AP Psychology semester study guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of:
Behavior and mental process.
Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of:
Reactions to sensory stimulation.
The self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings is called:
Introspection.
Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior"?
John Watson.
The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of:
Multiple levels of analysis.
Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a _______ perspective on depression.
Neuroscience.
Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibilty to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ________ perspective.
Behavior Genetics.
Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
Cognitive.
Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences?
Cognitive.
Dr. Wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between introverted and extraverted people. Dr. Wilcox is most likely a(n) _________ psychologist.
Personality.
One technique of the SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of:
Thinking critically.
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to:
Think something was obvious after the fact.
According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather's claim best illustrates:
Hindsight bias.
When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates:
Overconfidence
A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):
Operational definition.
Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?
Random assignment.
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages that poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are:
Negatively correlated.
Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will bring her bad luck. Felicia's belief best illustrates:
Illusory correlation.
To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use:
Random assignment.
Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of:
Random assignment.
The most commonly reported measure of central tendency is the:
Mean.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the:
Range.
Faustin, a member of his college's golf team, has an opportunity to play against a nationally acclaimed professional golfer. How many holes of golf should Faustin choose to play with the professional in order to maximize his own slim chance of winning?
Nine.
The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called:
Phrenology.
An axon is:
An extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a(n):
Action potential.
When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is:
Muscular paralysis.
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
Peripheral.
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the:
Endocrine system.
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n):
PET scan.
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detect damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty:
Playing his guitar.
In order to trigger a person's hand to make a fist, Jose Delgado stimulated the individual's:
Motor cortex.
A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when his face was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of:
Plasticity.
Research on left-handedness suggests that:
They tend to disappear in old age.
As members of the human family, we all share a common:
Biological heredity.
Chromosomes are located within human:
Cell nuclei.
Compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are:
Less similar in neuroticism and similar in extraversion.
In order to estimate trait heritability, researchers are most likely to make use of:
Twin studies.
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:
Natural selection.
Professor Archibald suggests that men are most likely than women to initiate casual sex because this has historically served to be a more successful reproductive strategy for men than for women. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ___ theory.
Evolutionary.
Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates:
Selective affect.
Professor Shankar believes that her students' most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of:
Individualism.
Returning personal favors to those who have shown you kindness is especially likely to be emphasized in cultures characterized by:
Collectivism.
Female children exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development exhibit more "tomboyish" behaviors than most girls. In order to avoid overestimating the influence of prenatal hormones on these behaviors, it should be noted that these children:
May be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.
By insisting that humans are "nothing but" products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:
Independent responsibility.
Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) _______ psychologist.
Developmental.
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a:
Teratogen.
The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to:
Open their mouth when something touches their cheeks.
Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to being toilet training their year-old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of:
Maturation.
Incorporating new information into exisiting theories is to _______ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
Assimilate; accommodate.
Preschoolers' acquisition of a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young childrens':
Egocentrism.
Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfmailiar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:
Attachment.
Two-year-old Anna percieves her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of:
Insecure attachment.
Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience:
Basic trust.
In formulating his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young childrens':
Social skills and self-esteem.
Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lembers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on weapons. This reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ______ stage.
Postconventional.
According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of:
Forming an identity.
Those who criticize theories of age-linked adult development stages are most likely to emphasize the importance of _______ on adult development.
Social clock.
The fact that many happy and well-adjusted adults were once rebellious and unhappy as adolescents is most relevant to the issue of:
Continuity or stages.
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:
Sensation.
If an adult develops cataracts, his or her:
Absolute threshold for light is likely to increase.
Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of:
Difference threshold.
Accommodation refers to the:
The lens changing it's curvature.
Visual information is processed by:
Ganglion cells.
In additive color mixing, the combination of red, green, and blue creates ______; in subtractive color mixing, the combination of red, yellow, and blue creates _____.
White; black.
Brightness is to light as ______ is to sound.
Frequency.
The discovery that high-frequency sounds trigger large vibrations near the beginning of the basilar membrane supports the _____ theory.
Place.
With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of:
Sensory interaction.
Kinesthesis refers to:
The sense of our body parts position and movement.
The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to:
Vestibular sense.
Our inability to conciously percieve all the sensory information available to us at any single point in the time best illustrates the neccesity of:
Selective attention.
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