Membranes and Cell Structure Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Grana, thylaokoids, and stroma are all components found in
Most of a eukaryotic cell's genes are found in the
Which of these processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient
active transport
Which of these is a difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA contains thymine, RNA contains uracil
Organelles that contain DNA include
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Which of these structures is unique to plant cells?
central vacuole
In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packages to prevent destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles function in this compartmentalization?
The primary structure of a protein is
the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain
Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity?
a great proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
Which of the following cell components is not directly involved in synthesis or secretion?
Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following processes includes all others?
passive transport
A biologist ground up some plant cells then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. the organelles took up CO2 and gave off O2. The organelles are most likely
Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structure that contributes to shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the cytoskeleton except
the cell wall
Microfilaments are well known for their role of which of the following?
contracting of muscle cells, formation of cleavage furrows, ameboid movement
Which of the following is not found in a prokaryotic cell
endoplasmic reticulum
According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly
embedded in a lipid bilayer
A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its
nucleoid region
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
gap junctions
Which of these is not a component of the endomembrane system?
Which of the following is not a known function of the cytoskeleton?
to maintain a critical limit on cell size
In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?
A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from
a plant or animal
Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oil, phospholipids, and steroids?
smoother endoplasmic reticulum
Carbohydrates generally have a molecular formula
in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are present in a ratio of 1:2:1.
Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?
rough ER -> vesicles -> Gogli -> plasma membrane
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
rough ER
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
lysosomes, protein synthesis
Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective function is NOT correct?
chloroplasts: chief site of protein synthesis
Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by
passive transport
The interior of the phospholipid bilayer is
All of the following molecules are part of the cell membrane except
nucleic acids
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the celery stalks are
hypertonic to fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution
What are the membrane structures that function in active transport?
integral proteins
Ions diffuse across membranes down their
electrochemical gradients
Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?
phospholipids and proteins
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy input is which of the following?
active transport
What membrane-surface molecules are thought to be most important as cells recognize each other?
All of the following cellular activities require ATP energy EXCEPT
movement of O2 into the cell.
All of the following are functions of integral proteins except
enzyme synthesis
Which of the following statements is CORRECT about diffusion?
it is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops
The kinds of molecules that pass through a cell membrane most easily are
small and hydrophobic
Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport
facilitated diffusion
Which of the following adheres to the extracellular surface of animal cell plasma membranes?
fibers of the extra cellular matrix
IMAGE Initially, in terms of molarity, the solution in side A with respect to that in side B is
isotonic IMAGE
IMAGE After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?
The water level is higher in side A than in side B. IMAGE
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