Chapter 12 The New West and Free North Flashcards

Terms Definitions
American System
The mechanization and manufacturing idea of interchangeable parts and the separate assembly line. This method started with guns, then watches, and soon many facets of American society were made like this.
Free Labor
This was a system of labor in which there were no slaves. Spokesmen celebrated hard work, self-reliance, and independence, affirming the egalitarian vision of human potential.
Potato blight
Phytophthora infestans spread across Europe in the 1840's. It caused many deaths and many immigrants to come to the U.S in search of food and a better life.
Manifest destiny
This was the "God-given" right of white people to spread their civilization across the continent. It was fueled by national pride, racial arrogance, and potential for economic gain.
Underground railroad
A network of secret tunnels by which African slaves in 19th century United States attempted to escape to free states, to places such as Canada and Mexico or overseas. It is estimated that between 30,000 and 100,000 people escaped enslavement.
Singing plow
Invented in 1837 by John Deere, strong and smooth, it sliced through the prairie very cleanly. John Deere's company became the leading manufacturer of this product in the Midwest.
Fort Laramie, Wyoming
In 1851 Plains tribes were called to this fort for a conference. About ten thousand Indians showed up, hoping that something could be done to protect them from the ravages of the wagon trains.
“Mr. Polk’s War”
Whig party’s name for the Mexican/American war. Whigs were very antiwar and antislavery. They saw this war as an unjustified war brought on by the president for selfish reasons.
“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”
Democratic pledge that the US owned the land from Oregon to Alaska’s southern border. It was muted by Polk, who didn’t want war w/ the Brits over Canada while war w/ Mexico over Texas. He eventually made the Canada/US border at the 49th parallel.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2, 1848, American and Mexican officials signed this agreement. Mexico agrees to give up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and to cede the provinces of New Mexico and California.
Transcendentalists
A group of New England writers who believed that individuals should not conform to the materialistic world or to some abstract notion of religion. Instead they urged people to look inside themselves for truth and guidance.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
Signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first women's rights convention, now known to historians as the 1848 Women's Rights Convention. The principal author was Elizabeth Cady Stanton and it followed the form of the Declaration of Indepen.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
An agreement signed August 9, 1842 between American Secretary of State Daniel Webster and United Kingdom Privy Counselor Lord Ashburton. It settled the dispute over the Maine-New Brunswick border and the shared use of the Great Lakes.
Nueces River
Mexico recognized this to be historically the border of Texas and Mexico, but the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande was its border. The dispute continued and was one of the causes of the Mexican-American War.
Samuel F.B. Morse
An inventor who created a code of dots and dashes that represented letters and number. This invention provided quick and instant messages that could be sent over huge distances and greatly improved communication.
Buena Vista
February 1847, a battle was fought between American and Mexican forces. Even though the Americans were outnumbered 14,000-to-5, 000, they defeated the Mexicans under the leadership of Zachary Taylor.
James G. Birney
An American presidential candidate for the Liberty Party in the 1840 and 1844 elections. An abolitionist and agent for The National Colonization Society of America, which worked to send slaves to Liberia. After that he sought to end slavery peacefully.
Free-labor ideal
Described a social and economic ideal that accounted for both the success and the shortcoming of the economy, as well as society taking shape in North America. Leaders celebrated hard work, self-reliance, and independence.
Joint occupation
Both Britain and the U.S. laid claim to Oregon; in 1818, the two countries agreed to allow both to settle the area. Oregon was therefore declared “free and open.”
Ranchos
Large private ranches that were hundreds of kilometers squared, located in Alta California. Only about 50 were granted by the Spanish.
Coffin ships
Ships that carried Irish emigrants escaping the terrible conditions caused by the potato famine. Many passengers died due to a rough vogage.
John Humphrey Noyes
Leader of Oneido, he believed that wives were property, and that if you lived in a “saved” community you could have sexual relations with anyone in the town.
Squatting
The act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or building that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have permission to use.
John Tyler
Became president in 1841, he was normally a Whig, but made democratic decisions. Wanted protective tariffs,a national bank, and internal improvements.
Deseret
The Mormons called their “kingdom” (home) by this name after they were forced to move to Salt Lake City. The word literally means “honeybee” in the language of the Jaredites.
Veracruz
Polk and Genreal Scott staged a landing at this place on the Gulf Coast in order to launch a campaign to conquere Mexican territories.
Fourierists
A community that maintained communal ownership of property and attempted to found a utopian society near Dallas, Texas.
Brigham Young
After the death of Joseph Smith, the Mormons turned to this man to lead their “embattled church.” He immediately planned an exodus from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake.
Bear Flag Revolt
1846, US settlers prompted by John C. Fremont marched into the town of Sonoma, CA, and raised a flag with a bear and star to rebel against the Mexican province of CA, the “Bear Flag Republic.” The revolt lead to CA becoming part of the U.S.
Oregon Trail
One of the longest overland migration routes, it was the trail pioneers traveled from 1841-1869 to settle new land and implement manifest destiny. It Spanned 2,170 miles west from Missouri to Oregon.
Frederick Douglass
Abolisionist and former slave who lectured audiences throughout the North about the cruelties of slavery. One of the greatest and most influential abolisionists of the time.
Henry Highland Garnet
An African American abolitionist, orator and minister. He was the first black minister to preach to the U.S. House of Representatives. Proclaimed in 1843 that slaves should rise against their masters.
General Santa Anna
Mexican leader who threw out the constitution and tried to get rid of Americans in Texas. He attacked the Alamo in Texas and was defeated by Houston & his troops. He was captured and forced to sign treaty in which he granted independence to Texas.
Attack on Veracruz
As a result of Mexico’s refusal to apologize for arresting American sailors, Polk sent Marines to seize this Mexican port.
Sam Houston
General of the Texas army, he named the capital after him when Texas became a state. Twice elected president of the Republic of Texas, he led Texans to defeat Mexican general Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River in 1836.
Battle of Buena Vista
Led by Zachory Taylor, this battle was an attempt to capture several Mexican cities. It was victory for Americans, and ended the Mexican-American war.
Stephen F. Austin
(November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the "Father of Texas," led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. The Texan capital is named after him.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A social activist and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and suffrage movement.
California Gold Rush
Started in January 1848 when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, CA. As news of the discovery spread, some 300,000 people came to California from the rest of the United States and abroad in search of wealth and a promise for a better life.
Zachary Taylor
Military leader, the 12th President, and known as "Old Rough and Ready." He served in the War of 1812, Black Hawk War, and Second Seminole War after achieving fame while leading U.S. troops to victory at many critical battles of the Mexican-American War.
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