Trauma Pathology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Laceration of the cord, brain or great vessels would be considered ___ in the tri modal distribution of death.
1st
Intracranial hemorrhage, laceration of the liver or spleen with multiple injury and blood loss would be considered ___ in the tri modal distribution of death.
2nd
Infection or mutliple organ failure would be considered ___ in the tri modal distribution of death.
3rd
Trauma is the number one cause of death ages ___ to ___.
1 to 44
Level __ hospitals provide total care for all injuries, are staffed 24/7 and include a burn unit.
1
Level __ hospitals are equipped for most common traumas, staffed 24/7 and are usually in a community setting.
2
Level __ hospitals are not well equipped and usually in a rural setting.
3
If a MVA arrives, in which order would you perform the following exams: C-spine, chest and abdomen x-rays?
Chest, abdomen then c-spine
The exerted force of blood on a vessel wall is:
Pulse
What is typical male pulse?
70-72 bpm
What is the typical female pulse?
78-82 bpm
What is the typical pediatric pulse?
110-120 bpm
Adult pulse rate of ____ is considered tachycardia.
100 bpm or faster
Adult pulse rate of ____ is considered bradycardia.
60 bpm or slower
Normal adult respiration consists of ___ breaths per min.
15-16
Tachypnea is considered to be ___ inspirations or more per minute.
25
Bradypnea is considered to be ___ inspirations or less per minute.
12
Diffuculty breathing or labored breathing is:
dyspnea
Difficulty swallowing is:
dysphagia
Typical oral temperature is:
98.6 or 37 C
Typical rectal termperature is usually:
1/2 - 1 degree higher
Typical axillary temperature is usually:
1/2 - 1 degree lower
A high temperature may indicate:
Infection
A low temperature may indicate:
Loss of circulation
The top number on a bp reading stands for:
systole
The bottom number on a bp reading stands for:
diastole
The typical adult male systole is:
100-140 mmHg
The typical adult male diastole is:
60-90 mmHg
Hypertension occurs when pulse pressure is above:
50
Hypotension occurs when the pulse pressure is below:
40
This medication can be administered orally or rectally. It is a sedative that can be used for pediatric patients. It may cause decreased mental alertness and drowsiness.
Choral hydrate
This medication is injected for pain relief and may cause orthostatic hypotension.
Morphine
This medication is given orally for nausea and vomiting and may relieve allergy symptoms. It can cause dizziness.
Hydroxyzine
This medication is given orally for pain relief. It is a narcotic that may cause drowsiness and mood changes.
Hydrocodone
This medication can be injected or taken orally. It is a sedative that also helps control epilepsy. It is a barbituate that may impair ability to function.
Phenobarbital
This medication is taken orally to reduce pain and cough and may impair ability to function.
Codeine
This medication is an injected opiate analgesic used for pain relief that may cause hypotension.
Fentanyl
This pain killer is given orally and may impair ability to function.
Oxycodone
This anti-inflammatory is given orally for pain relief and may cause dizziness, vertigo and drowsiness but is nonsteroidal and less likely to cause nausea.
Naproxen
Radiographic indicators from direct or whiplash injuries include:
Interruption of continuous lines of column and cortical outlines
Vertebral bodies not uniform in height
Reduction in spinal curves
Cervical fracture may be present in up to 20% of patients
Compression fractures most commonly occur in :
T11 - L1
Acute hyperextension can cause this type of fracture.
Hangman's fx
Another name for hangman's fx is:
Traumatic spondylosis
A fracture in the arch of C2 that usually includes anterior subluxation of C2 on C3 is named:
Hangman's fx
A stable spinal injury is defined as:
Fracture or dislocation to the anterior OR posterior column
An unstable spinal injury is defined as:
Fracture or dislocation to the anterior AND posterior column
List the evaluation factors of spinal injuries.
Size and shape and alignment
Orientation of facets
Alignment of spinolaminal lines
Prevertebral swelling
Injuries to the cord above C5 usually results in:
Fatality
Injuries below C5 usually results in:
Permanent paralysis
List the protective devices of the spine.
CSF
Diploic component to calvarium (spongy bone)
Dura mater
Linear fractures account for __% of skull fractures.
80%
Cerebral cortex damage results with bleeding into subarachnoid space in this type of fracture.
Depressed
How are depressed fractures caused?
High velocity impact with small objects
This type of cranial fracture is best identified by air fluid levels in sphenoid sinus or cloudy mastoid.
Basilar
Basilar fractures occur on which part of the skull?
Occipital bone, base of the skull
What are the best imaging choices for basiliar fractures?
Cross table lateral xray, CT, or MRI
If a fracture is located across an artery it may cause:
Epidural bleed
If a fracture occurs through the mastoid or sinus it may cause:
Infection that can lead to encephalitis
Rapid acceleration and deceleration defines:
Closed head injury
Widespread paralysis of brain function due to a blow to the head that is usually spontaneous and has complete recovery defines:
Concussion
Brusing of the brain after a blow to the head defines:
Contusion
Which type of cerebral hemorrhage has the highest mortality rate?
Epidural hematoma (30%)
This type of cerebral hemorrhage occurs between the skull and dura with bleed associated with skull fracture. It results from torn artery (usually middle meningeal).
Epidural hematoma
This type of cerebral hemorrhage occurs between the dura and arachnoid and is related to blunt trauma which may tear subdural veins.
Subdural hematoma
This type of cerebral hemorrhage occurs between the arachnoid and pia mater and is sometimes associated with major cerebral vessel bleed.
Subarachnoid hematoma
This type of verebral hemorrhage is caused by trauma (coup and contracoup), ruptured hemagioma and stroke.
Intracerebral hematoma
Contusion and concussion are considered what type of injury?
Closed head injury
What starts the healing process after a fracture?
Infiltration of blood and lymph
Osteoblasts appear around injury site after:
2-3 days
This type of cerebral hemorrhage occurs between the arachnoid and pia mater and is sometimes associated with major cerebral vessel bleed.
Subarachnoid hematoma
This type of verebral hemorrhage is caused by trauma (coup and contracoup), ruptured hemagioma and stroke.
Intracerebral hematoma
Contusion and concussion are considered what type of injury?
Closed head injury
What starts the healing process after a fracture?
Infiltration of blood and lymph
Osteoblasts appear around injury site after:
2-3 days
What is a delayed union fx?
Takes longer than usual to unite
What is a malunion fracture?
A fracture that is not properly set
What is a non-union fracture?
Fragments do not join usually due to lack of vascularization
An open fracture may also be known as:
Compound
A closed fracture may also be known as:
Simple
What is an impacted fracture?
Jamming together
What is a comminuted fracture?
Fragments separate
What is a complete noncomminuted fracture?
The fracture line follows direction of force (spiral)
A spiral fracture is an example of:
Complete non-comminuted fx
With this type of fracture a ligament or tendon tears the bone.
Avulsion (gatekeepers)
Greenstick fractures are more common amongst:
Children under 10 years and patients with osteoporosis
A greenstick fx with a bulging cortex is a:
Torus or buckle fx
What does ORIF stand for?
Open reduction internal fixation
What type of fracture may take several days before it appears on x-ray?
Occult
A "burst" fracture of the atlas is called:
Jefferson's fx
Another name for a buckle fracture is:
Torus fx
What does SCFE stand for?
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
What type of fracture usually occurs as a result of an abnormal degree of repetitive trauma?
Stress fractures
What type of fracture occurs at sites of maximal strain on a bone and are usually in connection with unaccustomed activity?
Fatigue fractures
An avulsion fx of the ulnar styloid process occurs with most _________ fractures.
Colles'
What type of fracture is a reverse Colles' with internal displacement?
Smith's
What type of fracture occurs when the 5th metacarpal as a result of a blow to or whith the hand?
Boxer's
What type of fracture involves both malleoli with dislocation of the ankle joint?
Pott's
What type of fracture consists of a severe ankle sprain with a fracture of the proximal third of the fibula?
Maisonneuve
What type of fracture occurs from a direct blow to the front of the orbit that transfers the force to the orbital walls and floor?
Blowout fracture
A partial dislocation is a :
Subluxation
Bone death resulting from inadequate blood supply?
Avascular necrosis
____________ is a common form of vascular necrosis affecting the femoral head.
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Free air trapped in the pleural space and compresses lung tissue is:
Pneumothorax
__________ is incomplete expansion of the lung as a result of partial or total collapse.
Atelectasis
What is Legg-Perthes disease?
Most common form of ischemic necrosis
Result of hypoxia
Common in male children ages 5-10
The most frequently broken facial bone is the:
Nasal bones
What is the most common fracture of the cerebral column?
Compression
What is the best imaging modality for ligament damage?
MRI
What type of fracture would most likely cause subarachnoid bleeding?
Depressed
What type of pneumothorax does not allow air to be released?
Tension
The healing process starts immediately with infiltration of blood and lymph into a fracture site. When does a provisional callus start to form?
Within a week
Identify that procedure commonly used to restore height to compressed vertebra.
Kyphoplasty
Difficulty breathing is:
Dyspnea
Difficulty swallowing is:
Dysplagia
A fracture resulting from repetitive stress, usually difficult to visualize on x-ray can be better imaged with:
Nuclear medicine
Multiple images over periods of time may be required to diagnose some traumatic chest pathology but _________________ should require only one subsequent image is:
Pseudopneumothorax
What is the most common location of a compression fracture?
T11-L1
Small inhaled objects usually fall into the :
Right main stem bronchus
What radiographic finding would indicate possible ligament injury without bony involvement?
Reduction of spinal curves
An injury of the base of the 5th metatarsal where the ligaments pull away small attachments from their bony origin occurs with:
Jones fx
/ 120
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online