0014 Praxis Science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
a natural process by which some of the radiant heat from the Sun is captured in the lower atmosphere of the Earth, thus maintaining the temperature of the Earth's surface
greenhouse effect
the capacity for doing work that a body possesses because of its position or condition
potential energy
the form of energy involved in chemical reactions
chemical energy
the energy a body possesses because it is in motion
kinetic energy
the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules is measured by the...
temperature of the body
study of the earth
geology
study of the forces that drive the activity on the surface
geophysics
study of ancient life forms
paleontology
the cycle of the Earth's water
hydro logic cycle
the blanket of gas on the surface of the planet
atmosphere
a region of the atmosphere that begins at an altitude of about thirty miles
ionosphere
lowest layer of the atmosphere
troposphere
the dozen or so plates that make up the surface of the Earth
tectonic plates
pressure caused by weight of the air above a given point
atmospheric pressure
to measure atmospheric pressure
barometer
third planet from the sun
earth
hard, dense igneous rock makes up most of the tectonic plates and part of the earth's crust beneath the oceans
basalt
an imaginary geographic line defined by the fact that the water poured on one side of it would ultimately flow into the ocean on one side of the continent
continental divide
North America's continental divide is located on the______
Rocky Mountains
means the continents are not stationary
continental drift
region adjoining the coastline of a continent, where the ocean is no more than a few hundred feet deep.
continental shelf
large parts of the surface of the earth that rise above sea level
continents
central region of the earth and made of nickel and iron.
core
region of the interior of Earth between core and crust. (3/4 of the volume of the earth)
mantle
outermost layer of the earth. It overlies the mantle. includes continents and ocean bottom
crust
a place where sections of the crust of the Earth move relative to each other.
fault
old life from 540 to 225 million years ago
Paleozoic Era
middle life from 225 million to 65 million (dinosaurs flourished)
Mesozoic Era
modern life from 65 million to present
Cenozoic Era
philosopher of the 18th century. Founder of modern geology.
James Hutton
can be beneath earth's surface and at surface in lava
igneous rock
molten rock located deep in the mantle of earth and occasionally comes through cracks in the mantle or volcano eruptions
magma
outer layer of the earth, compromising the crust
lithosphere
19th century philosopher of geology and principles of geology
Charles Lyell
daily conditions in the atmosphere
weather
study of weather and climate
meteorology
an artificial satellite that revolves around the Earth and detects weather patterns
weather satellite
circular wind motion
cyclone
a type of cyclone occurring in western regions
typhoon
large tropical store system
hurricane
winds in tunnel shaped pattern
tornado
large wave of ocean
tsunami
west to east winds that occur in the temperature zones of Earth
prevailing westerlies
fall of water, ice, or snow from the atmosphere
precipitation
a wind system that affects large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally
monsoon
long term weather conditions in a small area on earth
micro climate
electrical discharge from clouds that have acquired an electrical charge during storms
lightening
a narrow band of swiftly moving air found at very high altitudes
jet stream
blows from land toward the sea after sunset
land breeze
a type of weathering in which surface soil and rock are worn away through the action of glaciers, water, and wind.
erosion
used for plants (loss of topsoil through erosion is a major problem)
topsoil
removing a mineral deposit from the Earth after first removing the layer of earth above it
strip mining
process minerals form or deposit in layers
stratification
rock structures that grow up from the floors of caves at water drips down and deposits minerals
stalagmites
on ceiling of caves rock formed
stalactites
formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten materials
igneous rock
rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or the agent without passing through liquid phase
metamorphic rock
formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment, especially sediments transported by water, ice, and wind
sedimentary rock
how is soil formed?
it is produced by the weathering of rocks
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?
rocks are aggregates of minerals
what substances are found in concrete?
sand, water, rock, and sandstone
Four major oceans
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic
What gases comprise the atmosphere?
80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen
How is the atmosphere in layers?
Ionosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
Which layer is aurora borealis?
Thermosphere
How is air pressure measure?
barometer
What causes tides?
the moon on the Earth
particles of water or ice suspended in the air
clouds
a technique for producing rain by dropping chemicals or small objects into clouds
cloud seeding
Major types of clouds
cirrus, stratus, nimbus
lacy or wispy clouds that form at high altitudes, before change of weather
cirrus clouds
low clouds over large portion of sky (overcast)
stratus
dark clouds (storms)
nimbus
how are the inner planets different from the outer planets?
the inner are rocky. the outer consist mostly of gases and liquids.
an object that enters the inner solar system typically in a very elongated orbit around the sun
comets
a streak of light in the sky often called a shooting star that occurs when a bit of extraterrestrial matter falls into the atmosphere of the Earth and burns
meteor
the basic unit of all living things except viruses
cells
use by green plants of the energy in sunlight to carry out chemical reactions such as the conversion of carbon dioxide into oxygen
photosynthesis
the spreading of atoms or molecules of one substance through those of another especially into liquids or gases
diffusion
the seeping of a fluid through a seemingly solid barrier such as a cell wall or rubber sheet
osmosis
lose water vapor; to lose water vapor from a plant's surface, especially through minute surface pores
transpiration
the conversion of oxygen by living things into the energy by which they continue life
respiration
development from a lower or simpler to a or more complex form
growth
the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
heredity
the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of heredity transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms
genetics
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA
DNA
A heredity unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism
genes
a threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of heredity information
chromosome
a succession of organisms in an ecological community that constitutes a continuation of food energy from one organism to another as each consumes a lower member and in turn is preyard upon a higher member
food chain
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
food web
a composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and are capable of being separated
mixtures
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these
solution
something that occupies space that can be perceived by one or more senses
matter
a unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons
atom
a substance composed of atoms having an identical number of protons in each nucleus
element
the capacity of a physical system to do work
energy
the form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted though solid and fluid media by conduction, through fluid media by convection, and through empty space by radiation
heat
the transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage
conduction
heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another
convection
emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form of rays or waves
radiation
vibrations transmitted through an elastic solid or a liquid or gas
sound
the study of plants
botany
the science that covers animals and animal life
zoology
the science of diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness, disease, and injury
medicine
main job is to allow bones to move in different directions
joints
tough, strong, and flexible tissue that holds joints together.
ligaments
make involuntary and voluntary body movement possible
muscles
hold your muscles to your bones
tendons
manufactures substances that help your body to function in various ways
glands
make hormones, which tell the different parts of the body when to work
endocrine glands
keep your skin from drying out
oil glands
make saliva, which helps to digest carbohydrates in your mouth and aids in swallowing
salivary glands
make perspiration, which regulates your body temperature
sweat glands
main job is to perform the many jobs necessary to stay alive, such as moving oxygen around your body, taking care of the fuel supply, communications, and waste removal
cells
largest human cell
egg
help build your skeleton by secreting the fibers and minerals from which bone is made
bone cells
store fat. they can shrink or grow. once you have them you can't get rid of them
fat cells
organized into muscles, which move body parts
muscle cells
pass nerve messages around yyour body
nerve cells
carry oxygen around your body
red blood cells
fight diseases
white blood cells
Earth's diameter
7,926.2 miles
Earth's mean distance from the sun
92.9 million miles
stages of mitosis
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase
the chromosomes are dispersed in the nucleus and appear as a network of long, thin threads or filaments, called the chromatin
interphase
the two chromatids remain attached to one another at a region called the centromere, but each contracts into a compact tightly coiled body; the nucleous and, in most cases, the nuclear envelope break down and disappear
prophase
the chromosomes congregate at a plane midway between the two ends to which the spindle tapers
metaphase
the two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to opposite poles, as if pulled along the spinde fibers by the centromeres
anaphase
process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half the original number
meiosis
process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei
mitosis
the gradual increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere as in result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution
global warming
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