APUSH Chapter 5: The American Revolution and Confederation (1774-1787) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
First Continental Congress (1774)
All colonies but Georgia went to this Congress in Philadelphia in 1774 to determine how the colonies should react to what, from their viewpoint, seemed to pose an alarming threat to their rights and liberties; no talk of secession from England, just wanted to protest parliamentary acts and restore the relationship they had with Britain before the French and Indian War
Patrick Henry (VA), Samuel and John Adams (Mass)
Led the radical faction at the First Continental Congress
George Washington (VA), and John Dickinson (PA)
Led the moderate faction at the FCC
John Jay (NY), and Joseph Galloway (PA)
Conservatives at the FCC who favored mild protest
Suffolk Resolves
enacted in Mass, created at FCC, rejected the Intolerable Acts and called for immediate repeal; urged the various colonies to resist the acts by making military preparations and economic sanctions against GB
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
petition to the king urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights; recognized Parliament's authority to regulate commerce
Paul Revere and William Dawes
riders who warned the militia (Minutemen) of British designs on the town of Concord
Lexington
where Minutemen assembled to face British; 8 Americans killed
Concord
Where British destroyed military supplies but were afterwards attacked en route to Boston and 250 were killed
Battle of Bunker Hill
Breed's Hill, next to Bunker hill, was fortified and a British force took the hill while suffering over 1000 casualties; American victory
Second Continental Congress (1775)
met in Philly, divided between two groups, one who believed that America should break away, and another who hoped the conflict could be resolved by negotiating a new relationship with GB
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms
called by the SCC to get the colonies to provide troops; George Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of Massachusetts militia and Benedict Arnold was commissioned to raid Quebec to distract the British
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775, voted to send it to King George III where they pledged their loyalty and asked the king to intercede with Parliament to secure peace and the protection of colonial rights
Prohibitory Act (1775)
George III's dismissal of the Olive Branch Petition which declared the colonies to be in rebellion; later forbade all trade and shipping between the two areas
Thomas Paine; Common Sense
argued in clear and forceful language for the becoming of independent sates and breaking off of all political ties with the monarchy; contrary to common sense that a continent be ruled by a small and distant island and for ppl to pledge allegiance to a govt whose king was corrupt and whose laws are unreasonable
Declaration of Independence
1776, Richard Henry Lee of VA intro'ed a resolution declaring the colonies to be independent; Thomas Jefferson listed specific grievances against George III's government and expressed basic principles that justified revolution; adopted July 2nd by Congressed but issued July 4th
Patriots
NE states and VA, later African Americans
Loyalists (Tories)
NY, NJ, GA; later went to Canada, were wealthy and conservative (govt officials or Anglican clergymen); Native Americans
Valley Forge
After losing NY and later, Philly, Washington's demoralized troops suffered through the severe winter of 1777-1778 camped here
Continentals
Paper money issued by Congress, because of inflation became worthless
George Rogers Clark
1778-1779, led the Patriots to capture a series of British forts in Illinois to gain control of the Ohio territory
Battle of Saratoga
turning point of revolutionary war, in 1777 (upstate NY); Britain under General Burgoyne had marched from Canada in an ambitious effort to link up with other forces marching from the West and South; objective was to cut off NE from the rest of the colonies (or states); troops were attacked at Saratoga by troops commanded by generals Gates and Arnold; Brits forced to surrender
Absolute monarch
had all political power; France's Louis XVI had no interest in aiding a revolutionary movement but the French king believed that he could weaken his enemy-> gave money and supplies to US; after Saratoga, French allied openly with America and it had an impact on the war in that it forced the British to divert money and resources away from the American conflict
Battle of Yorktown
1781, last major battle of war (fought in VA); with strong support from French naval and military forces, Washington's army forced the surrender of a large British army commanded by General Charles Cornwallis
Treaty of Paris (1783)
1. British would recognize the existence of the US as an independent nation; 2. The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of US; 3. Americans would have fishing rights off Canadian coast; 4. American would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist Claims for property taken during the war
Articles of Confederation
1777, by John Dickinson
Unicameral Legislature
Articles established a central govt with one body, a congress; each state got one vote and 9 out of 13 votes needed to pass important laws; to amend Articles, a unanimous vote required; Committee of States with one representative from each state could make minor decisions when the full congress was not in session
Land Ordinance of 1785
established a policy for surveying and selling western lands; provided for setting aside one section of land in each township for public education
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
for large territory between Great Lakes and Ohio River; congress passed an ordinance (law) that set the rules for creating new states; granted limited self-govt to the developing territory and prohibited slavery in the region
Shays' Rebellion
1786, Captain Daniel Shays of Mass, a farmer and Rev. War veteran, led other farmers in an uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money; stopped collecting taxes and forced closing of courts; 1787, when Shays and followers attempted to take weapons from the Springfield armory, the state militia of Mass broke the rebellion
Mary McCauley (Molly Pitcher)
fought in husband's place in Revolutionary War
Deborah Sampson
passed as a man and served as a soldier for a year
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