Varcarolis CH 12-17 Flashcards

Borderline personality disorder
Terms Definitions
assertiveness training
learning to stand up for personal rights without violating rights of others
Biofeedback
using measurement of the body's reaction to stress (BP, HR, RR)to gain conscious control of those reactions
Benson's relaxation techniques
a learned technique that allows a client to relax following a pattern of controlled breathing, focus ona word or phrase, and progressive muscle relaxation
cognitive reframing
replaceing worried or negative self-statements with more positive self-statements
coping styles
anything that allows a person to decrease the level of stress in their life (health habits, family, hobbies, social supports, etc)
distress
negative, draining energy
eustress
positive, benificial stress that can motivate and replenish damaged resources
guided imagery
a process whereby a person is led to envision images that are calming and healthful in an effort to relax
Meditation
creates a relaxed state by quieting the sympathetic nervous system using focus on a visual object or sound. May or may not have religious significance.
psychoneuroimmunology
the interplay between the physical, mental, nervous, and endocrine functions of the body. How stress can impact physical health and the immune system
physical stressors
factors in the environment or the physical body that cause distress (trauma, temperature, hunger)
psychological stressors
Positive or negative changes in life that effect how we see our life (marriage/divorce, new job/job loss etc)
Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)
technique requiring special training that teaches a person how to relax all the muscles of the body
Journal keeping
writing one's thoughts and feelings as a way to identify patterns of thought or behavior
restructuring and setting priorities
shifting the balance from stress inducing to stress relieving activities
humor
a type of cognitive restructuring that"de-stresses" a negative situation by making it appear absurd or comical
anxiety
a universal, basic emotion; state of apprehension or dread stemming from a real or perceived threat; a vague sense of dread to an unspecified danger
Fear
a reaction to a specific danger
Stress
a state produced by a change in the environment that is seen as challenging, threatening or damaging
Normal Anxiety
a healthy life force neccessary for survival; similar to eustress, a motivating energy
Acute (state) Anxiety
a condition of anxiety that preceeds an imminant loss or change (stage fright, pre-op)
Chronic (trait) anxiety
an anxiety that one has lived with for a long time
Mild Anxiety
normal experience of everyday living, lowest level of anxiety
Moderate Anxiety
higher level of anxiety, includes a narrowng of perception, physical changes in BP, P, HR, RR
Severe Anxiety
Highest level of anxiety where problem solving and learning are no longer possible, person can be dazed, confused, hyperventialtion, "Sense of impending doom"
Panic Level of Anxiety
Anxiety to the point of terror, can lead to hallucinations, delusions; cannot process reality
Altruism
dealing with stressors by meeting the needs of others; receives gratification from the response of others
Sublimation
unconsciously substituting a socially unacceptable impulse with a constructive, healthy activity
Suppression
conscious denial of a distressing situation or feeling
Respression
excluding an unwanted or unpleasant thought or feeling from conscious awareness
Displacement
transferring emotions toward a paticular person or object onto another person or object that is nonthreatening
Reaction Formation (overcompensation)
covering up an unacceptable feeling or behavior by practicing the exact opposite behavior or feeling
Somatization
unconsciously transferring emotional anxiety into a physical symptom
Undoing
making up for an act or thought by another act (gift giving, hand washing)
Rationalization
justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas actions or feelings with a developed explanation
Passive Agression
agression toward others expressed through procrastination, failure, inactivity, illness
Acting-out Behaviors
a destructive defense, dealing with emotions by actions that are destructive either verbally or physically lashing out at another
Dissociation/Dissociative Disorders
A disruption in normally intergrated functions of thought, memory, identity or perception of the environment
Devaluation
dealing with stress or conflict by atrributing negative qualities to self or others inan attempt to feel better by contrast
Idealization
dealing with conflict or stress by assigning unrealisticly exaggerated positive qualities to another individual
Splitting
often sen in a client with bipolar disorder, it is the inability to see both positive and negative aspects to another person (all good, or all bad)
Projection
transerring personal negative qualities onto another person, object or situation
Denial
involves escaping unpleasant reality by ignoring it
Psychotic Denial
Seen in schizophrenia; a gross impairment of reality testing
Panic Disorder
Disorder characterized by reccurrent, unexpected panic attacks
Panic Attack
a sudden onset of extreme fear or impending doom, comes "out of the blue" and is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as raised BP, P, RR, HR, nausea, etc; rational thought and perceptions are not possible
Agoraphobia
intense excessive anxiety about being in places or situations in which escape or help would be difficult or embarrassing if a panic attack occurred
phobia
a persistant, irrational fear of an object, situationor action
Social Phobia/ Social Anxiety Disorder
a severe fear or anxiety about being in a social or performance situation
Obsession
thoughts, impulses or images that persist in such a manor that they cannot be put out of one's mind
Cumpulsion
ritualistic behavior that a person must perform in an attempt to reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
excessive worry about any number of things or situations that lasts for more than 6 months
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
repeatedly reliving a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or harm to self or others (combat, rape)
Flashbacks
dissociative experiences in which a traumatic event is relived to the extent that the individual behaves as if the event is actually happening
Acute Stress Disorder
a disorder occuring within 1 month of a traumatic event and lasting no more than 1 month, symptoms similar to PTSD
Anxiolytic Drugs
Benzodiazepines are most common type, medications given to reduce anxiety
Cognitive therapy/ cognitive restructuring
therapy in which a person's negative beliefs about self are identified, evaluated and corrected
Behavioral Therapy
various techniques that teach and practice activities that decrease stress and avoidant behaviors
Relaxation training
excercises in brething and muscle relaxation that stop the stress response
Modeling
a support or significant person demonstrates appropriate behaviors in a feared situation which the client can then immitate
Systematic Desensitization
gradually introducing/exposing a person to the feared object or situation and allowing them to overcome it or adjust to it while using relaxation techniques
Flooding
The opposite of gradual desensitization, this is exposing a client to the worst case or most stress in a feared situation inan effort to stop the anxious response
Response prevention
therapy used in compulsive behaviors, the therapist doesn't allow a behavior to be perfomed to show that anxiety can be overcome without the unacceptable behavior
Thought Stopping
interupting a negative though or behavior and redirecting it to a positive
Cognitive-Behavior therapy
a combination of both behavior and cognitive therapies
`Somatiform Disorders
physical symptoms that suggest a physical disorder for which there is no demonstrable basis; these symptoms are then thought to have a psychobiological basis
Malingering
Consciously producing physical symptoms to achieve a desire goal (back pain - time off work)
Factitious disorder
deliberately fabricating symptoms or inflicting self harm to assume the sick role
Psychosomatic illness
a general, legitimate medical condition that is affected by stress or other psychological factors
la belle indifference
a lack of emotional concern about symptoms of a disorder or illness
Conversion Disorder
Disorder marked by deficits in motor or sensory functions that do not correspond to current medical understanding
Pain Disorder
discomfort which leads to impairment for which there is no identifiable organic cause
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Preoccupation with imagined defects one's body that leads to obsessive and compulsive behaviors (mirror checking)
Somatization Disorder
presence of a number of somatic symptoms accompanied by significant functional impairment
Hypochondriosis
Disorder in which clients misinterpret benign physical sensations as evidence of serious illness
Secondary Gains
benefits received from the the sick role (attention, release from work)
Depersonalization Disorder
persistant or recurrent alteration in the perception of the self even though reality testing is intact
Dissociative Amnesia
inability to recall important personal information (usually of traumatic or stressful events) that cannot be explained as normal forgetfullness
Dissociative Fugue
sudden, unexpected travel outside one's normal locale and subsequent inability to recall identity or information about the past
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
presence of two or more distinct personality states that alternate control
Alternate Personality/ subpersonality
the individual personalities experienced by a client with DID
anorexia nervosa
patient refuses to maintain a minimally normal weight for height and expresses fear of gaining weight (below 75% of ideal body weight)
Bulemia Nervosa
repeated episodes of binge eating followed by purging through vomiting misuse of laxatives, fasting or excercise
Binge Eating Disorder
repeated episodes of binge eating without the use of compensative behaviors like purging
Ideal Body Weight
the normal ratio of weight for height
Refeeding Syndrome
a complication of eating disorder treatment in which the demands of a newly revitaized circulatory system cannot be met by the heart, can lead to cardiovascular collapse
Cognitive Distortions
the ideas that perpetuate an illness which can be reformed through therapy
Personality
"an enduring pattern of behavior that is considered to be both conscious and unconscious and reflects a means of adapting to its environment
Personality Disorder (PD)
an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. It is pervasive over time, is inflexible. It has an onset in early adolescence or adulthood and leads to impairement
Paranoid Personality Disorder
characterized by distrust and suspiscious behavior toward others onthe basis of unsupported beliefs that others mean harm or are being deceptive
Schizoid Personality Disorder
a pervasive pattern of social detachment
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
characterized by odd beliefs leading to interpersonal difficulties, may have an eccentric apearance, use an individualized language, perceptual distortions, etc
Manipulative
displaying warm open behaviors toward others with the underlying purpose of using the other for to meet their own needs
Entitlement
an unconscious feeling that ones needs are more important than those of others, they deny the negative effects of hurting others
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, adolescent onset
Borderline Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and effects and impulsivity
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy for others
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
Avoidant Personality Disorder
A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive, clinging behavior and fear of seperation
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern preoccupation with ordiliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openess, and efficiency
Avoidant Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
a long term, detailed, cognitive-behavioral therapy approach specifically for borderline PD
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