Black Saga Questions 1-200 Flashcards

Africans
Terms Definitions
1. What is the word used to describe the "great scattering" of African people from their communities in Africa to other parts of the world?
Diaspora
2.The continent of Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the West, and the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea to the East. How does Africa rank in relation to other continents in size?
second
3. There is evidence that Africans came to the Americas as early as the 8th century.Sculptures reflecting African influence are found in several towns in Mexico. Name the civilization or culture in Mexico that reflects African influence.
Olmec culture
4. In West Africa three great empires emerged between A.D. 500 and 1600. Each had a powerful army and controlled great wealth. Name these powerful African empires.
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
5. Two African leaders transformed a small African state on the upper Niger River to the great empire of Mali. One ruler began the process with slow growth. Mali grew considerably faster after the 1300s when a new ruler came to power. Name the 2 leaders.
Sundiata Keita (began process) and Mansa Musa
6. Name the religion practiced by most residents of Songhai during the period between A.D. 500 and 1600.
Islam
7. In the ancient African empires of Ghana and Mali, what metal was especially important to their growth and power?
gold
8. What major river valley contributed to the growth of three ancient African empires--Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
Niger River Valley
9. Although it is said that about two-thirds of the gold used to mint coins in Europe and the Arab world came from the Songhai region, another mineral was sometimes more precious than gold to the people of Songhai. What was this mineral?
salt
10. What great city in Songhai had a population of more than 100,000 residents and grewas a business, religious, and intellectual center?
Timbuktu
11. This country sent sailors out to explore the coast of West Africa. Under the sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator, in 1441, they captured no less than ten Africans people as “gifts” to Prince Henry. Name the country.
Portugal
12.The Portuguese and Spanish sailors, in the mid 1400s began frequent raids of West African coastal countries such as Senegal, Guinea, Ghana,and the Ivory Coast to capture Africans and sell them to the wealthy.By 1449,how many Africans lived in Portugal?
about 900
13. In about 1482, the Portuguese built the largest slave dungeon on the west coast of Africa. Name it.
Elmina Castle
14. Blacks were among the first explorers of the Western Hemisphere. In 1492, an African was the pilot of the Santa Maria, one of Columbus' ships. Name him.
Peter (Pedro) Alonzo Nino
15. In 1502, what country was the first to bring a cargo of enslaved Africans into the Western Hemisphere?
Portugal
16. Africans were members of the expedition of Pedro Mendez that founded the oldest city in the United States. Name the city.
St. Augustine, Florida
17. In 1522, where did the first major rebellion by enslaved Africans occur in the Americas?
Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic today)
18. In 1526, enslaved Africans rebelled in a Spanish territory that later became an English colony and then a state of the United States. Name it.
South Carolina
19. Estevanico, a famous black explorer and guide, explored territory that became these two states. Name them.
Arizona and New Mexico
20. Enslaved Africans brought a popular string musical instrument to America in the 17th century. Few African Americans play it today. Name the instrument.
banjo
21. The history of African Americans, in what was to become the United States, began when a Dutch ship anchored off Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Captain Jope is believed to have exchanged his cargo of Africans for food. How many Africans were exchanged?
20
22.In 1621,this small European country created a company that challenged Portugal's control of the trade in Africa.By the mid 17th century, it had taken control of the major trading routes in the Americas and the Caribbean.Name the country and company.
Holland and the Dutch West India Company
23. In 1623, the first black child was born in the American colonies. He was born to Isabella and Anthony Johnson. He was born free because neither of his parents was enslaved. Name him.
William Tucker
24. In 1627, tobacco exports soared to about 500,000 pounds per year, up from 180,000 pounds. Tobacco was the important crop for several colonies. This English ruler was heard to say that Virginia was “wholly built on smoke.” Name the ruler who said t
King Charles I
25.In 1634,farmers in the Chesapeake Bay area imported white and black indentured servants and later,enslaved Africans to profitably grow this crop.It became an important export crop because of its popularity in Europe for smoking and snuff Name the crop.
tobacco
26. Slavery on the mainland of North America began in the "tidewater region" of the Chesapeake colonies. Name the colonies that made up the Chesapeake tidewater region.
Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina
27. In 1636, the majority of residents in Virginia who came to the Colony at this time were servants. About how many servants were imported to Virginia during the Colonial period?
80,000
28. According to the journal of John Winthrop, an important settler in the Massachusetts colony, when was the first cargo of enslaved Africans brought to New England?
1638
29. In 1638, the first enslaved Africans arrived in New England along with a cargo of salt,cotton, and tobacco, aboard a ship called _______.
Desire
30.The first known incident of an African becoming enslaved in the U.S.occurred in 1640 when this person ran away with two white servants.After their capture, the white servants had their work time increased ,while the African became a servant for life.
John Punch
31. In 1640, Virginia had ____ percent of all black people in the colonies.
about 56
32. Rice cultivation in the United States can be traced to enslaved Africans from rice-producing areas of Africa being brought to colonial South Carolina. Name the major rice-producing region in Africa.
Senegambia
33. In 1641, what colony became the first to recognize slavery as a legal institution?
Massachusetts
34. In 1642, Virginia passed a law to stop people from helping runaway enslaved Africans.Individuals could be fined for each night he or she sheltered a runaway. What fine was imposed?
20 pounds of tobacco
35.In 1644, eleven blacks, who were among the founders of this settlement in the Hudson River Valley, asked for their freedom because they had served their years of servitude. Each received land in what is now Greenwich Village in NYC. Name the colony.
New Netherlands
36. Enslaved Africans delivered to the West Indies were likely to work on a plantation that grew __________ .
sugar
37. How long would it take for a typical slave ship traveling from Gambia, the Gold Coast,Guinea, or Senegal to reach New England, the Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, or the West Indies?
4 to 8 weeks
38. In the 17th century, Europeans initially established large land-holdings in the Americas, but soon divided the land into smaller units under private ownership. These smaller parcels of land were popular in the Middle Atlantic and Southern colonies.
plantations
39. During the 17th century, enslaved black women were expected to have four or five children by the age of twenty. Planters encouraged child-bearing and if a woman produced fifteen children she could receive _____________. What was this?
her freedom
40. In 1645, the first American slave ship bound for Africa sailed from Boston. Name the ship.
Rainbow
41. What is the name of the system begun in Virginia by which planters could claim 50 acres of land for each indentured servant brought into the colony?
headright system
42. On July 24, 1651, one of the first 20 black settlers in Jamestown received 250 acres of land for importing five indentured persons. He later received more than 650 additional acres. This black family had more than 1,000 acres of land.
Anthony Johnson and his family
43. By 1652, laws in some colonies protected the limited rights of indentured servants. Ex., a servant could receive money, clothes, land, and other property when his/her service contract ended. What did colonists call the materials the servants received?
"freedom dues"
44.In 1655, this enslaved African sued for her freedom and won. She argued that:1) her father was a free man, and by law she inherited her father's condition; 2)she had been baptized and 3)she had been sold to another planter. Name her.
Elizabeth Key
45.On March 13, 1660, this colony passed a law that placed a tax on the sale of enslaved Africans.It is considered the first law making enslaved Africans "chattel" property (tangible property other than land or buildings). Name the colony.
Virginia
46. As early as 1657, this colony had a militia to track down runaway servants.It had lowered import duties for merchants who “carry enslaved blacks” into the colony.The legislature had not legally recognized slavery. It did so in 1661. Name it.
Virginia
47.During the early years of the slave rade, most slaves who survived the voyage from Africa to the W.Indies were trained there to work and obey masters. This process could last 3-4 years. It ended when the south colonies needed so many workers.Name it.
breaking-in period
48. In 1662, Virginia added a law that declared that all African children born in that colony would be free or enslaved, based on what?
status of the mother
49. On September 13, 1663, the first recorded major conspiracy of servants and enslaved persons in colonial America took place. A servant told authorities about the plan to escape. In what county and colony did this conspiracy occur?
Gloucester County, Virginia
50. In 1663, the proprietors of Carolina Colony offered bonuses to settlers bringing male and female enslaved Africans into the colony. What did they offer to settlers?
25 acres for each male; 10 acres for each female
51. In what year did Maryland pass a law that recognized slavery as legal?
1664
52. In 1667, the legislature of what colony passed an act that ended the practice of freeing enslaved Africans after they were baptized?
Virginia
53.By 1670, it is estimated that the African population in VA represented ___ percent of an estimated 40,000 settlers in the colony. Slavery came slowly to Virginia, slave laws began to appear in the 1640s.What was the percentage of Africans in VA?
5 percent
54. By 1670, the southern part of the Carolinas (South Carolina) had received many enslaved African and white residents from this island in the Caribbean. Their economies were similar. Name the island.
Barbados; the colony was called “child of Barbados”
55. This word describes "a string of enslaved Africans connected by a forked branch or rope". It was used to lead enslaved Africans from the interior of the continent to the coast, adding newly captured or purchased enslaved Africans on the way. Name it.
coffle
56. To maintain a slave trading monopoly and a constant supply of enslaved African labor,the British government gave a charter to what company?
Royal African Company
57. On February 18, 1688, what group adopted the first formal anti-slavery resolution in American history? They called slavery the “traffic of mensbody.”
Quakers
58. One of the earliest "triangular trade routes" brought enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies. What product was frequently shipped from the West Indies to the North American mainland?
sugar or molasses
59. In the 1700s, plantation owners believed slaves were necessary to produce successfully many different crops. Which crops were most dependent on enslaved African labor?
rice,cotton,tobacco,sugar,indigo
60. In the early 1700s, enslaved blacks in the “tidewater” region were primarily used in growing tobacco. What jobs did they do in growing this crop?
weeding, seeding, plowing,hilling, hoeing,topping,worming,harvesting,stripping,curing,sorting
61.As tobacco became profitable, more planters turned to producing it. They began enacting slave codes as they brought more enslaved blacks into the colonies. In fact, by 1700, the population of Africans in VA-had mutiplied ten-fold to how many?
20,000. Over the course of the next 50 years, no less than how many enslaved blacks were imported into the Chesapeake region?
62. In the 1700s, this city in England was called “Queen of English slave trading” because it supplied almost half of the ships used in the Atlantic slave trade. Name the city.
Liverpool, England
63.In the S.C. colony, this crop was introduced in the 1690s and became the main export in the early 1700s. It was the main source of income for farmers in the Carolinas and by the 19th century it was a significant crop in VA and GA.It is labor intensive.
rice
64. In the 1700s, another important crop grown in South Carolina was used as a blue dye for cloth. This crop grew best on high ground and required about 25 slaves for a 50- acre plot. Name the crop.
indigo
65. What is the name of the two month-journey for enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies? During this journey, they were brutally treated.
Middle Passage
66. Between 1680 and 1750, how many enslaved Africans coming directly from Africa to the American mainland were carried on each English ship?
about 200
67.In the 1700s,rice agriculture was found in the “low country” where enslaved Africans were heavily concentrated. Rice accounted for 60% of all exports of this region.Just before the American Revolution, what 2 colonies exported more than 69 million
South Carolina and Georgia
68. In 1700, this person was the first public official to "outrightly" denounce slavery when he published, The Story of Joseph. In this story, he compared slavery to the Old Testament story of Joseph whose brothers sold him into slavery. Name him.
Judge Samuel Sewell of Massachusetts
69.Only a few black people lived in New England in 1700,this large city became important for slave trading.Ships with food sailed to the W.Indies where they were traded for rum.Rum bought slaves in Africa. Name the city called "hub of slavetrading".
Boston, Massachusetts
70. As a general rule in the slave trading business, the successful delivery of only one-third of the enslaved Africans was enough to cover the total cost of the trip and provide a sizable profit. What was the profit?
between 200 and 300 percent
71. Early schools for African Americans were founded and staffed by white abolitionists.In 1704 the first school for enslaved Africans in British North America was founded by a white abolitionist in New York at Trinity Church. Name him.
Elias Neau
72. In 1705, this colonial legislature passed a law that read: “All servants imported or brought into this country by sea or land who were not Christians in their native country shall be accounted and be slaves.” Name the colony.
Virginia
73. In 1712, what colony introduced the strict “slave code” written by the English for Barbados onto the mainland of North America? The code was later copied and revised by other colonies with enslaved Africans.
South Carolina
74. In 1713, merchants from this country successfully purchased an “asiento”, a contract to control the African slave trade. In this asiento, the merchants contracted with Spain.Name the country and what were the merchants required to pay.
Great Britain; 25%
75.This important port city was founded by the French in 1718 and later was transferred to the U. S. as part of the LA Purchase. By 1820, blacks were about half of its population, and exports were 2nd in the country.Name the city and the product exported.
New Orleans; cotton
76. In 1720, molasses from the West Indies was transported to colonial ports where it was made into rum and shipped to Africa in exchange for enslaved Africans. What city in Rhode Island had more than 22 factories making rum to be shipped to Africa?
Newport
77. In 1720, approximately how much did it cost to buy an enslaved African in Africa?
100 to 200 gallons of rum (valued at about $50 ot $60)
An enslaved African was sold in the West Indies to a sugar planter for approximately how much?
$100 to $200 (or molasses at that amount)
78. In 1721, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston successfully used inoculations to treat a smallpox epidemic in Boston. Who was the enslaved African that had described the "inoculation procedure" used by Boylston?
Onesimus
79. This colony was established as a barrier between the British in the Carolinas and the Spanish in FL. This colony’s proprietors initially believed slavery was unsound and unprofitable, and they restricted the importation of enslaved Africans. Name it
Georgia
80. In 1733, many enslaved Africans tried to escape to Florida because of a Spanish law passed in this year. What did the law state?
Enslaved Africans who escaped to Spanish territory would be considered free.
81. Benjamin Banneker was known as a scientist, astronomer, and surveyor, but he, too, was an inventor. What was his major invention that was probably the first of its kind to be built in the United States?
wooden clock
82.In 1739 in Stono, South Carolina near Charleston, Cato led a slave uprising. About 30 whites were killed and more than 30 blacks were killed for participating in the revolt.They wanted to escape to___________ a place that offered them freedom and land.
Florida
83. Throughout much of colonial times, even if a young black youth was trained to be a wheelwright, a house carpenter, a shingle cutter, a boat builder, or a cabinet maker, he most likely had to make what product?
barrels. People who made barrels were called “coopers.” Barrels were needed to safely ship valuable products over long distances-- fish, rum, grain, tobacco, rice, and indigo, and even sugar and molasses of the Caribbean.
84. In 1740, which colony had the largest number of enslaved black people?
Virginia,60,000 Which colony had the largest proportion of enslaved black people in their total population?
85."An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ and Penitential Cries," is the earliest published by a black person. The poem was published in 1761 when he was 41 years old. Seventeen years later, he published a long poem for Phillis Wheatley.Name him.
Jupiter Hammon
86. In which region would you find the most wealthy whites?
Chesapeake
87. In which region would you find the largest amount of rice production?
Low Country
88. In which region would you find the most plantations?
Chesapeake
89. In which would you find the region most devoted to tobacco production?
Chesapeake
90. In which region would you find the fewest wealthy whites?
Back Country
91. In which region would you find the greatest ratio of enslaved Africans to white residents?
Low Country
92. In which region would you find the most enslaved Africans?
Chesapeake
93. In which region would you find the region growing mostly hemp and wheat?
Back Country
94. In which region would you find the fewest number of enslaved Africans?
Back Country
95. Near Chesapeake Bay during early colonial time, enslaved Africans built roads on which large wooden barrels, called "hogsheads" full of tobacco would be rolled to ships waiting at piers. Name the road in Baltimore County, MD after 200 years.
Rolling Road
96.In the mid-1700s, most of the tobacco in the Chesapeake region was raised on plantations that ranged from 1,000 to 6,000 acres.On one large plantation in Prince George’s County,MD one had more than 40,000 acres.He was "the richest man in America".
Charles Carroll
97. In 1770, many plantations were "self sufficient"--that is, skilled craftsmen on the plantation produced everything needed. Many of these craftsmen were enslaved Africans. Name three important but different crafts that enslaved Africans had.
sawyers, blacksmiths, tanners, tailors, curriers, shoemakers, spinners, iron workers, weavers, stone cutters, coopers, knitters, etc.
98.While the slave system worked to destroy enslaved Africans’ links to the past,they retained elements of their culture, including music, dance, names, and faith. African rhythms and instruments, banjo and drums. Where were these elements have survived
places where enslaved blacks were isolated and where they were a majority.
99. The first African American church (under African American leadership) was established in 1773 in what southern city?
Silver Bluff, South Carolina
100. In 1773, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, a black man from Haiti, was the first merchant and the first settler in this area. He set up permanent residence and a fur trading business along a river near Lake Michigan. Name the great city.
Chicago, Illinois
101. This black woman from Senegal was sold to a tailor in Boston, Massachusetts. She learned to read and write and, before she was 20 years old had achieved some fame as a poet. She gained her freedom in 1772, made a trip to London to read her poems.
Phillis Wheatley
We have no city! No country!" In which colony did these men petition for their freedom?
Massachusetts
103. Between 1770 and 1775, 4,000 enslaved Africans per year arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. All were held for several weeks on Sullivan’s Island, a quarantine station designed to prevent the spread of epidemics from overseas. What was it called?
“the Ellis Island of Black America”
104. This runaway slave was among the first to die in the American Revolution. He died on March 5, 1770 during the Boston massacre when British troops panicked and fired into an unruly crowd in Boston. Name this patriot.
Crispus Attucks
105.During the American Revolution (1775-1783),many black men fought for the colonies and for the British. This was not the first time that black men had been soldiers. How many black men fought for the colonies during the American Rev?
5,000
106. What do Salem Poor, Peter Salem, Prince Hall, Caesar Brown, Prince Estabrook have in common?
They were black military heroes of the Revolutionary War.
107.This black soldier served with honor and distinction in Col. Fry's regiment of the Revolutionary War. A document signed by 13 of his superiors noted that he "in the late battle in Charlestown, behaved like an experienced officer". Name him.
Salem Poor
108.A distinguished Philadelphia physician and chemistry professor published An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, Upon Slavekeeping. He said any "vices which are charged upon the Negroes in the south are due to slavery.
Benjamin Rush
109. In 1775, the first society formed to work for the abolition of slavery was founded in this American city. The Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery worked to abolish slavery in the colony and to protect free blacks.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
110. By the time of the American Revolution, what colony had more enslaved black people than white people?
South Carolina
111. In the 1770s, nine out of 10 of the richest men in the colonies came from what colony?
South Carolina
112. This African American patriot fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. He petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to help him and others return to Africa. He was also the first African American to join a Masonic order.
Prince Hall
113. This black person fought during the Revolutionary War. He was credited with forcing the British troops to regroup and giving the outnumbered colonial troops time to retreat rather than surrender. A monument is erected in his honor at Framingham, Mass
Peter Salem
114. In 1776, New York and other colonies passed a ‘Draft Substitution” law regarding service in the Continental Army. What did this law allow?
A white person could send a black person, an enslaved African, or free black to serve in his place.
115. What important document originally had a section that denounced slavery, but was deleted before the document was adopted in 1776?
The Declaration of Independence
116. This free black settlement was one of the earliest in America. In 1777, Cato Howe and three other Revolutionary War black veterans received 94 acres of land where they built homes and lived out their lives. Name the settlement and the colony.
Parting Ways, near Plymouth, Massachusetts
117. Several colonies took steps to abolish slavery between 1777 and 1784. This colony prohibited slavery in the constitution it adopted in 1777. Name it.
Vermont
118.In December 1777, George Leile formed the First African Baptist Church.It is the oldest continuing congregation of black Baptists in America. Leile was the first pastor. Recently,the church has been used by local civil rights activists. Name the city.
Savannah, Georgia
119.In the only battle of the American Revolution fought in Rhode Island (he Battle of Rhode Island), a unit of about 200 freedmen held off three times as many British troops at Newport on August 29, 1778. What is the name of this black unit.
First Rhode Island Regiment
120. By the end of the 1770s, only about 50,000 African Americans lived in the northern colonies. About how many lived in the southern colonies?
400,000
121. This enslaved black woman helped to bring an end to slavery in Massachusetts. While enslaved on the estate of Col. John Ashley, she knew first hand the brutality of slavery when Ashley's wife hit her with a shovel. When Massachusetts adopted a new st
Elizabeth Freeman (also known as Mum Bett or Mumbet)
122. In 1781, a group of 44 men and women (26 of African descent) founded the second settlement in California that today is the largest city in the state. Name this city.
Los Angeles
123. In 1781, this black soldier in the Continental Army became one of the most notable spies of the American Revolution. He gathered information that helped Marquis de Lafayette defeat the British at Yorktown, Virginia on October 19, 1781. Name him.
James Armistead
124.In 1783 this wealthy free black merchant and other free blacks of Dartmouth, MA protested to the state legislature that they were being taxed without representation. The courts decided that black men who paid taxes in MA could vote. Name him.
Paul Cuffe
125.By 1783, this black soldier, having served more than six years in the Revolutionary War, was awarded the "Badge of Merit" from General George Washington. The soldier participated in the Battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth, and Yorktown
Oliver Cromwell
126. This former enslaved black person from Delaware was a wagon driver in the American Revolution and began preaching in the Meth. Church in 1786.He served St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church(a white church) in Philadelphia as an occasional ministe
Richard Allen
127. In 1787, this act passed by Congress determined the number of representatives from each state. Enslaved blacks had no voice in government but their numbers counted for each state’s seats in the House of Representatives. What act made this possible?
The "three-fifths" Compromise
128. In 1787, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones were among those who organized one of the first official organizations of blacks in the country. Some consider it the first black business organization. It was a mutual aid society, a church.
Free African Society
129. Congress passed the Ordinance of 1787 that barred slavery in the Northwest Territory.Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude was permitted in the region northwest of the Ohio River except as punishment for a crime. Name the states that were formed.
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin
131. As of 1790, about 67,000 blacks lived in the North. What percentage of these blacks was enslaved?
60 percent
132. In 1790, the legislatures of North Carolina and Virginia approved digging a canal from Albermarle Sound to ports in Virginia. Digging the canal began in 1793 with hired slave labor. The canal helped to open the vast timber resources of the region.
Dismal Swamp Canal
133.This black American surveyed the land for the design of the District of Columbia after the original planner grew tired of criticism of his plan and returned to France.This surveyor, appointed to the commission on the recommendation of Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Banneker
134. In 1791, this black person led a successful revolt of enslaved Africans against the French in Haiti. The overthrow of this French colony produced fear in the U.S. Congress that a revolt would occur in the United States, too.
Toussaint L’Ouverture
135. This African American wrote a widely published letter to Thomas Jefferson in 1791 that argued that it was absurd to think of Africans as an inferior race. He argued that Africans had the same reasoning powers.He also published the first Almanac.
Benjamin Banneker
136. By using the cotton gin, invented in 1793, a man could deseed and clean cotton more efficiently. Using a horse to turn this machine,it could clean 50 times as much cotton as before.It quickly made cotton the leading crop in the South.Who invented it?
Eli Whitney
137. Before the cotton gin, slavery thrived largely along a narrow, coastal corridor of rice and long-staple cotton plantations in S.C. and GA. The same growing conditions could not be found in the West. Name the crop.
“short-staple cotton"
138. This college founded in Brunswick, Maine in 1793 became a center for abolitionist sentiment before the Civil War. John Russwurm was the first Black graduate of the college in 1826.
Bowdoin College
139. In 1793, Congress passed an act making it a crime to harbor an escaped enslaved African or to interfere with his capture or arrest. Name this act.
Fugitive Slave Act
140. In 1795, he was commissioned to preach in the Congregational Church, the first black minister of this church. As a child, he had been bound out as a servant to a church deacon and began writing adult sermons while still a boy.
Lemuel Haynes
141. This black artist is one of the earliest professional African American painters. He was active in Baltimore during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He painted portraits of many established families. One of his most famous is an oil canvas.
Joshua Johnson
142. In 1800, ______ percent of the U.S. population was made up of black people.
roughly 19 percent
143. During the early 1800s what city became known as "the seat of black affluence" because of the wealthy free black inventors and businessmen who lived there?
Philadelphia, PA
144.In the 19th century, the Dismal Swamp, on the border between VA and N.C., offered a safe place for enslaved African runaways. Here they built homes, grew crops, raised animals and sold wood shingles and logs to free blacks.What were they called?
Maroons
145. In 1800, a black person organized 1,100 enslaved black people in Henrico County, VA and set out to attack Richmond. The plot was betrayed by enslaved blacks who wanted to save their slaveholder. The leader said, "why all this mockery of a trial?"
Gabriel Prosser
146.Throughout the time of slavery, states had different policies regarding this “peculiar institution,” but if Quakers were a sizable portion of the resident population and played prominent roles. life.Name the states in order of abolishing slavery.
Rhode Island 1774, Vermont, 1777, Pennsylvania, 1780, Massachusetts, 1781, New Hampshire, 1783, Connecticut 1784, New York, 1799, New Jersey, 1804
147. This African American church in Savannah, Georgia has a colorful history. Reverend Andrew Bryan formed it in 1802. It was here that General Tecumseh Sherman read the Emancipation Proclamation to the city’s citizens. Almost 100 years later, Dr. Mart
Second African Baptist Church
148.In 1805, Lewis and Clark saw the Pacific Ocean for the first time standing at the mouth of the Columbia River in the “Oregon Country,” thus proving that America is a country stretched between two oceans.Who was an enslaved African who was a scout
York
149. January 1, 1808 is an important date in the African American experience. What legal action took place?
Congress prohibited the importation of enslaved Africans into the United States
150. Throughout out the entire period of European slave trading, about 95% of the Africans (10-12 million) are believed to have been distributed to Latin America and the Caribbean. A small percentage of these enslaved Africans ended up in British North Am
about 5% or about 550,000 individuals
151. Most Africans who were enslaved and taken to the Western Hemisphere came from the coast of West Africa. What places on this coast were the largest suppliers of enslaved African people?
Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Gambia, Sierre de Leone, Mandinga
152.Slave trading remained a major industry in the United States even after 1808 when the government banned the import of slaves. The need for enslaved people shifted from the Chesapeake region to the Deep South for cotton production. Name the 2 states.
Virginia and Maryland
153. In 1810, the first known insurance company owned and managed by blacks was established in Philadelphia by James Porter, William Coleman and Joseph Randolph. The company existed for thirty years. Name the firm.
The Afro-American Insurance Company
154. In 1811, as many as 400 enslaved Africans in St. Charles and St. John the Baptist parishes in Louisiana revolted. They were led by a free African from Haiti who worked on the plantation where the rebellion began. Name him.
Charles Deslandes
155. During colonial times and several decades afterwards, many enslaved Africans fled to places where they often lived with Native Americans, such as with the Seminole. In what state did escaped enslaved Africans and Seminoles live together?
Florida
156. This fort on the Apalachicola River in Florida is 60 miles from the Georgia border.Built by the British during the War of 1812, it became the home for more than 300 runaway enslaved blacks and about 30 Seminole Indians who used it as a base to raid G
Fort Negro
157. What state was the first to encourage blacks to participate in the War of 1812? Two thousand free and enslaved black people were enlisted and organized into two regiments. Name the state.
New York
158. A group of black men who had been rejected from serving in the territorial militia in 1803 were allowed to enlist as a battalion in the War of 1812. Although the commanding officer was white, three of the lieutenants were black men. Name the militia
Free Men of Color
159. Although the Secretary of War had stated "No Negro, mulatto or Indian is to be enlisted,"when war started again in 1812, blacks did serve in one military branch. Name it.
U. S. Navy
160. Commodore Oliver H. Perry of the U.S. Navy, who had earlier criticized the effectiveness of black sailors, changed his view when he won a decisive victory using black sailors on September 12, 1813 in this important battle in the War of 1812. Name the
Battle of Lake Erie
161. Two battalions of 500 free blacks fought with Andrew Jackson to liberate a major city from the British in the last battle of the War of 1812 (which actually took place in 1814). The "Free Men of Color” was the largest single force of black men asse
Battle of New Orleans
162. Today, this seaport is one of the largest in the South. Prior to the Civil War it was known for its auctions of enslaved Africans. Enslaved black people sold here were often used on the cotton plantations along the Mississippi River. What is this sea
New Orleans
163. By 1815, three cotton centers located along the Mississippi River emerged in the South Central states. Growing, processing, and distributing cotton focused on these cities.
Nashville, Tennesee; Natchez, Mississippi; and Baton Rouge, Louisiana
164. This abolitionist and Quaker was a saddlemaker in Wheeling, Vermont when he first became concerned about the morality of the slave trade. In 1815, he formed the Union Human Society, and six years later, he began publishing the anti-slavery newspaper,
Benjamin Lundy
165. In 1816, Robert Finley, a Presbyterian clergyman, founded a society in Washington, D.C. to resettle free American blacks on the west coast of Africa. Many prominent Americans were sponsors, including John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay o
American Colonization Society
166. The American Colonization movement was backed by funds from the U.S. Government. It founded a permanent colony on the west coast of Africa to resettle free blacks of the United States during the 1800s. What was the colony called?
Liberia
167. After the American Colonization Society was founded to resettle free African Americans in West Africa, two leaders in the African American community organized a protest of 3,000 African Americans against colonization in 1817. Name these two African A
James Forten and Richard Allen
168. Born in 1817 as a slave in Tuckahoe, Maryland, this African American worked on the docks of Baltimore and escaped from slavery by disguising himself as a sailor. He fled to freedom and lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Name him.
Frederick Douglass
169. This black man was born in Philadelphia in 1766 and worked as a sailmaker apprentice. He invented a device for handling sails and in 1798 owned his own sailmaking factory in Philadelphia. As a businessman, he became wealthy and took an active role in
James Forten
170. Throughout the 1820s, this state was the top producer of sugar in the U.S., growing about 95 percent of the country’s total crop. At the time, about 60,000 enslaved people cultivated and harvested the crop. Sugar previously had been imported from t
Louisiana; New Orleans
171. In 1820, the largest number of enslaved black people (425,153) lived in this state. It had more than one-and-a-half times as many enslaved black people as the second largest concentration (258,475). Name the state.
Virginia Which state ranked second? South Carolina
172. In 1820, the American Colonization Society sponsored an expedition to establish a colony of freed slaves in West Africa in the country now known as Liberia. A group of 86 free African Americans set sail on this ship to Liberia. Name the ship.
The Mayflower of Liberia
173. In 1821, a group of black women founded this society in Philadelphia. It loaned money to members for rent and other necessities, donated money for burial of a member or of her relatives, gave aid to the sick, and provided a forum for members to settl
Daughters of Africa Society
174. In 1821, Thomas Jennings became the first known black person to receive a patent for an invention. Money from his patent and business in New York City was used to support the abolitionist movement. What was his invention?
dry cleaning process
175. In 1818, this African American was the founder of one of the major black churches in the United States--the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church in New Haven, Connecticut. Since Richard Allen had previously founded the African Methodist Epi
Rev. James Varick
176. This Quaker merchant moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1822. He strongly opposed a slavery and joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. Delaware was a slave state, bordering Pennsylvania and New Jersey on one side and Maryland (a slave state) on the
Thomas Garrett
177. This African American carpenter purchased his freedom in 1800 with the winnings from a lottery ticket. He urged other blacks to demand equality. In 1822, he plotted to free enslaved black people in Charleston, S.C. but was betrayed by a co-conspirato
Denmark Vesey
178. This school teacher was a member of the Society of Friends. When in 1821 he tried to start a school for slaves in Greensboro, North Carolina, slave-owners did not allow them to attend. After moving to Newport, Indiana in 1826, he helped fugitive slav
Levi Coffin
179. In 1823 this African American artist, a freed slave educated in the North, moved to North Carolina and opened up a shop where he made beautiful furniture. Most of his furniture had Africa-inspired designs. The shop became one of the most widely known
Thomas Day
180. In 1823, this African American was the first of his race to graduate from an American college. He received an A.B. degree from Middlebury College in Vermont. In 1836, he was elected to the Vermont State Legislature–becoming the first African Americ
Alexander Lucius Twilight
181. This African American began his career as a Shakespearean actor. Over several decades, he gave performances before monarchs of Sweden, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. He was best known for his portrayal of Othello. Name him.
Ira Aldridge
182. This abolitionist was elected to Ohio’s House of Representatives in 1826. Several years later, he developed a partnership with Benjamin Wade to form a strong anti-slavery movement in Ohio and in the U.S. Congress. He was forced to resign almost imm
Joshua Giddings
183. On March 16, 1827, two African American leaders, Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm, published the first black newspaper in the country? Name it.
Freedom's Journal
185. On July 4, 1827, slavery was officially abolished in this northern state and more than 10,000 enslaved black persons received their freedom. Name the state.
New York
186. By 1827, every state in the North had abolished slavery. In states of the Deep South, the situation was very different. The actual number of slaves increased following American independence. What specific factors contributed most to this increase of
cotton production and the invention of the cotton gin
187. In Boston in 1829, this free black abolitionist published a radical antislavery pamphlet, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. He called for the use of violence to overthrow slavery. The language of the pamphlet frightened whites and was so s
David Walker
188. In 1829, Elizabeth Lange, a Haitian refugee living in Baltimore, and three other black women started the first order of black nuns in the nation. In 2004, they celebrated 175 years of service to Baltimore and the world. Today, Mother Elizabeth Lange
Oblate Sisters of Providence
189. In 1829, this enslaved African American published his first book of poems, The Hope of Liberty, the first full volume of poems published by an African American since Phillis Wheatley’s poems some 30 years before. He paid his slaveholder 50 cents a
George Moses Horton
190. In 1790, less than 700,000 enslaved black people lived in the South. Forty years later in 1830, how many black people lived in this region?
just over 2 million
The "Ancient Burying Ground" located in thius cit has graves dating back to 1648. Five "Black Governors" are buried there.Name the city where this burying ground is found.
Hartford, Connecticut
192. Enslaved black people picked cotton on plantations scattered throughout the Mississippi Delta region. Plantation overseers wre generally satisfied if how many pounds were picked a day.
200
193. On May 28, 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed this law which forced the Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles off their land in the southeastern US and moved them over the "trail of tears" to OK. Many blacks also went. Name the act.
Indian Removal Act
194. This white woman wrote popular and highly successful historical novels. In 1831, she attended a public meeting where she heard William Lloyd Garrison give a speech against slavery. She was moved and in 1833, her book, An Appeal in Favor of that Class
Lydia Maria Child
195. What do Benjamin Lundy, William Lloyd Garrison, and Elijah Lovejoy have in common?
They were white abolitionists who published newspapers.
196. On August 21, 1831, in Southampton County, Virginia this enslaved black preacher believed that God had chosen him to lead blacks to freedom. He and 70 enslaved black followers began a two-day rebellion, during which the leader killed his master and a
Nat Turner
197. Like the rebellions led by Prosser and Vesey, this uprising led to harsh new slave codes and practices. In contrast, it marked a pivotal moment in the history of American slavery and in the development of the antislavery movement. On the one hand, it
Nat Turner
198. In 1831, this African American woman along with 16 black and white women founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society. She was a leading abolitionist, community activist, and generous giver to her causes. She encouraged her children to devote
Charlotte Forten, Sr.
199. By this time, slavery was commonplace throughout most of the South. In fact, it was also common that childhood for slaves ended on their ____ birthday. From then on they either worked in the fields alongside their parents (one quarter of an able-bodi
12th
200. In 1831, these two brothers and businessmen established the first Anti-Slavery Society in New York. Two years later in 1833 it became a national organization and one of the brothers was elected its first president. The organization attracted some of
Arthur Tappan and Lewis Tappan
102. In January 1773, a group of enslaved Africans petitioned the governor of this colony for their freedom. They wrote: "We have no property! We have no wives! No children! In what colony did these men petition for their freedom?
Massachusetts
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