Basic Pharmacology for Nurses by. Clayton Stock Cooper Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pharmacology
deals with the study of drugs and their actions on living organisms.
Therapeutic Methods
Drug, Diet, Physiotherapy, Psychological Therapies are used to treat diseases.
Pharmacodynamics
the study of drug interaction including the drug receptors and the series of events that culminates in a pharmacologic response.
Receptors
sites on the cells where chemical bonding of drugs occurs
Antagonists
drugs that attach to receptor sites but no NOT stimulate a response
Agonists
drugs that stimulate a response at a receptor site
partial Agonists
drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response and concurrently inhibit other responses
ADME
the four stages of drug processing: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
parmacokinetics
the study of the mathematical relationship among the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of medicines.
Absorption
the process by which the drug is made available to the body fluid for distribution
Enteral
this is the route of drug administration is placing the drug directly into the gastrointestinal tract by oral, rectal, or nasogastric routes.
parenteral
routes of drug administration are subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injections
Percutaneous
route of drug administration is done via inhalation, sublingual, or topical routes.
Distribution
the ways in which drugs are transported by the circulating body fluids to the sites of action (receptors) for metabolism and excretion.
Biotransformation
AKA metabolism. the process by which a drug is inactivated (broken down).
Excretion
is the elimination of the active drug or its metabolites from the body
half-Life
the time required for one-half, or 50% of the drug administered to be excreted form the body
Desired Action
the achievement of the expected response to the drug administered
Common Adverse Effect
predictable responses seen when a specific drug is administered.
Serious Adverse effects
side effects that are more serious and require reporting to the health care provider for further orders on how to manage there reactions.
Idiosyncratic Reaction
are reactions that are not predictable; they are unusual or abnormal responses to the drug administered.
Allergic reaction
AKA hypersensitivity. occurs in an individual who has previously taken the drug and is sensitized to it.
Anaphylactic Reaction
the collapsing of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. a life threatening situation
Carcinogenicity
the ability of a drug to cause living cells to be altered (mutate) and become cancerous.
Teratogens
a drug that causes birth defects
Additive Effect
occurs when two drugs with similar actions have an increased effect
Synergistic Effect
occurs when the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the effect of each drug given alone
Antagonistic Effect
occurs when one drug interferes with the action of another
what is the meaning of gender-specific medicine?
is a developing science that studies the differences in the response of females and males to prescribes drugs.
passive diffusion
is the most common mechanism associated with drug absorption. it requires no cellular energy and involves the movement of drug from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Five Steps of Nursing Diagnosis
assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
what is the major advantage of the percutaneous route for drug administration?
the action of the drug is primarily limited to the sire of application, therby decreasing the systemic adverse effect
The 6 right of medication administration.
right: patient,drug, dosage, time, route and documentation
review the procedure for NG administration of enteral formulas using bolus and continuous infusion techniques
flush 30mls before meds, 5 mls in between, and 30mls after meds
chemical name
is most meaningful to the chemist.
generic name
common name
official name
FDA approved name for the drug in use in the US
Trademark
Brand name
Illegal Drugs
Recreational Drug
Martindale-The complete Drug Reference
is a two volume text published the pharmaceutical press. information on currents drugs used throughout the world.
Schedule I
a high potential for abuse
Not currently accepted medical use in the U.S
Schedule II
high potential for abuse
accepted for medical use in the u.s
abuse may lead to psychological or physical dependance
Schedule III
a high potential for abuse but less than Schedule I and II
accepted medical use
abuse may lead to moderate or low physical or high psychological dependance
Schedule IV
a low potential for abuse, compared to schedule III
accepted medical use
abuse may lead to limited physical and or psychological dependence
Schedule V
low potential for abuse
accepted medical use
abuse potential of limited physical or psychological dependence liability.
preclinical Research and development stage
a phase of a new drug development begins with discovery, synthesis, and purification of the drug.
Animal Testing Stage
Clinicla Research and Development Stage
Testing in Humans Stage
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