AP European History The Making of the West Chapter 16 State Building and the Search for Order Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"L'etat c'est moi"
"I am the state" Louis XIV
the fronde
a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
Cardinal Richelieu
advisor to Marie de Medici, regent of Louis XIII, was a politique and greatly influenced Louis XIII
Cardinal Mazarin
sold new offices, raised taxes, and forced creditors to extend loans to the government, was advisor to Anne of Austria and helped rule as regent for Louis XIV, was presented a charter of demands that would give the parlements power, didn't sign it, and arreseted the leaders
parlements
high courts
court life
Louis XIV used a systematic policy of bestowing pensions, offices, honors, gifts, and the threat of disfavor and punishment, he induced the nobles to cooperate w/him and made himself the center of French power and culture
Moliere
a playright who wrote Tartuffe, which made fun of religious hypocrites and was loudly condemned by church leaders, Louis XIV forced public performances of it to be delayed but did not dismiss it
Tartuffe
Moliere
Jean-Baptiste Lully
favorite composer of Louis XIV, wrote sixteen operas for court performances and many ballets
Pierre Corneille
wrote tragedies set in Greece or Rome that celebrated the new aristocratic virtues that Louis aimed to inculcate: a reverance for order and self-control, characters regal or noble, lofty language, aristocratic behavior
Jean-Baptiste Racine
wrote tragedies set in Greece or Rome that celebrated the new aristocratic virtues that Louis aimed to inculcate: a reverance for order and self-control, characters regal or noble, lofty language, aristocratic behavior
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility. Was once a hunting lodge.
Jansenists
Catholics whose doctrines and practices resembled some aspects of Protestantism, stressed the need for God's grace in achieving salvation, Louis XIV closed them down
Pascal
genius mathematician who wrote Provincial Letters to defend Jansenism against charges of heresy
Provincial Letters
Pascal
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
part of Louis XIV's efforts to have France have only one religion, he closed huguenots churches and schools, banned all their public activities, and exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion
bureaucracy
a network of state officials carrying out orders according to a regular and routine line of authority
War of Devolution
Invasion of Spanish Netherlands by the French, French vs. Spain, Dutch Republic, England and Sweden, ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
ended the War of Devolution
Dutch War
started by Colbert over trade, France vs. Dutch, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire, ended with the Treaty of Nijmegan
Treaty of Nijmegan
ended the Dutch War
War of the League of Augsburg
started by Louvois over "stolen land" attacked the Holy Roman Empire, Treaty of Rijswijk ended it, France only retained Strausburg, gave up all other lands that it had gained, France vs. everybody
Treaty of Rijswijk
ended the War of the League of Augsburg
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
head of royal finances, public works, and the navy; used the bureaucracy to establish a new economic doctrine, mercantilism
mercantilism
the doctrine that governments must intervene to increase national wealthy by whatever means possible
effects of the wars of Louis XIV
France was in debt and lost a bunch of lives, only thing they gained was Strausburg
Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
????
Frederick William (the great elector)
consolidated areas around Prussia into an absolutist state, realized that needed a strong military, developed an efficient mail system and good roads specifically for the military, made a deal with the jonkers to collect taxes and they could rule
Frederick I
convinced the Holy Roman Emperor to name him King in Prussia (thats why he has a I in his name)
Swedish Absolutism
had an absolute monarchy but fought all the time, Charles XI and Charles XII
Charles XI
avoided war to conserve resources, sent the nobles home, governed with qualified commoners
Charles XII
the war with Russia destroyed him, the nobles took control, Riksdag controlled the government, and this ended absolutism in Sweden
Leopold I
strong ruler, Holy Roman Emperor, used aristocrats to rule, invited foreign aristocrats to court, his palace, Schonnbrun imitated Versailles
Austrian absolutism
the country was very ethnically divided and the rulers only had absolute power by letting the nobles have some power
Turkish threat
the turks and the austrians fought over hungary for 150 years, the turks were impending europe
siege of Vienna
last time the Turks moved into Europe
Treaty of Karlowitz
Turks signed this to end fighting between the Turks and the Austrians and settle the dispute over Hungary
condition of Hungary
hungary's population had decreased so much that they called for people throughout Europe to come and settle it, led to ethnic disagreements.... World War I....
authority in the Ottoman Empire
had constantly shifting systems and alliances, the sultan allowed bands of bandits to keep control in various provinces
Tsar Alexei
Tried to extend state authority in Russia by imposing new administrative structures and taxes, developing a bigger army, getting exclusive control over state policy, and obtaining a greater say in religious matters. Imposed the Law Code of 1649 and imposed firm control over Russian Orthodox church.
Code of 1649
assigned all subjects to a hereditary class according to their current occupation or state needs, slaves and free peasants were merged into serfs and couldn't move from the land
Stenka Razin
The head of a powerful band of pirates and outlaws in southern Russia who led a rebellion that promised peasants liberation from nobles landowners and officials; he was captured by the czar's army and publicly executed in Moscow
Old Believers
people who rejected church efforts to bring Russian worship in line with Byzantine tradtition, whole communities starved or burned themselves to death rather than submit
western influence in Russia
first theater opened in the Kremlin, Alexei's daughter translated French plays, some nobles began to wear German-style clothing, and some argued that service and not just birth should determine rank
17th century Poland-Lithuania
had serfdom, elected kings, nobles had a veto, constant chaos, very diverse, official language was latin, no national army, every country tried to take a "bite" out of them
Sejm
parliament in Poland-Lithuania where the nobles all had an absolute veto power
the Deluge
two decades of tumult that resulted from Ukrainian Cossack warriors revolting against the king of Poland-Lithuania, during this time tried to resist everyone taking a "bite" out of them
Intolerance in Poland
the once open Poland now became a place where it was assumed that a good Pole was a Catholic
Jan Sobieski
man elected king of Poland-Lithuania but could not stop the decline into powerlessness
Polish constitutionalsim
fatally weakened the state and made it prey to neighboring powers,
Charles I
absolutist who was forced to agree to the Petition of Right, didn't call Parliament for 11 years because he was upset by the Petition of Right, finally called it into session because he needed money, eventually executed
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
William Laud
archbishop of Canterbury, imposed increasingly elaborate ceremonies on the Anglican church, had the Puritans put before the Court of Star Chamber, eventually executed
Court of the Star Chamber
a court that the king personally controlled
Cavaliers
the king's army of royalists
Roundheads
parliamentary forces, cut their hair short, dominated by the Puritans and the gentry
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Presbyterians
wanted a Calvinist church with some central authority (part of the Roundheads)
Independents
favored entirely autonomous congregations free from other church government (part of the Roundheads)
New Model Army
Oliver Cromwell's army that defeated the Cavaliers at the battle of Naseby
Battle of Naseby
where the New Model Army defeated the Cavaliers and where Charles I surrendered
Levellers
disgruntled soldiers in Cromwell's New Model Army who wanted to "level" social differences and extend politcal participation to all male property owners
"inner light" sects
new sects that formed and emphasized the "inner light" of individual religious inspiration and a disdain for heirarchical authority, emphasized equality before God and greater participation in church governance
Baptists
one of the "inner light" sects, insisted on adult baptism because they believed that Christians should choose their own curch and that every child should not automatically become a member of the Church of England
Quakers
society of friends, believed that anyone inspired by a direct experience of God could preach, they manifested their religious experience by trembling, or "quaking"
Diggers
promated rural communism, believed in collective ownership of all property
Rump Parliament
all that was left of the Parliament when Cromwell was ruling (he had gotten rid of the House of Lords and the Presbyterians from the House of Commons)
relations with Ireland
Ireland revolted and Cromwell went and defeated the rebels, Scots came and repopulated the areas devastated by the massacres
Navigation Acts
allowed imports only if they wre carried on English ships or came directly from the producers of goods, aimed at the Dutch who dominated world trade
Lord Protector
what Oliver Cromwell had people call him
the Protectorate
only time in England's history when there was not a king
Restoration
when the Stuarts were returned to the throne of England after Cromwell's son failed miserably at being a successor, Parliament invited Charles II (Charles I son) to come back and rule
Charles II
had full partnership with the Parliament because he didn't want to be executed like his dad...
Great Fire
destroyed most of London but also got rid of the plague
Declaration of Indulgence
Charles II suspended all laws against Catholic and Protestant dissenters, but Parliament refused to continue funding the Dutch war unless it was rescinded
Test Act of 1673
recquired all government officials to profess allegiance to the Church of England and in effect disavow Catholic doctrine, also explicitly denied the throne to a Roman Catholic, didn't become a law
Clarendon Code
established Anglican religion as the only recognized religion, only Anglicans could serve in parliament, attend universities, hold religious services...
Tories
supported a strong, hereditary monarchy and the restored ceremony of the Anglican church
Whigs
advocated parliamentary supremacy and toleration of Protestant dissenters such as Presbyterians
James II
catholic brother of Charles II who became king of England and tried to force Catholocism on his subjects, kicked him and his Catholic wife and newborn son out because they didn't want the little boy taking precedence over James adult Protestant daughters
Glorious Revolution
The events of 1688 when Tories and Whigs replaced England's monarch James II with his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, Dutch ruler William of Orange; William and Mary agreed to a Bill of Rights that guaranteed rights to Parliament
William and Mary
King and Queen of England after the Glorious Revolution
Bill of Rights
William and Mary agreed not to raise a standing army to levy taxes without Parliaments consent, also agreed to call meetings of Parliament at least every three years, to guarantee free elections to parliamentary seats, and to abide by Parliament's decisions and not suspend duly passed laws
Toleration Act of 1689
granted all Protestants freedom of worship, but non-Anglicans could still not attend universities; Catholics did not get any rights but were left alone to worship privately
Thomas Hobbes
believed in the social contract theory, made his case using science, wrote Leviathon
Leviathon
argued for unlimited authority in a ruler, Hobbes
social contract theory
the doctrine that all political authority derives not form divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens and their rulers
John Locke
used the notion of a social contract to provide a foundation for constituionalism, wrote Two Treatises of Goverhment and Essay Conecrning Human Understanding, virtue can be learned and practice, human beings possess free will, individual must become a "rational creature"
Treatises of Government
served to justify the Glorious Revolution
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
denied the existence of any innate ideas and asserted that each human is bron with a mind that is a blank slate
tabula rasa
blank slate
John Locke
"all men are created equal"
John Locke
there are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to human beings, Life, Liberty, and Property
regents
rich merchants and business men who held the power in the Dutch Republic
stadholder
States General representative for each province of the Dutch Republic, responsible for defense and order
rise of the Dutch merchant class
Dutch had a middle class that was known for trading, the Dutch business was business, most prosperous and best educated in Europe
"genre paintings"
the art that reflected everyday life
Benedict Spinoza
tried to reconcile religion and science,
naval wars with England
First, Second, and Third Anglo-Dutch wars, finally stopped when William and Mary got on the throne of England
slavery stats
1600, 9,500 Africans exported to the New World every year; by 1700 36, 000 exported to the New World annually
John Milton
english Puritan poet who wrestled with the inevitable limitations on individual liberty, published writings in favor of divorce, Areopagitica, Paradise Lost
Areopagitica
John Milton argued that even controversial books about religion should be allowed because the state could not command religious belief
Paradise Lost
used biblical Adam and Eve's fall from grace to meditate on human freedom and the tragedies of rebellion, individuals learn the limits to their freedom, yet personal liberty remainds essential to their humanity
Maria Sibylla Merian
German-born painter-scholar whose engravings were widely celebrated for their brillian realism and microscopic clarity, separated from her husband and joined the Labadists, whose members didn't believe in formal marriage ties
Gottfried Leibniz
claimed that he had invented Calculus, helped establish scientific socieities in the German states
Royal Academy of Science
supplied fifteen scientists with government stipends that met in the King's Library in paris founded by Colbert
English Royal Society
counterpart to the one in Frane, grew out of informal meetings of scientists in London and Oxford rather than direct goverment involvement
Margaret Cavendish
was invited by the Royal Society of London to attend a meeting to watch the exhibition of experiments even though she was a women, wrote poems, essays, letters, and philosophical treatises
plays of Moliere
the greatest French playwright of the seventeenth century who wrote comedies of manners that revealed much about the new aristocratic behavior, The Middle-Class Gentleman, Tartuffe
The Middle-Class Gentleman
only true nobles by blood can hope to act like nobles, also showed how the middle classes were learning to emulate the nobility; if one could learn to act nobly through self-discipline, could not anyone with some education and money pass himself off as a noble?
The Middle-Class Gentleman
Moliere
courtly manners
women set the standards for etiquette and they reached the upper reaches of society through the etiquette set in salons
salon
an informal gathering held regularly in private homes and presided over by a socially eminent woman; spread from France in the seventeenth century to other countries in the eighteenth century
Marie-Medeleine Pioche de La Vergne
Madame de Lafayeete, wrote several short novels that were published anonymously because it was considered inappropriate for aristocratic women to appear in print
The Princess of Cleves
Marie-Medeleine Pioche de La Vergne
Aphra Behn
real-life target of the English playwrights, one of the first professional woman authors who supported herself by journaism, wrote plays and poetry, and translated scientific works, wrote Oroonooko
Oroonoko
story of an African prince mistakenly sold into slavery, adapted by playwrights and performed repeatedly in England and France for the next hundred years
Oroonoko
Aphra Behn
women in 17th century society
played an important role in etiquette
"popular" religious culture
had "paganism" and carnivals and superstitions some villages had never even herad of Jesus Christ
new attitudes toward poverty
Protestants could help the poor but the poor should also be helping themselves, big difference between the deserving poor and the lazy
village justice
included "rough music" "ride on a donkey" skimmington" "charivari"
Charivari
a noisy mock serenade (made by banging pans and kettles) to a newly married couple
Tartuffe
made fun of religious hypocrites and was loudly condemned by church leaders
Tartuffe
Moliere
Classicism
Classicists retained the ideals of the Renaissance and produced art that was much more restrained and ordered than their Baroque counterparts. This was the art of science.
Baroque
combined Renaissance with Mannerism, dramatic, dynamic, ornate, expert use of light and shade
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