CSET US History notes for CSET exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Anasazis
SW USA Indian civilization; 1st cent AD - cultivated crops; 8th cent AD terraced fields, canal watering system; 500 AD bow and arrow
Natchez
lower Mississippi delta; survived into the 18th century
Iroquois
upstate New York and Ontario, Canada 4500 years before Europeans arrived; cultivated crops, fished, hunted; matrilineal line of descent; strong community bonds
Algonquins
NE USA; patrilineal; hunters and gatherers; lived in smaller bands; fur trade;
European exploration factors
gold, god, glory
Columbus' ships
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
New World
claimed by Spain except Brazil which was given to Portugal by order of the Pope
impact of European-American contact
diseases from Europe(smallpox), diseases from America (syphilis); plants (potatoes, corn, squash from Amer to Europe) animals; slaves from Africa to Amer.
Jamestown
founded 1607; by 1609 only 1/3 of original colonists were still alive due to lack of food, sickness, and weather conditions; Chesapeake bay area
John Smith
bought corn from Powhatan, father of Pocahontas; helped Jamestown colonists survive
Mayflower
set sail from Plymouth England with 35 pilgrims and 67 others; landed at Plymouth Rock on Dec 21, 1620 (Cape Cod area)
Rhode Island
founded by Roger Williams around 1644
New Hampshire
established in 1629; became separate colony from Massachusetts in 1679
Maine
established in 1629; remained part of Massachusetts until 1820
Slave trade
increased markedly in late 1690s; by 1760 250,000 African slaves in the colonies, mostly in the south;
Salem Witch trials
1680s-1690s; 19 people killed after being accused of exercising powers given to them by Satan
Great Awakening
began 1730s; renewed call for religious piety and closer relationships with God
Colonists outrage against England
1)permanent British troops stationed in North American and the colonists were required to provide them with food and shelter; 2)taxes on sugar (1764) and the Stamp Act(1765) tax on all printed material
Boston Massacre
March 1770; Boston dockworkers threw rocks and snowballs at British soldiers; then the soldiers fired guns back at the crowd and killed 5 people; resentment and outrage started growing toward England
Boston Tea Party
Dec 16, 1773; colonists from Boston dressed up as Mohawk Indians and threw chests of tea into the harbor to protest taxation without representation
Declaration of Independence
govt's have the obligation to protect the life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness of their citizens
First Continental Congress
met 1774, all colonies except Georgia sent delegates; rejected uniting all colonies under British control; agreed to meet the next year
Lexington and Concord
first shots fired between minutemen (colonists) and redcoats (British)
Second Continental Congress
met 3 weeks after the battles at Lexington and Concord; voted to support the conflict w/Britain, but not unamimous for independence from Britain.
Thomas Paine
write Common Sense - pamphlet that argued that the colonies should become independent from Britain
Continental Army
created in June 1775; Gen. George Washington appointed to lead the army
First phase of Amer. Revolution
1775 - spring of 1776; skirmishes between colonists and British; neither side prepared for major fighting
Second phase of Amer Revolution
1776-1778; Gen. Wm. Howe(British) offered option of surrendering and receiving pardons; brought 32,000 soldiers to New York- hundreds of ships;
Battle of Saratoga
British defeated in Oct. 1777, turning point for colonists; French acknowledged the U.S. as a legitimate state, began to provide military assistance
Constitution
all power stemmed from the people
18th amendment 1919 (banned alcohol)
repealed by 21st amendment in 1933; only amendment repealed by another amendment
1789
first elections and the constitution (including the Bill of Rights) went into effect with Geo. Washington as the first president
Federalists
those who favored a strong centralized govt; Alexander Hamilton
Republicans (at beginning of USA)
those who wanted the USA to remain rural and agricultural w/power vested primarily in state govts
first 13 colonies
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Jay Treaty
stated that the US was sovereign over the entire North Amer. northwest and provided for compensation for seized shipping
Pinckney Treaty
allowed the US to send ships down the Mississippi and allowed them to dock in New Orleans and transfer goods to ships headed to the ocean
Quebec Act
a law that recognized the Roman Catholic Church as the established church in Quebec.
Boston Port Act (after Boston Tea Party)
An act to discontinue, in such manner, and for as long as needed, the landing and discharging, lading or shipping, of goods, wares, and merchandise, at the town, and within the harbour, of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America.
e pluribus unum
one out of many
The Sons of Liberty
represented the radical wing of patriots through the years of crisis. They would not hesitate to scare a customs official out of town or tar and feather an enemy.
The Daughters of Liberty
ensured that women did not purchase British goods.
Intolerable acts
Quartering Act, Boston Port Bill, Administration of Justice Act, Massachusetts Govt Act,Quebec Act
Declaration of Independence
Finally on July 4, 1776, the colonies approved the document. The vote was twelve to zero, with the New York delegation abstaining.
Siege of Yorktown
October 1781, the war virtually came to an end when General Cornwallis was surrounded and forced to surrender the British position at Yorktown, Virginia.
Louisiana Purchase
April 1803; land purchased from Napolean/France - northern US from Montana to Wisconsin south to Louisiana; Thomas Jefferson
Lewis and Clark
May 1804 set out from St Louis along the Missouri River going north and west; Sacajawea; returned Sept 1806
the Missouri Compromise.
1st: MO would be added to the union as a slave state, but balanced by the admission of Maine, a free state, that had long wanted to be separated from Mass. 2nd:slavery was to be excluded from all new states in the Louis. Purch. north of the southern bound
Industrial Revolution.
The development of railroads (1820-1830s) was one of the most important phenomena of the Industrial Revolution.
transcontinental railroad.
The two railroads, Central Pacific and Union Pacific, met at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869,
The War of 1812
fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 1812 to the spring of 1815; British impress American sailors, trade restrictions introduced by Britain, British military support for American Indians
Manifest Destiny
courageous pioneers believed that America had a divine obligation to stretch the boundaries of their noble republic to the Pacific Ocean
MOnroe Doctrine (1823)
european powers should cease to consider the American continent as a place for possible colonization
Slave codes
forbade slaves in the south to: own property, leave the plantation or farm without permission; be out or congregate after dark
1848-1849
california gold rush
Dred Scot decision 1857
slaves were not citizens and had no legal rights; congress did not have legal rights to deprive citizens of their property including slaves
Fort Sumter
Apr 21 1861 - first shots of the Civil War; South Carolina; Confederate Gen Beauregard fired on Union commander Anderson for 36 hours
Jim Crow laws
segregated whites from African americans
Los Angeles
began as a tiny Spanish pueblo in the middle of an empty, semi-arid coastal plain
Kofun Era
nomadic warriors who would later become lords of feudal Japan arrived in this era
Bafku means
tent gov't
unifiers of feudal Japan
Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Buddhism
facilitated the conversion of Asoka into Indian society
Maya
Meso American civilization first established the concept of zero
Five pillars of the Islamic Faith
confession of faith, payment of alms, fasting from sunrise to sunset during Ramadham, pray 5 times a day at fixed times, pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during lifetime
Sub-Saharan people who created life sized figures of humans and animals in terra cotta
the Nok
Pre-Columbian American culture who worshipped the sun
Inca
Turning point in Amer Revolution that led France to help the Americans
Battle of Saratoga
Federalists
urged ratification of the Constitution, with a possible bill of rights to be discussed after ratification
Turning point of Civil War and the last chance at a military victory for the Confederacy
Battle of Gettysburg
Factors in developing colonial American agriculture
availability of land, limitations of climate and land, shortage of labor
Credit Mobilier Scandal
a dummy construction company used by railroad magnates to defraud the govt
Era of Jacksonian Democracy
removal of Indians from southeastern states; federal financing of internal improvements; the rights of states to nullify federal laws
Spanish explorers Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
sought rich Indian civilizations to plunder
Lewis and Clark expedition purposes
establish friendly relations w/Indians; gain geographic knowledge about NW USA; gain scientific knowledge about flora and fauna on western USA
Black Death of 14th cent AD
enhanced the value of labor (the labor pool was depleted due to the number of deaths)
Federal Reserve Board
major responsibility is to implement monetary policy
Relationship between education and participation in politics
the more schooling one has, the more likely one is to vote
Great Awakening of mid-18th cent
series of religious revivals that swept thru English colonies spreading evangelistic fervor and challenging the control of traditional clerics over their congregations
Judicial restraint
the tendency of judges to interpret the constitution in light of the original intent of its framers
Missouri Compromise
all of the Louisiana territory north of 36 degrees 30' be closed to slavery (north of the southern Missouri border)
Black American slaves showed resistance prior to the Civil War by...
breaking tools and working slightly slower; passive resistance
Separation of power
Congress having legislative power and the President having executive power
13th Amendment
officially ended slavery
Marbury v. Madison
affirmed the Supreme Court's power to judge the constitutionality of law passed by Congress
California's geography can be described as...
arid and semi-arid environments with large populations and industrial centers; semi-tropical, Mediterranean climate attracts people; kept it free from European settlement for a long time
Mexican independence
led to the demise of California mission
the Emancipation Proclamation
was given by Lincoln to rally the morale of the North by giving a higher moral purpose to the war rather than just to preserve the Union
Dred Scott v. Sanford
the US Supreme Court ruled that no black slaves could be US citizens
Manifest Destiny
the destiny of the US to spread throughout the continent
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
emotionally aroused thousands of colonists to the abuses of British rule, oppressive monarchy, and advantages of colonial independance
Original reason Abraham Lincoln took Union into war against the Confederacy
to preserve the Union
Marbury v. Madison
US Supreme Court could declare an act of congress to be unconstitutional
Trail of Tears
forced migration of Cherokee tribe from southern Appalachia to Oklahoma
Silk Road connected
China, Iran, and India
the Anaconda Plan
strategic policy of Union to destroy the Confederacy by constant pressure and wear down their ability to wage war
Austria had almost continuous warfare against whom in late 17th cent
France and Ottoman empire
Characteristics of Fascism
totalitarianism, romanticism, militarism
Industrial economy of 19th cent relied on
availability of raw material; availability of capital; distribution system to market finished products
Reason the Catholic Church delayed response to the Reformation
the papacy feared remnants of the Conciliar Movement within the church itself
the Sovereignty of Parliaments edicts over colonies was...
a key issue that prevented American colonists from resolving their problems with England without open rebellion
non-French intellectuals who participated in the Enlightenment
Edward Gibbon, David Hume, Ben Franklin
Restoration Colonies such as the Carolinas
created mainly due to the restoration of the Stuarts to the English throne
writ of Habeas Corpus
used to effect the release of a person from improper imprisonment
Casework
member of House of Reps helps a constituent receive federal aid they are entitled to
Five Civilized Tribes
the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole
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