Theories of Personality - Dispositional, Biological, Environmental, Behavioral Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Watson
Father of radical behaviorism
overt
directly observable [events]
covert
private, internal events
L - Data
life records
Q - Data
Questionaires
T - Data
Test Data
Cattell's "Source" Traits
Building blocks of personality; 16
Cardinal Trait (Allport)
ruling passion
Central Trait (Allport)
less pervasive than cardinal traits
Secondary/Narrow traits (Allport)
least pervasive, may be only displayed to close individuals
Factor Analysis (Cattell)
Statistical method with subjective naming
Eysenck's Trait Theory
hierarchy model; Types (composed of traits), Traits (composed of habitual responses)
Eysenck's Traits
PEN; Psychoticism, Extraversion/intraversion, Neurotic/stable
McCrae & Costa's Traits
OCEAN - Openess/closed, Conscientousness, Extraversion/intraversion, Agreeableness/antagonism, Neuroticism
Kretschmer studied:
relationship b/w physique & abnormal psychology
Sheldon studied:
relationship b/w physique & normal psychology
(Sheldon)Endomorphic/plump:
Viscoretonia; complacent, relaxed, loves physical pleasure
(Sheldon)Mesomorphic/muscular:
Somatotonia; risk taker, energetic, assertive
(Sheldon) Ectomorphic/frail
Cerebrotonia; self-conscious, apprehensive
Darwin's theory
Inidvidual variation, reproductive advantage
Evolutionary noise
variations that neither help nor hurt
Stabilizing Selection
the effect of having variability in a group
Gould
Evolutionary theory of sudden changes (as opposed to Darwin's gradual changes)
E. O. WIlson's theory
Social behaviors are performed because they increased reproductive success i.e. altruism
Inclusive fitness
Genes passed when ppl genetically related to us reproduce
Assortative Mating
Choose partners, as opposed to Darwin's random mating
Young Male Syndrome
Young males more competitive & aggressive at age when mate-competition is most fierce
Baker & Bellis
Sperm theory: Egg-seeker, Killer sperm & Blocker Sperm
SEA Temperament
Sociability, Emotionality, Activity Level
Gray
BIS / BAS system
BIS
Behavioral Inhibition System; attentive to cues of danger, negative consequences & controls negative emotions.
BAS
Behavioral Activiating System; seeks rewards, unconcerned w neg. consequences & controlls positive emotions.
low Serotonin correlated with:
High aggression
Diet low in Tryptophan
High aggression
B.F. Skinner was a:
Radical behaviorists
SRC / ABC
Stimulus-Response-Consequence ; Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence
Operant Conditioning
Skinnerian; Instrumental
Classical Conditioning
Pavlonian, associations US-UR, then CS-CR
Methodological Behavioral Approach
Controlled experimentation, Parsimonious, Nomothetic, present-focused
Parsimonious
few assumptions, stingy
Nomothetic
looking at population statements
Idiographic
looking at individual person instead of population
US
Unconditioned Stimuli
UR
Unconditioned Response
CS
Conditioned stimulus
CR
Conditioned Response
CS then US
forward conditioning
CS+US (simultaneously)
simultaneous conditioning
Rescorla & Wagner
Cue / Information Conditioning - reliable cue/signal causes condititoning
Stimulus generalization
Conditioning to stimuli will transfer to response to similar stimuli
Stimulus discrimination
Response to stimuli is exclusive
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers
FFM
Five-Factor Model by McCrae & Costa, uses NEO inventories as pricipal source of data
Tellegen & Waller
Positive & Negative Valence
DSM
APA's manual of mental disorders
Contingency
relationship b/w behavior & consequences
Ratio schedule
# of responses (fixed or varied)
Interval scedule
time period lapses (fixed or variable)
Shaping
reinforce approximations to the behavior desired
Garcia effect
biologically prepared for certain stimuli-associations
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