NBDE Biochemistry/Physiology II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What hormone is deficient in Cretinism?
Thyroid hormone
What enzyme would lead to reduced biosynthesis of elastin and collagen because of a diet lacking copper?
Lysyl Oxidase
Chemotherapeutic drugs are impotent to cells in what cell cycle phase?
Which is not a post translational modification of polypeptides?
a) formation of disulfide bridges
b) removal of initiation methionine
c) protease autolytic cleavage
d) polyadenylation
e) attachment of functional groups
Each of the following vitamins requires phosphorylation for functionality Except?
a) Lipamide
b) Riboflavin
c) Pyridoxine
d) Niacin
e) Thiamine
What are one carbon donors?
S-adenosyl methionine, tetrahydrofolate, and vitamin B12
If the radius of a blood vessel is doubled, then the blood flow rate would be affected in which way?
Increased 16-fold
The mechanism of contraction in skeletal muscle is different from that of smooth muscle in which of the following ways?
a) Source of calcium
b) Role of calcium
c) Source of energy
d) Generation of force
e) Nature of contractile proteins
Role of calcium
A myofibril is characterized as?
A bundle of thick and thin filaments
Meiotic division occurs in
a) spermatazoa
b) spermatogonia
c) spermatids
d) primary spermatocytes
Primary spermatocytes
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is produced in which organ?
The enterogastric reflex is initiated by incoming food causing the stomach to stretch. The enterogastric reflex activates sympathetic fibers which tighten the pyloric sphincter preventing food from entering into the small intestines.
The first statement is FALSE, the second statement is TRUE
Regarding the fast cardiac fiber, each of the following statements is correct Except?
a) Unlike fast cardiac fibers, slow cardiac fibers have a less negative resting membrane potential
b) The influx of calcium in Phase 2 of fast cardiac fibers is essentia
The influx of potassium in Phase 3 of fast cardiac fibers causes repolarization
The radius of a blood vessel increases by 2 fold. What is the resulting change in the resistance to blood flow?
16 fold decrease in resistance
In oxidative phosphorylation, which coenzyme receives electrons from Complex II?
Transaminase reactions require what enzyme?
Pyridoxyl Phosphate
Each of the following statements concerning trypsin is True except one?
a) Trypsin inhibitor is secreted along with trypsin
b) Enterokinase activates trypsinogen
c) Trypsin activates procarboxypeptidase
d) Premature trypsin activation may lead to acute pa
Chymotrypsinogen activates trypsin
Which of the following is NOT an effect of parathyroid hormone release?
a) Hypocalciruria
b) Stimulation of bone resorption by osteoclasts
c) Two principal target organs of parathyroid hormone is bone and intestine
d) Decrease in renal excretion of phosph
Decrease in renal excretion of phosphate
Hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate produce what type of cartilage?
Type X collagen
Vitamin B12 is mainly absorbed in the?
RNA polymerase is used in the initial step of DNA synthesis on the template strand. For both DNA and RNA synthesis, mispaired nucleotides are removed by 3 to 5 prime exonuclease.
Both statements are false
What is characteristic of isovolumetric contraction in cardiac muscle?
Marks the beginning of systole
Glucose, ketone bodies, and fatty acids can be directly metabolized where?
Erythropoietin increases production of?
Red Blood Cells
The Northern Blot is primarily used to determine if?
RNA with a specific nucleotide sequence is expressed
Each of the following are characteristic of salivary secretions Exept?
a) The concentration of potassium in saliva is higher than the plasma
b) The ionic concentration of saliva is hypertonic to plasma
c) The concentration of sodium in saliva is lower tha
The ionic concentration of saliva is hypertonic to plasma
Oxytocin and Vasopressin are synthesized by the?
Each of the following is higher at the base than at the apex of the lung of a standing patient Except?
a) Blood flow
b) PCO2
c) Lung compliance
d) Ventilation
e) V/Q Ratio
V/Q Ratio
Which of the following amino acids possesses a hydrophilic side chain?
a) Proline
b) Leucine
c) Tyrosine
d) Histidine
e) Methionine
Each of the following is a role of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) when isolating DNA Except one?
a) Precipitating proteins from solution
b) Denaturing cellular proteins
c) Lysing the plasma membrane
d) Lysing the nuclear membrane
e) Disrupting the chromatin
Precipitating proteins from solution
Which of the following is NOT correct about protein collagen?
a) Protein collagen forms a double helix
b) Protein collagen contains the modified amino acid hydroxyproline
c) Protein collagen contains a repetative sequence of Qly-X-Pro and Gly-X-Hyp
d) Pro
Protein collagen forms a double helix
What hormone binds to granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle triggering ovulation?
What amino acid is made as a byproduct of the urea cycle?
Addison's disease is associated with?
Decreased production of ACTH
A highly vascular small diameter skeletal muscle fiber
a) is high in mitochondria
b) is high in glycogen content
c) has high ATPase activity
d) is white colored
e) has low levels of myoglobin
Is high in mitochondria
An isotonic muscle twitch differs from an isometric muscle twitch in that the?
Muscle length changes during the twitch
In the somatosensory homunculus, the greatest sensory cortical representation is found for the?
a) genitale
b) thumb
c) neck
d) eye
e) arm
Each of the following metabolic processes occurs in the mitochondria Except?
a) Cholesterol synthesis
b) Fatty acid
c) Ketone body synthesis
d) Production of acetyl-CoA
e) Krebs cycle
Cholesterol synthesis
Reticulocytes are
a) Abnormal red blood cells
b) Mature red blood cells
c) Non-functional red blood cells
d) Immature red blood cells
e) nucleated red blood cells
Immature red blood cells
Cholesterol serves as the precursor for each of the following Except?
a) Bile salts
b) High density lipoprotein
c) Vitamin D
d) Estrogen
e) Aldosterone
High density lipoproteins
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning?
a) Decreased arterial partial pressure of oxygen
b) Increased affinity for hemoglobin
c) No change in alveolar ventilation
d) Decreased arterial oxygen concentration
e) Shifting of
Decreased arterial oxygen concentration
The chloride-bicarbonate transport system found in the erythrocyte membrane is a type of?
Facilitated diffusion
A protein is heated until it denatures. Which of the following bond types is still intact?
a) Hydrophobic
b) Van der Waals
c) Hydrogen
d) Disulfide
e) Electrostatic
Which of the following lipids is NOT present in cell membranes?
a) Lysophosphatidylcholine
b) Cholesterol esters
c) Plasmalogen
d) Glycosylphosphatidylinositol
e) Myristate
Starting with 2 molecules of Pyruvate, how many NADH molecules are created from one turn of the Krebs Cycle?
The rate-limiting step of the Krebs cycle is catalyzed by?
Isocitrate dehydrogenase
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