NYCC Spinal Radiology I Midterm: Lines & Measurements Flashcards

normal range
Terms Definitions
How is atlantoaxial alignment measured?
Lateral margins of the atlas lateral masses to the lateral corners of the axis
What projection(s) is/are used to assess atlantoaxial alignment?
APOM
What is the atlantoaxial alignment line used to assess?
Vertical alignment
What projection(s) is/are used to assess atlantodental interspace?
Lateral Cervical Neutral, Flexion, Extension
What is the atlantodental interspace found between?
Anterior tubercle of the atlas and the dens (odontoid process) of the axis
What is the normal range of the atlantodental interspace in adults?
1-3 millimeters
What is the normal range of the atlantodental interspace in children?
1-5 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the paraodontoid space?
APOM
What is the para-odontoid space found between?
The lateral aspects of the dens and the medial aspects of the body of the atlas
What does a normal para-odontoid space look like?
Equidistant on both sides of the dens
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the prevertebral soft tissues?
Lateral Cervical Neutral, Flexion, Extension
Where are the prevertebral soft tissues found?
In front of vertebral bodies, behind air shadow
What is the normal range of the retropharyngeal soft tissue space?
0-7 millimeters
What is the normal range of the retrolaryngeal soft tissue space?
0-7 millimeters
What is the normal range of the retrotracheal soft tissue space?
0-21 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are George's line assessed with?
Lateral Neutral, Flexion, Extension
What parts of the spine are used to draw George's line?
The posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies
What is the maximum distance that is normal between aligned segments of George's line?
2 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the spinolaminar line?
Lateral Neutral, Flexion, Extension
What parts of the spine are used to draw the spinolaminar line?
The white lines of the spinolaminar junction
What does a normal spinolaminar line look like?
Smooth arcing curve
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the cervical lordotic angle?
Lateral Neutral
How is the cervical lordotic angle found?
Lines are drawn parallel to the inferior endplate of C7 and through the midpoint of the anterior and posterior tubercles of C1, then parrallel lines are drawn from these until they intercept
What is the normal range of the cervical lordotic angle?
35-45 degrees
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the cervical gravity line?
Lateral Cervical Neutral
How is the cervical gravity line drawn?
Vertically through the apex of the dens using the film's side
Where should the cervical gravity line fall through?
The anterior superior aspect of the vertebral body of C7
What projection(s) is/are used to assess Ruth Jackson's line?
Lateral Neutral, Flexion, Extension
How is Ruth Jackson's line drawn?
Intersecting lines are drawn along the posterior surface of C2 and the posterior surface of C7
Where should the intersection of Ruth Jackson's line fall?
For Flexion: C5-C6 IVDs or facet joints.
For Extension or Neutral: C4-C5 IVDs or facet joints
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the sagital dimension of the spinal canal?
Lateral Neutral, Flexion, Extension
What is the sagittal dimension of the spinal canal measured between?
Posterior aspect of vertebral bodies and the spinolaminar junction
What is the minimum normal measurement of the sagittal dimension of the cervical spinal canal?
12 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the coronal dimension of the spinal canal?
APOM, AP
What is the coronal dimension of the spinal canal measured between?
The medial aspects of the pedicles
What is the minimum normal distance of the coronal dimension of the cervical spinal canal?
24 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the thoracic kyphosis angle?
Lateral Thoracic
How is the thoracic kyphosis angle measured?
Lines are drawn parallel to the superior endplate of T1 and T12, then intersecting perpendicular lines are drawn
What is the normal range of the thoracic kyphosis angle?
50-60 degrees
What is the minimum normal distance of the coronal dimension of the thoracic spinal canal?
14 millimeters
What is the minimum normal distance of the sagittal dimension of the thoracic spinal canal?
12 millimeters
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the lumbar lordotic angle?
Lateral Lumbar Neutral
How is the lumbar lordotic angle found?
Lines are drawn parallel to the superior endplate of L1 and S1, then intersecting perpendicular lines are drawn
What is the normal range of the lumbar lordotic angle?
50-60 degrees
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the lumbar intervertebral disc angles?
Lateral Lumbar Neutral
How are the lumbar intervertebral disc angles found?
Lines are drawn parallel to each endplate and extended until they intersect
What is the normal angle for the L1-L2 lumbar intervertebral disc angle?
8 degrees
What is the normal angle for the L2-L3 lumbar intervertebral disc angle?
10 degrees
What is the normal angle for the L3-L4 lumbar intervertebral disc angle?
12 degrees
What is the normal angle for the L4-L5 and L5-S1 lumbar intervertebral disc angles?
14 degrees
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the lumbosacral disc angle?
Lateral Lumbar, Lumbosacral
How is the lumbosacral disc angle found?
Lines are drawn parallel to the inferior endplate of L5 and the superior endplate of S1 so they intersect
What is the normal range of the lumbosacral disc angle?
10-15 degrees
What projection(s) is/are used to assess the coronal dimension of the lumbar spinal canal?
AP Lumbar
What is the minimum normal distance of the coronal dimension of the lumbar spinal canal?
21 mm
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