be designed?
to lead students toward being able to state the concept, so it is especially critical in the concept invention or "explain" phase.
Questions encouraging predictions during scientific study will:
Will help promote logical thinking and develop high-order thinking skills.
List the Five Kingdoms:
>Fungi-mushroom, mold
>Plantae-mosses, ferrns, plants
>Animalia-sponge, fish, frog,
Write the formula for density:
d= m/v
As a molecule is heated it begins to move and shake rapidly. As it does so, it passes some of its heat energy to other molecules around it. This occurs until all of the molecules around it are hot, What is this process:
Heat transfer through conduction.
An area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant or other organism:
When plants use sunlight in order to produce sugars. These sugars can than be used by the plan as food, in order to sustain life.
This is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents (lake). Heat moves with the fluid. Macaroni rise and fall in a pot of heated water, because the warmer portions of water are less dense and therefore, they rise. While the cool
Avoid Yes and No questions:
What happened? What did you observe? Why did this happen?
Always use questions beginning with"
How, Why, Where, What and When
Competency 29: Assessments in Science Learning:
The teacher knows the varied and appropriate assessments and assessments practices for monitoring science learning in laboratory, filed and classroom settings.
Texas has a very comprehensive system to measure the state unirorm curriculum - In this system, students take the (TAKS) in what grades:
3 - 12, however the science component of TEKS is only in grades 5, 8, and 10th
Competency 030: Physical Science:
The teacher understands forces and motion and their relationships.
Universal forces:
gravity, electricity and magnetism
Magnetism occurs because:
positive and negative ionic charges of objects repel or attract to one another.
Magnetic Field:
exists around any object with ionic charge.
How does magnetism apply to the earth?
The magnetic field caused from Ion's keeps all objects on earth stable otherwise they would float to earth.
the product of the force acting in the direction of movement and causing displacement:
the abiltiy to do work?
A simple machine:
few or no moving parts and can change the size and direction of force - screw driver or hammer
A complex machine:
two or more simple machines working together to facilitate work - wheel barrel or a bike.
The amount of matter in an object or thing?
The amount of space that matter takes up?
The amount of gravitational force exerted over an object:
It is important not to confuse mass and weight:
What students are measuring on their balances in the lab is an object's mass. Weight changes as an object goes from one level of gravitational force to another, for example, a golf ball has the same mass whether on the moon or earth, but it's weight is lighter on the moon because of gravitation.
Anything that takes up space and has mass:
How many kinds of basic matter are there and what are they referred to as:
112, elements
Elements are organized in the:
Periodic Table
An element is composed of microscopic components called:
Atoms are made up of:
electron, neutrons and protons.
Where is most of the mass in an Atom:
The Nucleus (that is made up of protons and neutrons)
this contains little mass and follows an orbit around the nucleus:
Two or more atoms bonded together in a chemical bond: Can be more than one of the same kind of atom, or
Molecules (O2, or CO2)
Two or more different kinds of atoms in the molecule and you have a given amount of that substance:
Compounds (Consists of matter composed of atoms that are chemically cobined with one another in molecules in definite weight proportions. Water H2O. can be measure as one unite of H2O
This has physical, thermal, electrical, and chemical properties. These properties are dependent up the molecular composition of the matter.
When we look at the way matter looks and feels. The qualities like color, density, hardness we are referring to?
Physical Properties of matter
Matter being sensitive to temperature change, hot and cold, can have changes in it's physical properties (Liquid, Gas, Ice). Given these changes,do the chemical properties change?
No, water retains the properties H2O.
Matter has electrical properties. It can be classified as:
a conductor or nonconductor of electricity. The transfer of electric current or heat form one point to another is most efficient in metals and less efficient in wood.
The chemical properties of one type o f matter (element) can react with the chemical properties of other types of matter.
In general, elements from the same group will not react with each other, while elements from different groups will. A metal trash can will rust in the rain.
Matter exist in four distinct states:
Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
Plasmas are formed when:
high temperatures when electrons are stripped from neutral atoms. Stars are predominantly composed of plasmas. Plasma has no defenite shape or volume.
What is a physical change?
When substances change from one state of matter to another, such as ice melting.
When two or more substances are combined physically, but not chemically:
The types of mixtures are:
>heterogeneous-uneven distribution of the substances in the mixture throughout-Milk
>homogeneous-components are evenly distributed throughout
Mixtures that are homogeneous:
Solutions, which means the components are distributed evenly and there is an even concentration throughout.
Solutions are made up of two parts:
>Solute-substance in the smaller amount that dissolves and that you add into the substance that is in the larger amount-the solvent-Solids, liquids, and gases can be solutes.Water is a common solvent.
Example of a solution is seawater and ammonia:
Seawater is made up of water and salt, and ammonia is made up of ammonia gas and water. In these examples thee salt and ammonia (NH3) are the solutes; water is the solvent.
A change in a substance that does not change what that substance is made of:
Physical Change- melting ice, tearing paper, chopping wood, writing with chalk and mixing sugar and water together.
When substances that were combined are no longer the same molecules-they have changed to new substances.
Chemical Change-burning wood, mixing baking soda and vinegar, rusting nail,
When heat is given off in a chemical change:-becomes hotter-

When heat is absorbed in a chemical change:-becomes colder-
>exothermic reaction-firewood burning/hand warming

>endothermic reaction-cold pack,
Combination of oxygen from the atmosphere with substances containing the carbon atom:
Burning-Once the proper temp has been reached, burning begins and will not end until oxygen is depleted.
Example of the exothermic reaction:
A combustion engine. Fossil fuel gas consist of carbon, the intake presents air (oxygen), and the spark plug provides a fire that begins the process. A by-product is produced carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are produced. This also occurs when the air we breath into our bloodstream is combined the carbon based glucose are introduced. As a result our temperature is raised. This is why we are a constant 98.6. Photosynthesis, were plant use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide gas and water into food for the plant known as glucose.
Competency 032: Physical Science:
The teacher understands energy and interactions between matter and energy.
Energy is available in many forms:
heat, light, solar radiation, chemical, electrical, magnetic, sound and mechanic energy.
Energy exists in 3 forms:
>kinetic-possessing energy because of its ability to move.
>potential-energy that an object has as the results of its position or condition
>activation energy-necessary to transfer or convert potential energy into kinetic energy.
The 3 forms of energy kinetic, potential and activation can be:
transformed from one to the other.
>A vehicle parked in a garage has potential energy
>When the driver starts the engine using the chemical energy stored in the battery and the fuel, potential energy becomes activation energy
>When the vehicle is moving, the energy changes to kinetic energy.
The measure of heat:
Through photosynthesis, plants capture radiant energy from the sun and transform
it into chemical energy in form of glucose. This chemical energy is stored in the leaves, stems, and fruits of plant. Humans and animals consume the plants or fruits and get the energy they need for survival. This energy source is transformed again to create kinetic energy and body heat.
energy used for movement and to do work, while heat is a required element for all warm-blooded animals, like humans.
Kinetic energy!
Cold-blooded also require heat, but rather than making it themselves
through the transformation of plant sugar, they use solar energy to fheat their body.
The foundation and the driving force of an ecosystem. In addition to heat and solar radiation, energy is available in:
forms of electricity and magnetism.
The transfer of heat is accomplished in three ways:
The transferring of heat or electricity through a substance. Occurring when two objects of differing temperatures are placed in contact with each other and heat flows from the hotter object to the cooler object.
Conduction-The cooling system of a car, heat from the engine is transferred to the liquid coolant. When the coolant passes through the radiator, the heat transfers from the coolant to the radiator, eventually out of the car.
Energy that travels at high speed in space in the form of light or through the decay of radioactive elements. It is part of our modern life.f
Radiation-exists in microwaves, cellular phones and sunshine. f
the flow of heat through the movement of matter from a hot region to a cool region. This occurs when the heating and circulation of a substance changes the density of the substances.
Convection-warmer air rises and colder air sinks. Heated air expands. Heat transferred from the stove element below a pot of water will heat the water. When cold air meats warm air, a storm results.
All energy
travels in waves and in a straight-line path.
The electromagnetic spectrum shows the different wavelengths and the frequencies of energy.
examples: micro-waves, x-rays, radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation, all of which have different wavelengths and frequencies that distinguish one type of wave from another.
The color of white light include:
Yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. (ROYGBIV)
When light traveling in a straight line, hits fan object or substance and is bent.
An example of refraction would be:
A rainbow occurs the the water molecules bend light.
When light waves bounce back, as when looking in a mirror.
The principle of reflection and refraction are used in:
periscopes and telescopes in order to be able to see objects otherwise not able to see, or glasses were concave or convex lenses for stigmatization.
The best example of a concave and convex lens is a:
spoon. If you look into the oncave side you will see yourself upside down. If you look into the convex side of the spoon you will see yourself right side up. this is due to refraction and reflection of light. Go to http://camillasennior.homestead.com/optics4html.
Sound also travels in waves.
Caused by vibrations, such as a guitar string or a drum. Sound has a certain wavelength, frequency, pith, and amplitude(loudnes). and must travel through a medium. It travels best through solids because there are more molecule to vibrate and least well through gases.
these waves move parallel to the direction the wave moves.
Longitude Waves
these move perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Transverse waves.
Review of Physical Science Competencies 030-033:
Page 294-295
The main function of this is to produce the enzymes for the metabolic conversion of food to energy. This process consumes oxygen is termed aerobic respiration:
Plants use chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, that is used in this process of converting light into chemical energy.
This process is called photosynthesis.
What characteristics must exist for a thing to be considered living?
respiration, nutrition, response, circulation, growth , excretion, regulation, and reproduction. Have at least one cell. For example, plans excrete gases from tiny pores on the underside of leaves called stomata (circulation).
These are similar in appearance, but vary somewhat because one uses mitochondria to produce enzymes for metabolic conversion of food and the other uses mitochondria as well as organelles called chloroplasts for converting light into chemical energy.
Animal cells vs Plant Cells
What is aerobic respiration:
The metabolic conversion of food to energy by use of mitochondrial enzymes.
What is photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll (derived from chloroplasts) is used to convert light into chemical energy.
The fiver characteristics of cell:
>Have a membrane that regulates the flow of nutrients and water that enter and exit the cell.
>Contain the genetic material (DNA) that allows for reproduction
>Require a supply of energy
>Contain basic chemical to make metabolic decision for survival
>Reproduce and are the result of reproduction.
Prokayotic Cell are:
the simplest and most primitive type of cells.
The Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and have one strand of deoxyribonuycleic acic (DNA). These come in three shapes:
cocci, bacilli, and sprilla or spirochetes(helical cells). Example, Bacteria)
The five groups that living things are divided into.
>Monera (Bacteria)
>Protista (Protozoans)
>Plantae (plants)
Consists of unicellular organisms. Only group of living organisms made of prokaryotic cells. (bacteria, blue-green algae and spirochetes):
Contains a type of eukaryotic cell with a more complex organization system. Kingdom includes diverse, mostly unicellular organisms that live in aquatic habitats in both freshwater and saltwater. Hint: They are not animals:
Protisti, (Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena)
These are multicultural organisms with a sophisticated organization system that contain eukaryotic cells. They exist in a variety of forms and shapes. They do not have chlorophyll and they cannot produce food through photosynthesis, instead they obtain en
Fungi (mushrooms, mold, mildews and yeast)
Multicellular organisms with sophisticated organization systems that use chloroplast, to trap sunlight as energy for the process of photosynthesis.
These are multicellular with multiple forms and shapes, and have specialized senses and organs. They are the most sophisticated of all living organisms and represent the highest levels of evolution:
Animals (flys, humans,)
The process that begins with a seed or a fertilized egg, which goes through metamorphosis until the organism is fully formed is:
Life Cycle
The life cycle goes through the following stages:
creation, maturation, reproduction and death.
Explain the life cycle of plants:
>Seeds-by mature plants
>Transportation-wind, water, animals
>Germination-Right temperature, water, soil(provide minerals-not food for the plant) and light
>Photosynthesis-provide chemical energy
>Pollenization-insects/wind provide pollen
>Fertilization-Pollen provides sperm that fertilizes the ovules or eggs to create a seed.
>The ovary swells becomes fruit, flowers and dies.
>The fruit, flower protects the seeds until the process begins again.
If the soil plants live in is not their food supply, then what is?
The life cycle of plants:
No! Only plants that produce flowers-Insects pollinate the flower, the pollen contains sperm nuclei and is transferred from the male part of the flower, the stamen, to the female part the flower, the pistil. Once pollination occurs, the sperm leaves the pollen and travels to the ovules or eggs inside the ovary of the pistil and fertilizes the ovules. The fertilized ovules become the seeds. The ovary swells to become fruit or flower and dies because it served it's purpose. The fruit contain and carry sprout for protections until the process begins.
A healthy ecosystem (ideal conditions occur for the survival of living organisms) must contain:
the appropriate system for energy exchange or a food chain. Example: the right combination of herbivorous and carnivorous animals is necessary for a healthy ecosystem.
Explain an ecosystem from the first process of sun light:
>Sun provides energy for plants
>Plants consumed by animals
>Animals consumed by other animals
>Animals die and serve as food for fungi and plants.
(This cycle is altered when one of the above is altered, therefore, adaption must occur for life to continue).
What are the common basic needs of the ecosystem:
Air, water, food and shelter.
the mitochondria of a cell:
is used for respiraton
the ribosomes of a cell:
assemble proteins for use inside and outside of a cell
Organelles are parts of the cell, there are 8:
>chloroplasts(plants only)
>endoplasmic reticulum
>cell membranes
groups of cells with similar functions! They are organized together to perform a specific life function.
combination of tissue working together to perform a specific function
Organ system:
A group of different organs working together on one of the life functions. Example: (the digestive system)
Recap of the Order of Organization:
>Organ Systems
This consists of over 200 bones held together by connective tissues called ligaments:
Human Skeleton
Are skeletal muscles arranged in pairs?
muscle attached to bones
attaches bone to bont
What controls muscular contractions?
nervous system
Smooth muscle are different then the bicep because they:
form the inner linings of our digestive system and are controlled involuntarily by our automatic nervous system.
Cardiac muscle:
muscle of the heart and is controlled by our autonomic nervous system.
The two main divisions of the Nervous system:
>Somatic allowing the voluntary control of skeletal muscles.
>automatic, or involuntary that controls cardiac and glandular functions.
This movement occurs when (nerve impulses are sent from the brain) you intend to do this:
Voluntary movement.
This movement occurs when (outside stimulus occurs) a reflex or twitch:
Involuntary movement
Circulatory system:
>heart pumps blood through the right chambers of the heart and through the lungs
>lungs provide oxygen
>Pumped back into the left chamber of the heart, where it is pumped into the main artery (aorta)
>Oxygenated blood sent to the rest of the body using veins and capillaries
>Oxygen and nutrients are delivered to tissue
>Carbon dioxide is absorbed
>The blood completes the circuit reaching the largest veins which return to the right side of the heart.
Main purpose of the immune system:
Defend itself against foreign proteins and infectious organism. body develops antibodies that control and destroy the invaders.
This occurs when our body fights infectious organisms:
Fever-the raised temp kills bacteria.
Thymus, lymph system, bone marrow, white blood cells, antibodies and hormones:
Major components of the immune system.
The respiratory system:
expansion and contraction of the lungs. Oxygen enters tiny capillaries, where it combines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells and is carried to the tissues through the circulatory system. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes through capillaries into the air contained within the lungs.
Animals inhale oxygen from the environment and exhale carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis, which produces the oxygen that animals use again for survival.
Digestive system:
>food makes contact with saliva
>fragmented and partially digested food passes down the esophagus to the stomach
>gastric and intestinal juices combine with the food and are sent down the small intestine where nutritional are extracted and absorbed into the blood stream.
>Unused portions of the food go to the large intestine and is eventually excreted from the body through defecation.
Reproductive system taught in 5th and 6th grade:
should know the body
>matures and develops in order for child-bearing to occur
>menstrual cycle understood by students, including what occurs in ovulation to prepare the egg cell(Meiosis)
>in males, the process of (Meiosis) occurs to produce sperm.
>Specialized cells, gametes (eggs/sperm) unite to form a fertilized eggs.
All cells have: Cytoplasm
clear gelatinous fluid-enclosed within a membrane.
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