J3000 Exam II (HoJo) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Business view of the role of newspapers
o Ex. Frank Thayer (1926)- "Men produce newspapers for commercial gain"
o Ex. O. Brown (1929)- "The newspapers which would speak with authority in its editorial columns must command the respect of the business elements"
Social institution view of the role of newspapers
o Evolved to meet specific needs confronting a society
o Part of web of social relationships
o Interacting with other social institutions
Two Models of Communication
Transmission model vs. Ritual model (according to James Carey, "Communication as culture", 1989)
Transmission Model
o Transportation of ideas of information from a sender to a receiver
o Tells us what happened
o Guarantees the invisibility of press— the media is insignificant if newspapers carry information
Ritual Model
o Communication constitutes a community rather than transporting a message
o Communication as a social function of building solidarity and reaffirming common values within a community
o Tells us who we are and what's our purpose
o Helps understand the role of media in our national past
Newspaper functions as a historical value
• Comparing newspapers of different historical periods
-- What people care about during that time period
• Constructing nationhood and political integration
• Key instruments of urbanization, providing an advertising forum, promoting modernity, constructing community identity
-- Ex. O.K. Armstrong's study of STL dailies
• Advertising increases, News declines
• Features increase, Editorials decrease
• Provides a form of active citizenship-- a way to participate in solitude but with ongoing community conversation
Penny Press: Economic Structure
• Emergence of Penny Press: 1830's- 1860's
• Economic Structure:
o Financing from political patronage → advertising/sales
o Price: 6 cents→ 1 Cent: more circulation, true mass media
-- Ex. NY Sun (1834): circulation- 5,000, (1843): circulation" 38,000
• Decrease in price= increase in circulation= increase in ads
o Advertisements: began to fund publications
o Salesmanship: from subscription → newsboys
Penny Press: Political Stance
• Political stance:
o Claimed political independence; Did not identify with partisan politics
-- Ex. NY Sun: "The proceedings of congress thus far would not interest our readers"
-- Ex. Boston Daily Times: "we remain neutral in politics"
Penny Press: Content
o Invented the modern concept of "news"
• Foreign, National, and LOCAL
• Not just political life→ social life too!
• News sources: courts, streets, households
o Decline of editorials: Decrease bias to attract larger audiences
o News became mainstay
o News became point of competition: accuracy, timeliness, human interest stories
o Reporters and correspondents are paid
• Ex. NY Herald (1837)
Technological argument for the transition from partisan press to Penny Press
• Technology Argument: Based on low cost, high circulation
o Printing Technology
• From Wooden/Hand powered press→ iron/cylinder press
• Hoe type machine: standard equipment
o Paper manufacturing
• From rags→ wood pulp
• Paper is more available and cheaper
o Railroad transportation
• 1830: 23 miles, 1840: 3,000 miles, 1860: 30,000 miles
• Carry the machinery to farther places
o Telegraph
• 1844: Samuel Morse, "What hath God wrought?"
• 1848: AP, telegraph News
Critique the argument (1830s) for transition from partisan press to Penny Press
• Critiques:
o Does not account for the content
o Increasing demand for books and newspapers was a "permanent incentive to invention"
o The penny press has proved itself before technological invention
-- Ex—cheap paper making, not until 1860's
o Penny press supported the inventions
-- Ex. First to use cylinder press
-- Ex. First to exploit telegraph
Sociologist Robert Park's view on the "natural history" of newspapers
• Main idea: Covering the history of newspapers
• Conclusion: if newspapers can be improved, it will come through the education of the people and the organization of political information and intelligence
• Sociologist—Evolution of papers: story of unfolding evolution of a social form
o Grows and changes
o Survived over time
• Compares the newspaper to a modern city, but began as a village
Michael Schudson's explanation for the revolution of American Journalism from the partisan to the commercial
• "Egalitarianism and the press"(1978) by Michael Schudson
• 3 theories:
o Marketplace
-- Development of market economy:
-- Can be read by all classes of society (cheap)
-- Broke away from partisan roots to "gather objective news and be a consumer source of practical information"
o Technological
-- Technological advances: cheap, mass circulation
o Literary
-- New readers are unsophisticated: drawn towards simple, concrete and local news
• 1830's "Jacksonian democracy sweeps in"
o Democratization of politics
o Rise of an urban middle class
o Monotonous society
o True mass media to reach broad audience
Historical trend of the decline of the dailies and the growth of the newspaper chains since the early twentieth century
• Decline of dailies: After 1910, dailies were now controlled by chains
• Growth of chains: Newspapers began consolidating to achieve maximum benefits: Eventually: "one city, one newspaper"
'One city, one daily' phenomenon
• Why?
o Decline in partisanship, increase in objective reporting
o Desire of advertisers for larger circulations and less duplication of readership
o Growth of the suburbs
o Competition from the electronic media
Context and the characteristics of the mass magazines at the turn of the 20th century
• Birth of mass magazines:
o Primarily Read by the wealthy until 1880's
o Very little advertising
-- Ex. S.S. McClure lowered the price of McClure's→rose in circulation
-- Competitor Munsey also lowered its price
-- 10-cent magazines were 85% of industry by early 1900's
• Characteristics:
o Photographs made magazines attractive
o 1930: First magazine printed in high quality color illustrations
o Bigger pictures, more informal effects and headlines
• Rise of mass magazines:
o Three social and economic factors
-- Urbanization
-- Increased literacy (due to increasing middle class)
-- Consumerism
o Other factors:
-- Technological changes: High speed printing, photo engraving
-- Reduced mailing rates
Effect of television on the development of magazines in the 1950's and 1960's
• TV provided competition for magazines, but they remained successful
o Growing middle class after WWII
o General interest Magazines as popular disclosure
-- Rise of specialized magazines
-- Niche Publications (Trade journals)
Reasons for the rise of special interest magazines
• 1960's—Increased individualism
• Increased number of leisure activities
• Reduction in advertising revenues
o By 1963 TV's ad revenues was twice that of magazines
-- Life, Look and Saturday Evening post all died between 1969-1972
• Magazines niche publications (no longer center of popular culture)
o Niche publications: Targeted every aspect of life
o By the early 1990's: 10,000 trade publications and 200 consumer magazines
James Carey
"Communication as culture", transmission and ritual model
Robert Park
Sociologist, Unfolding evolution of a social form, "Natural History of Newspapers"
"Natural History of Newspapers", Robert Park
o Struggle for Existence
o First newspapers
• Newsletters: basically gossip
• Boston newsletter
• Modern newspaper: accused of being a business enterprise
• Newspaper/ democracy: T. Jefferson quote: live with a newspaper and without a gov't, then with a gov't without a newspaper
o Party Papers
• Political journals surpassed newspapers
• Pamphlets
• Parliamentary style journals
o Independent press
• New York Times: overthrew political machines (T. Nast)
• Focus: on the ordinary man: concrete things, short attention span
• Definition of the news: anything to make ppl talk
o The yellow press
• Two types of readers: life is dull, life is exciting= Two types of papers: provincial, metropolitan
• Muckraking
• Sunday papers
Cyrus Curtis (& Louisa Knapp)
o Cyrus HK Curtis: founder of Curtis Publishing company
• Famous for reinforcing the new business model of advertising to lower magazine costs (Advertising enabled the price of the magazine to be less that the production cost)
• Owned 2 important magazines:
-- Ladies' Home Journal
-- Saturday Evening Post
Ladies' Home journal
o Started by his wife: Louisa Knapp, also editor
o Slogan: "Never underestimate the power of a woman"
o First modern women's service magazine
o Published muckraking and social reformation articles
o Still in circulation today
Saturday Evening Post
o Began in 1821 as a four-page newspaper
o Purchased by Cyrus Curtis in 1897 and eventually became the most widely circulated weekly magazine in the world: First magazine to reach 1 million in circulation
o Editor: George Horace Latimer increased circulation from 2000 (1899) to 3 million (1936)
o Published art and photos as well as original works of fiction
• Changed the cover to artwork instead of text in an attempt to make the cover pleasing to the eye
• Art included: Norman Rockwell
McClure's Magazine: monthly periodical
o Founded by S. S. McClure and John Sanborn Phillips in 1893
o Was ultimately put out of business by American Magazine
o Credited with creating muckraking journalism
• Early form of investigative reporting
• Progressive movement influence
• Workplace abuses and political corruption
• Ran articles by Ida Tarbell (series on Standard oil), Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker
• First to lower price→ rise in circulation
Munsey's Magazine
o McClure Competitor
o Ultimately the first mass market magazine
o In 1893 Munsey lowered its price to 5 cents per copy which increased circulation to 500,000 per month
TIME Inc. (approaches, content, success)
Henry Luce
o TIME Magazine (1936): Founded TIME at the age of 23, Editor of TIME magazine
o Also Founded: Fortune, Life (newsweekly- popularized photojournalism), Sports Illustrated, People and House and Home
o Didn't practice objectivity or impartiality
o Now have more than 120 titles worldwide
The New Yorker (approaches, content, success)
Harold Ross & Jane Grant (1925)
o Audience: highly literate, upper class
o Content: Fiction and journalism
• Reflect metropolitan life: Sophisticated fiction, humor and poetry
• In depth profiles of personalities
• Commentary on popular culture
• Cartoons (68,674 by 2004)
o Style: has kept its traditional appearance in layout, covers and artwork
o Politics: Liberal and non-partisan
• Exception: John Kerry endorsement in 2004
Reader's Digest (approaches, content, success)
1922, Lila and Dewitt Wallace
o Editorial formula: inspirational approach, optimism, family oriented ("life well shared")
o Compact size: "America in your pocket"
o Context:
• Fast-paced life following WWI
• Condensing interesting articles into brief articles
o Growth:
• 1929: 110,000 copies
• 1930-1940: international editions and side adventures
-- 1938: UK, now in 50 editors, 21 languages, in 61 countries
-- Localization and adaptation: advertisement and context
Radio Timeline
Experiment (1840's-1900's)
• Telegraph invention sparked experiments
• Individuals: Guglieimo Marconi- promoted radio to national attention
• Corporate players: GE, AT&T
Maritime use and war defense (1910's)
• Naval ships
o Titanic
o 1912 Radio Act
• Only used by government for warfare
• WWI: patent pool under Navy
Commercialization (1920's)
• Create programs so people would have interest in buying radios
• Selling receiving sets
• Highly competitive
Radio Beginnings
o Experimentation: Corporations like Marconi CO. experimented with talk and music
o Military use: the military didn't want to give up the air waves but they couldn't control it
o Big boom of radio commercialization (Nov 1920)
o Effects of radio boom: government had to divvy up airwaves determining reach and quality of stations
The Radio Act of 1912
• Context: Amateur radio operators were faking distress calls to the Navy, Titanic influenced the passing of the act
• Content: Federal law that required all seafaring vessels to maintain 24-hour radio watch and keep in contact with nearby ships and coastal radio stations
• Significance: Set a precedent for international and federal legislation of wireless communications
The Radio Act of 1927
• Context: Chaos→ The Secretary of Commerce could NOT deny a radio license to anyone who wanted one
o = too many stations and too few frequencies
o Hard for listeners
• Content: Regulate radio use "as the public convenient, interest, or necessity requires"-- ^ in company power= ^ in airspace,
o FRC-regulate airtime by judging, few regulations on advertising
o Restrictions: denying radio licenses to foreign owners and to any company convicted of monopolizing (or attempting to monopolize) radio communication
• Significance: Establishing Federal Radio Commission (later became the FCC): enforced regulations set by the radio act of 1927, grant and deny licenses to station owners
o "Equal time rule"- if you give Obama 1 minute, you have to give McCain 1 minute (still exists today)
The Communication Act of 1934
• Context: Debate concerning commercial vs. non-commercial broadcasting; replaced the radio act of 1927
• Content: Mandate that the FCC would act in the interest of the "public convenience, interest or necessity" (3 factors that stations must prove to get airtime)
o Replaced the FRC with the FCC: Gave the FCC the power to:
-- Regulate interstate telephone service
-- Power to govern licensing, frequency, assignments and station operations
-- Implement restrictions on the ownership in certain circumstances
• Significance
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
• Context: Restructure the telecommunications market and promote competition, Increased power of FCC—control everything, allowed to censor
• Content: Charges for broadcasters:
o Broadcast ownership limit= lifted
-- Television stations a cap of 35% of US population
-- Radio stations cap is completely lifted, BUT limits the number of licenses that may be owned within specific markets or geographical areas
o Terms of license are increased to 8 years
o Charges in station affiliations and cross-ownership restrictions
o Communications decency act: regulation of internet indecency→ Ruled unconstitutional by Supreme court
• Significance: Caused the emergence of nationwide radio companies
o Fewer radio companies (industry consolidations)
o Larger radio companies (radio station holding of the ten largest companies increased by almost 15 X from 1985→2005
o Increased revenue concentration to more of the top 4 companies
-- Top 4 companies: 1993- 12% market share→ 50% in 2004
o Increase ratings concentration
-- Top 4 companies: 48% listeners
-- Top 10 companies: 65% of listeners
o Declined listenership
-- 12% drop since its peak in 1989
Identify the pioneers of the network broadcasting
AT&T: American Telephone and Telegraph
o 1923- first network (WEAF in NY and WNAC in Boston)
o 1924- 26 stations
o Refused to abide by the outcome of the radio act
RCA: Radio Corporation of America
o 1926- Created NBC
o 1926- Acquired WEAF and AT&T
CBS: Columbia Broadcasting System
o 1927- innovated radio with sponsored programs
Content of early radio programming (1920s-1930s)
• Music: classic, country, jazz
• Drama and comedy: radio "serials" (stories)
o Ex. 1938- Welles: War of the Worlds (thought aliens were really attacking)
• Sports coverage: 1936 Olympics
• Public service: weather and education
• Politics: presidential campaign, FDR fireside chats
• Religious programs
• 1920's: no regular news programs
• 1930's: radio commentators: national popular figures: Floyd Gibbons; Edward Murrow
o commentators= news reporters
Context and content of "Biltmore agreement"
• Context: Based on the 1933 Newspaper-radio war—Newspapers were getting mad because radio stations were getting all of the public attention
o Biltmore: Hotel where agreement was made
• Content:
o Newspapers would publish radio schedules
o CBS and NBC would limit the amount of news
o Save private ownership of stations
o Establish a press radio bureau (2-5 minute news)
o Fell apart in 1938- commercial value of radio and their power can't be negotiated
Major criticism on television content
• Questionable Content
o Promotes false values
o Violence
o Negative self image
-- Ex. Harms girls' self esteems
• 1. Under-represents minorities
• 2. Commercials promote rampant consumerism
• 3. Many low-quality programs are a waste of time
Timeline of the development of TV
• 1900: Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi coined the word Television at the Paris World Fair
• 1936: First TV news broadcast: London, live from Alexandra Palace
• 1939: RCA leads the launch of the TV set
• 1948: US has 975,000 sets, 1947 Yankees v. Dodgers world series drives increase in sales
• 1954: NBC airs first national color broadcast: New Years day Tournament of Roses parade,
• 1974: 66% of homes have color TV's
• 1981: MTV debut: First broadcast- the Buggles, "Video Killed the radio star"
• 2007: Flat panels are market leader in the US
• 2009: TV goes digital, no more analog TV's
• 2013: Organic light-emitting diode technology will create flexible screens as thin as paper
• 2020: Using a keyboard; chat with producers of live shows
Key TV networks in the 1940s- 1970's
From 1945-1975, TV was ruled by ABC, NBC and CBS
Major genres of TV programs in the 1950's
• Variety shows, sitcoms, drama, soap operas, game (quiz) shows
• Feature films and talk shows
• News and documentaries
Development of cable TV channels in the 1980's
• No cable until the 1980's
• Cable introduced segmentation of TV, target audiences
• Cable TV and proliferation of news channels and other infotainment channels
o ESPN (1979): CNN (1980)
o MTV (1981): HSN (1982)
-- Top rated programs could draw in 30 million viewers
-- Average: 7.5 hours per day
-- Family of 3 or more typically watches 60 hours per week
Development of TV commercials that replaced the earlier product promotion
• Early years: individual shows would be sponsored by a product with the star pausing to promote the product
o Advertisers controlled shows
• Later: commercials replaced this kind of promotion
o Promote consumerism
Understand the historical relationships between advertising and the development of television programs
• Commercials replaced product promotion
o Commercials promoted consumerism→ "happiness comes with owning things"
o Commercials are now valued in conjunction with the shows viewings
-- High show rating→ high ad rates
-- Ex: Superbowl Ads: $2.25 m for :30
-- Who wants to be a millionaire-ABC
-- Final Episode of Seinfeld (1998): $1.5 m for :30
-- Friends, most costly show: $425,000 for :30
Guglielmo Marconi
Often referred to as 'the father of radio'
o Didn't discover the possibility, but improved it
o Part of radio experiment: commercial use of radio: Marconi room on Titanic, promoted radio to national attention (1840's-1900's)
Edward Murrow
(1930s) WWII Radio "Commentator" (war correspondent)
o Commentator: National, popular figure—commentators became news reporters
o Pushed us to become a part of the war, After WWII, pioneered into TV news where his series on Senator Joseph McCarthy lead to his censure
o Worked for CBS for his entire career
General Electric
o A conglomerate industry: American technology company; started in 1890 by Thomas Edison
American Telephone and Telegraph
o First network- WEAF (New York), WNAC (Boston)
o By 1924: 26 stations
"Radio Corporation of America
o Big debate between RCA and AT&T, RCA won, took over AT&T
• Acquired WEAF
o 1926- Created NBC
o Made first radio transmitter
Columbia broadcasting system, 1927
o A key TV network from 1945-1975
o Has been (arguably) the most watched network in the US
o Originally one of the largest radio networks
Federal Communications Commission
o Independent agency of the federal Government
o Govern licensing, frequency assignments and station operations
o Enforce ownership restrictions in certain circumstances
o Act in the interest of the public convenience, interest and necessity
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
Public broadcasting service network
o Established: Public Broadcasting in the US
• Established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
• Established PBS and NPR
o 300 affiliates
o Cable TV and proliferation of news channels and other infotainment
Public Broadcasting Station (1966)
o Nonprofit station with a different advertising model
Competing approaches to advertising
o Hard Sell
• Albert Lasker, John E. Kennedy, Claude Hopkins
• "Salesmanship in print"
• "Reason why approach"
• Ex. Van Camp's pork ad: all text, technical details
• Palmolive
o Soft Sell
• Stanley and Helen Resor (shows them really happy in a bedroom to advertise a mattress)
• Psychological approach
• Appeal to emotions and subconscious
• Ex. Woodbury Soap ad (by resor)- nude woman, soft
o Comparison:
• Schlitz Beer by Hopkins
• Hardsell: Poor beer vs. pure beer: "the bottle is so clean that it effects the taste"
• Softsell: Woman in beer ads
Context and content of the "truth in advertising" movement in the early twentieth century
• Criticism from the public and progressive reformers
• False and misleading ads, ex. Patent medicine: "cure alls" for stuff they didn't cure
• Federal Trade Commission (1914)- control over advertising, self regulation and professionalization
• American Association of advertising agencies (1917)
Impact of WWI on Advertising
Patriotism, Propaganda, soft
o 1917: Advertising division within CPI (commission of public information)
o Military recruitment
o Promote bonds
o Advertisements: War theme
• Ex. "freedom fry" instead of "French fry"
Impact of 1920's on Advertising
Advertising during good times, soft sell
o Print media
• Largest Category: personal care products
• Dominant theme: sexiness
• Size: 40% of all print ads were full page
o Radio:
• Programming was developed for advertisers: "soap operas"- soap companies sponsored dramas
o "Reason why" approach in decline
o Image building copy appeal
• Social status dominated themes
Impact of Great Depression on Advertising
Advertising during hard times, hard sell
o Crisis in advertising: consumers had less to spend, thus: ad budgets declined and agencies slimmed down
• 1919: $1.9 billion→ 1928: $2.9 billion→ 1933: $1.4 billion
• Criticism: rational vs. emotional
• Consumer movement: Consumers Union (1936)
-- "To work for a fair, just and safe marketplace for all consumers and to empower consumers to protect themselves"
-- Consumer reports created: why you need it. You can only afford the essentials
o Advertisers had no choice but to adapt: Supported war efforts and promised the delivery of consumer good when war ended
• Techniques: Testimonials (use other people's work); black and white photography
• Hard sell appeals
• Themes: economy and thrift
Impact of WWII on Advertising
Advertisers tied into the war effort
o Organizing war advertising council
• Volunteers from ad agencies, media and business
• Supporting the war effort
o Content of commercial ads:
• War themed ads
• Emotional elements- soft
• Ex. Coca cola ads- war themed
The social context for the "creative revolution" in the 1960's and examples
• "Creative Revolution": The golden age of advertising
• Article: advertising alone does not cause consumerism
• Madison Avenue was the center of the "creative revolution"
• Favored aestheticism, self-deprecation, humor and humanistic approaches to advertising
• Smaller internal structures in agencies
o Ex. Volkswagen campaign: the hallmark in the "creative revolution"
-- Showed respect for the customer
-- Presenting deficiencies as virtues:
-- Basic= cheap
-- Low horsepower= high mileage
-- Ugly and unchanging= well crafted and less ephemeral
Criticism on advertisings portrait of race, class and gender
Highly Skewed in its portrayal of race, class and gender
o Race:
• People of color: invisible or portrayed as racial stereotypes
o Class:
• Scenes of material comfort
• Picture the world that consumers aspire to, not the only one they actually inhabit
o Gender: Women
• Housewife with cleaning products
• Anxious women fearing the loss of attractiveness
• Women as the object of men's sexual gaze and desire
Explain the historical relationship between advertising and journalism
• 1800s: James Gordon Bennett raised cost of ads to lower the cost of papers
o First limited ads run two weeks, then later to a single day, causing readers to focus and read more carefully
o Began treating ads like news: printing them all over the papers
• 1900's: Public dissatisfaction with quackery and unregulated advertising: letters to editors
• 1943: woman as mechanic
• 1949: Public service, war era
• 1972: Perfume in glamour, literacy women, feministic ad
• 1977: garment manufacturers, girl in guys clothes, gender roles
• Two copy philosophies: hard sell vs. soft sell—It's a relationship with the economy: 1960- soft, 1970- hard, 1980- soft
New trend of the advertising agency since the 1980's
• Growth in the number of ads- Creates challenges for advertisers
o Increased competition→ creativity becomes more and more important in order to "break through the clutter"
• Globalization of American Advertising
• Increase in the size of agencies through merger
• Role of minority groups and women in ad industry
• Narrowing target markets
• Advertising becomes part of "integrated marketing communications"
• 1990's—internet: narrows even further than cable TV: Targeting individuals instead of households
Albert Lasker
Often considered the founder of modern advertising
o Worked for Lord &Thomas Advertising for more than 40 years and eventually became the owner
o Used hard selling approach: "salesman in print"; "reason why"
o Invented soap operas
John Kennedy
Radio correspondent on WJZ and NBC, Used hard sell
Claude Hopkins
Wrote "Scientific Advertising" (1923)
o Believed in the hard sell approach to advertising: that advertising existed with one intent: to sell something
o Its success can be measured by the results it produced
o His book, "Scientific Advertising", measured and compared these results
o Worked for Lord and Thomas
Helen and Stanley Resor
o Transformed J. Walter Thompson ad agency into a full service agency: print and radio
o Helen was on the creative side while Stanley was on the business side of the agency
o Used the 'soft sell' approach to advertising—appeal to emotions and subconscious, psychological approach
William Bernbach
o 1 of the 3 founders of Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB)
• "Think small" campaign: Volkswagen
• "We try harder" campaign: Avis car rental
o Creativity is the most powerful force in business; insight into human nature, respect for the customer, respect for our world
o Individual freedom: Freedom from fear, freedom to fail, freedom from chaos, freedom to be
o "All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of society. We can vulgarize that society. We can brutalize that society. Or we can help lift it onto a higher level"
o "I don't want academicians, I don't want scientists, I don't want people who do the right things. I want people who do inspiring things"
o Trust your instinct. Listen to the ideas percolating up from the unconscious. Disregard the pass. Tell the truth
"Salesmanship in Print"
Hard sell advertising
o Advertising for the sole purpose of making a profit and selling a product (Hopkin's view point)
o Information approach: show options, compare prices
"Reason why approach"
o A hard sell approach
o Gives details of how its made, technical aspects
o Provides a reason WHY the consumer needs to buy this product
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
o Created during the "truth in advertising" movement
o Criticism from the public concerning false and misleading advertisements
o Created to control advertising
War Advertising Council (1914)
o Created to redirect the ad industry in support of war efforts
o Volunteers from ad agencies, media and business collaborated to support the war effort
o Eventually changed its name to the "ad Council" after WWII
National Advertising review board (1971)
o Formed in 1971 to ensure the credibility and impartiality of the self-regulation system
o Formed by: the Association of National Advertisers, American association of advertising agencies, American advertising federation and the Council of better business bureaus
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