Phonetic Symbols and Corresponding Sounds Flashcards

International Phonetic Alphabet
Terms Definitions
k
Kick, Can, sCan
Voiceless Velar Stop

-lips: neutral, parted
-tongue: raised, creates seal across soft palate
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
g
Good, Gate, waG
Voiced Velar Stop

-lips: neutral and parted
-tongue: raised, creates seal across solf palate
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
p
Plate, Pop, aPPle
Voiceless Bilablial Stop

-lips: together
-tongue: ready for next sound
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
b
Ball, Boy, BoB
Voiced Bilablal Stop

-lips: together
-tongue: ready for next sound
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
t
Top, sTop, Time
Voiceless Alveolar Stop

-lips: neutral, parted
-tongue: front and sides contact alveolar ridge
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
d
Dog, iDle, Dime
Voiced Alveolar Stop

-lips: neutral, parted
-tongue: front and sides contact alveolar ridge
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
m
MoM, Mat, Milk
Voiced Bilablal Nasal

-lips: together
-tongue: ready for next sound
-velopharyngeal port: open
-adducted
n
Not, Now, aNimal
Voiced Alveolar Nasal

-lips: neutral, parted
-tongue: front and sides contact alveolar ridge anteriorly and laterally
-velopharyngeal port: open
-adducted
ŋ
siNG, kiNG, riNGer
Voiced Velar Nasal

-lips: neutral, parted
-tongue: back and raised to contact soft palate, back molars, and posterior upper gum ridge
-velopharyngeal port: open
-adducted
i
rEAd, EAsy, bEAd
High Front Tense Vowel

-lips: parted, some tension at corners
-tongue: foreward, raised toward hard palate, borders contact upper teeth laterally with tension at the root
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɪ
bIn, kId, If
High Front Lax Vowel

-lips: apart, relaxed with slight tension at corners mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, front and body shifted forward and raised toward hard palate, lateral contact with back molars and gum ridge
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
e
Ate, bAIt, Able
High Front Tense Vowel

-lips: apart, some tension at corners
-tongue:raised to mid plane and shifted forward, tip at lower front teeth, contact with posterior gum ridge and molars
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɛ
bEd, gEt, hEAd
Mid Front Lax Vowel

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible is lowered slightly
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, body shifted forward and raised to mid plane, contact with upper molars
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ǽ
At, hAt, hAppy
Low Front Lax Vowel

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible lower than other front vowels
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, body shifted forward and raised to mid plane, contact with upper molars
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
f
Fur, Fly, halF
Voiceless Labiodental Fircative

-lips:lower lip contacts upper teeth, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: ready for next sound
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
v
Very, Vow, Vine
Voiced Labiodental Fricative

-lips: lower lip contacts upper teeth, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: ready for next sound
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɵ
THing, THumb, THank
Voiced Interdental Fricative

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: flattened and shifted foreward, tip and blade are between the teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
ð
THese, THere, THis
Voiced Interndental Fricative

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: flattened and shifted foreward, tip and blade are between the teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
s
Stop, Sand, antS
Voiceless Alveolar Fricative

-lips: apart, neutral
-tongue: raised at alveolar ridge, OR lowered at lower front teeth, body bunched and shifted slightly foreward, flattened toward hard palate, contact with upper gum ridge forms groove in middle
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
z
Zoo, Zebra, buZZer
Voiced Alveolar Fricative

-lips: apart, neutral
-tongue: raised at alveolar ridge, OR lowered at lower front teeth, body bunched and shifted slightly foreward, flattened toward hard palate, contact with upper gum ridge forms groove in middle
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ʃ
SHoe, faSHion, SHould
Voiceless Palatal Fricative

-lips: rounded, slightly portruded, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue:tip at lower front teeth, front raised toward front palate, flattened and formes a wide groove down the center, sides contact upper teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
ʒ
beiGE, treaSure, meaSure
Voiced Palatal Fricative

-lips: rounded, slightly portruded, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue:tip at lower front teeth, front raised toward front palate, flattened and formes a wide groove down the center, sides contact upper teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
h
Hat, Hot, How
Voiceless Glottal Fricative

-lips: ready for next sound, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: ready for next sound, vocal trusts slighly constricted, vocal folds slightly approximated
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted

CHurCH, CHair, pitCH
Voiceless Alveopalatal Affricate

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: forward, tip and blade make contact with alveolar ridge, airstream released and tongue flattens along palate forming a channel to direct airflow
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
ʤ
Jam, Gem, briDGe
Voiced Alveolalatal Affricate

-lips: apart, neutral, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: forward, tip and blade make contact with alveolar ridge, airstream released and tongue flattens along palate forming a channel to direct airflow
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
u
hOOt, rOOster, lOOps
High Back Tense

-lips: rounded and portruded
-tongue: tip is down, body is shifted backwards and elevated
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ʊ
hOOd, cOUld, wOOd
High Back Lax Vowel

-lips: rounded and portruded
-tongue: tip is down, body is shifted backwards and elevated
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
o
Open, Owed, alOne
Mid Back Tense Vowel

-lips:rounded and portruded, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, body shifted slightly back and elevated at mid-plane
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɔ
hAUled, bOUght, tAUght
Low Mid Back Lax Rounded Vowel

-lips:rounded and portruded, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, body shifted slightly back and elevated at mid-plane
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɑ
hOt, lOck, fAther
Low Back Lax Vowel

-lips: apart and neutral, mandible slighly lowered
-tongue: low and almost flat
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
j
Yet, Yellow, Yam
Voiced Palatal Glide

-lips: apart, neutral
-tongue: front high position, flattened toward high palate
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
w
Wed, Wine, tWin
Voiced Bilabial Glide

-lips: rounded and portruded
-tongue: high back position
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
hw or M
WHere, WHat, WHen
Voiceless Bilablial Glide

-lips: slightly rounded, then tightening
-tongue: low back position OR raised toward soft palate
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-abducted
r
Red, caR, Ride
Voiced Alveo-Palatal Liquid

-lips: slightly rounded
-tongue: raised toward hard palate, front close to alveolar ridge, back raised slightly, root retracted
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
l
Led, Late, yeLLow
Voiced Alveolar Lateral

-lips: apart, neutral
-tongue: tip and part of blade contact alveolar ridge
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ʌ
abOve, bUd, Up
Lower Mid-Central-to-Back Lax Neutral Vowel

-lips: apart and neutral, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: central plane, almost flat, tip at lower front teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɝ
bIrd, hErd, cUrd
Mid-Cental/r/Colored Tense Vowel

-lips: apart, rounded
-tongue: central plane, slightly elevated, tip at lower front teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted

skY, trY, I
Rising Low Front to High Front Diphthong

ONSET
-lips: apart, neutral
-tongue: low and flat, shifted slightly upward, little to no contact made with upper teeth

OFFSET
-lips: mandible slightly raised, apart and neutral
-tongue: moves to high front space,tip remains at lower front teeth,makes contact with upper molars
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted

cOW, hOW, nOW
Rising Low Front to High Back Diphthong

ONSET
-lips: apart and relaxed, mandible lowered
-tongue: shifted slightly foreward, low in mouth, no contact with upper teeth

OFFSET
-lips: rounded and portruded, mandible raised
-tongue: shifts to high back position, tip remains at lower front teeth, contact made with back upper teeth
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ɔɪ
bOY, tOY, cOIn
Rising Mid Back to High Front Diphthong

ONSET
-lips: rounded and portruded, mandible slightly lowered
-tongue: low mid plane, shifted back slightly

OFFSET
-lips:apart, neutral or slightly tense at corners, mandible moves slightly up
-tongue: moves to high front space, contacts upper molars
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
ju
yOU, cUE, fEW
High Front to High Back Diphthong

ONSET
-lips: apart and relaxed, mandible lowered slightly
-tongue: tip at lower front teeth, body raised and flattened toward hard palate and shifted forward, contact with upper teeth during production

OFFSET
-lips: rounded and porturded
-tongue: tip remains at lower font teeth, body and back shift to high back position
-velopharyngeal port: closed
-adducted
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