Understanding Emotions Ch 1-14 Flashcards

Elementary School Students
Terms Definitions
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes
The first official psychological institute was founded in the year __ by __
1879; Wundt
"Understanding the world consists of discovering how it functions as a unified whole and how its parts are integrated into the functioning of the whole" is which World Hypothesis?
Organicism
A proposition that is not susceptible of proof or disproof but whose truth iis assumed to be self-evident is referred to as a(n)
axiom
After the horror of 9/11, many pople said the CIA and FBI should obviously have forseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates:
The hindsight bias
A hypothesis is a
testable prediction that gives direction to research
Bob scored 43/70 in his psych exam. He was worried until he found out most of the class earned the same score. Bob's score was equal to the:
mode
In order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables, reaserches often construct a:
scatterplot
If the correlation between physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +.85, this would indicate that
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among elementary school students
In a psychological experiment, the potentially causal factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the
independant variable
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile, in fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a:
Projection
Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of
childhood sexual instincts
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the
phallic stage
Nussbaum (1986) has argued that what Aristotle called katharsis meant
clarification
Freud suggested that slips of the tounge illustrate an incomplete
repression
Accoring to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being conciously recognized
Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine's
Superego
We see a bear in the woods. Which of the following statements most accurately represents James' account of why we feel fear:
We percieve the changes of our body as we react
According to Freud, the unconsious is
the thoughts, feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware
For James, the spiritual self cpnsists of
the person's states of conciousness and emotions
According to William Stern's intensisty curve of feelings, the sequence of actions follow:
The threshold of becoming aware, the perception of feelings before action, then the realizationand action or vise versa
When facing the interviewer while watching an unpleasent film clip of nasal surgery, Japanses subjects smiled more often than Americans. This demonstrates differences in
display rules
The United States is predominately referred to as a __ society, whereas Japan has come to be known as a __ society.
individualist/ collectivist
What makes Mikihachiro Tatara's concept of Japanses ego-skin so different from the Western core-Ego sphere?
The ego-skin is selective to the social situation at hand
If we believe Kurt Lewin's model of personality structures, we may assume that access to a group of people is easier when they are:
U-type personalities
According to the textbook: on the tiny Pacific atoll of Ifaluk, the most valued emotion is
fago
__ Believe that fundamental emotions occur in all humans; __ beliebe that emotions are specific to the cultures in which they occur.
Universalists/ relativists
According to the textbook, emotions that are emphasized in a particualr culture are __, by contrast, emotions that seem to occur rarely or not at all are __.
hypercognized/ hypocognized
In a mulit-cultural study on the experience of four basic emotions, Scherer and colleagues (1988) found that European, Japanese, and U.S. subjects reported to percieve some emotions as longer, and others as shorter lasting. This is the duration interval:
(shortest to longest lasting) fear, anger, joy, sadness
Amae can be roughly translated into the emotion of
interdependance
For Charles Darwin, emotional expressions
are derived from habits which in or evolutionary past had once been useful
Darwin used the following evidence to argue that humans decendd from lower order species
similar emotional expresions (such as uncovering teth when angry)
Accoridng to Plutchik's psychoevolutionary classifiation of emotions,
different emotions can cmbine to produce an even wider range of emotional experiences
Intrasexual competition is distinct from intersexual competition in that the former requires
competition within a sex for access to mates
Examples of one type of emotional communication flirting, include all of the following behaviors:
men roling sholders and aising arms to display status, women flicking hair and swaying hips, and accidental "bumps" between partners, checking for signs of delight or disgust
As discussed in class,the bst definition of natural election should be
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those that do not hinder reproduction andsurvival will most likely be passed on to succeding generations.
According to Ekman an Friesen, what is an example of an emblem?
Peace Sign
Nervous behaviors people engage in to apparently release nervous energy is an example of a
self-adapter
What are the critiques of th hypothesis of universal facial expressons?
gradient critique, forced choice critique and ecological validity critique
Four vial functions of human touch include:
soothng; signals safety; reinforcing reciprocity; proiding pleasure
Wilhelm Wundt's tridimensional theory of feelings states that any feeling can be described in terms of the degree to which they possess three qualities. Name the three
Excitement-Calm / Strain- Relaxation / Pleasentness-Unpleasentness
What are the core-thesies of Ganzheitpsychologie?
structure, development and feelings
Characterizing a brand new car as "alert" is an example of
physiognomic perception
"Wherever development occurs, it proceeds from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration." This concept has become known as Heinz Werner's
Orthogenetic Principle
The transformational structures of an emotion theory states that each emotion involves
a situation; transformation of person/environment; an instruction; advancement of personal values.
__ approaches emphasize that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions.
Discrete
Numerous critiques have been generated in response to studying appraisal retrospecively, including how:
it is not clear if concious assesments of appraisal pertain to more spontanious, rapid appraisals in the moment that produce the emotion.
Based on your reading on Heimweh, how would it be classified?
Heimweh is a particular form of Sehnsucht
According to Frijda, each emotion follows a set of stages:
Appraisal; context evaluation; action readiness; psychological change/expression/action
The fundamental attribution error involves
underestimating the situtational contraints on another's behaviour
William James was famous for his theory of emotion which claimd that
emotionally exciting fcts elicit bodily responses which lead to the experience of an emotion
Which are critiques against Jaes'autonomic specifity by Cannon?
responses of the autonoic nervous ystem are too non-specific to account for all emotions; responses are too slow for our fast emotions; responses are not specific to emotions and can occur in other states (such as illness)
The two-factor theory of emotion posits that
how people contrue emotional situtions is often a rich source to understanding their emotional experience, that psysiological arousal is often udffrentited and the ame psysiological arousal can be nterpreted differently (leading to different experiences)
In a famous study conducted by Schachterand Singer found that:
injecting partcipants with adrenaline produced euphoria for some participants and anger in others depending on the behaior of the accomplice.
The sympathetic branch of the nervous system deals with
engagement of physically demanding processes, such as increasing heart rate and blood pressure
In one expeiement, bth executive rats and subordinate rats recieved identical eectric shocks, the only difference eing whether the shocks could be
controlled
Fridja's notion of action readiness claims that
sypathetic activation ofte serves to mobilize the organizm for radiness to fight or flee
ccording to MacLean, the human brain developed through eolution in the following order:
Striatalregion, limbic systm, neocortx
As was shown during the fil on fear, the "Thalamus-Amygdala" roue can be referred to s the __,whereas the "Sensory Cortex- Amygdala" route an be referred to as __.
Low road/ high road
Based on the class lectures, which of the following would be the bet piece of adice to offer a person who is trying to minimize the adverse effects of stress on his/her health?
"Maintain a snse of control and a positive approach to life"
Reaserch in Cannon's labrotory in the 1920's indicated that cats deprived of their neocortex were liable to make sudden, inappropriate and ill-directed attacks. This phenomenon was called
sham rage
Evidence that oxytocin is associated with social bonding cmes from studies finding that
oxytocin release during the occurance of love displays, but not desire
neuroscientists have discoveed mirror neurons in the __ lobe adjacent to the __ cortex
frontal / motor
X-ray photographs of the brain are necessary to produce a
CT scan
The right brain hemisphere is superior to the left at
recognizing people's faces
Pavlov noticed that dogsbegan salivatingat the mere sightof the person who regularly brought the food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a
conditioned stimulus
Blinkin in response to a puff of air directed to yur eye is a
UCR
Achamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain food or water reinforcer is called
An operant chamber
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This est illustrates the value of
negative reinforcement
Lars, a shoe salesman, is pid every weeks, whereas Tom recieves a commission for each pair of shoes he sells. Evidently, Lars is paid on a __ scedule of reinforcement, and Tom on a __ schedule.
fixed interval/ variable ratio
The idea of discrete emotions in infancy is primarily derived from
the proposal that each emotion is individualized by an infant's facial expressions
According to the idea that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems
neurophysiological programs are constructed during early life from lower-level genetically derived componets, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the componets, and by interaction of babies with other people.
Reaserch suggests that when talked to in "motherese", infants
pay more attention and show more positive emotion than when talked to in a normal voice
One of the most frequently applied reaserch methods for studying infants' abilities to discriminate emotional expressions in other people is
habituation procedure
According to Lewin, a person's __ consisted of all the influences acting upon him/her at a given time
Life Space
A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of
a theory of mind
Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
preoperational stage
Harlow's studies of attachment in monkeys showed that
a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response
In Erickson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing __ during adolescence and then __ during young adulthood
indentity/ intimacy
An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erickson's stage of
integrity
Aggression that is a means to some other end is called
instrumental aggression
Catharsis tends to __ aggressive tendancies over time
increase
Viewing violence may increase aggression by
producing arousal, producing disinhibition and evoking imitation
The traditional aggressive sequence can be seen as
threat; aggression; defeat
John Dollard;s (1939) famous Frustration-Agression theory states that
the blocking of a goal directed behavior can lead to aggression
Fairly recently, a form of aggression has been defined that is more readily associated with girls than with boys, namely
indirect (relational) aggression
Based on your textbook, it seems that the overtness (from least to greatest) of agressiveness is:
Utku, Japan, USA, Yanomamo
What is not an effective way of reducing aggressive behavior?
Severely punishing the aggressor
Correlational reaserch indicates that wherever television viewing has become more widely available, the rate of reported homicides
increases
Sherif's study of conflict in a Boy Scount camp showed conflict could be reduced most effectively by
exposing groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation
We often have goals that are incompatable with each other, so there is no course of action that would satisfy them all. A method of doing something that is usually useful when there is no guarenteed solution is referred to as a
heuristic
The world of ticks and Gods are emotionless because the wolrd of ticks is based off __ and the world of Gods is based on __.
Reflexes/ Predictibility
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event is called
flashbulb memory
Whereas emotional stroop tests look at __, the dot experiment by Matthews (1993) looks at __
Interference/ Active Attention
The Develin Report concluded that
it is not reliable to convict someone on the basis of eyewitness unless the circumstances are exceptional or the testimony is corroborated by evidence of some other kind
On Feb 2, 1984, a sniper shot repeated rounds of ammo at children on an elementary school playground in LA. After interviewing the children who attended the school, Pynoos and Nader (1989) found that
children who were not at school that day placed themselves nearer to the event
When subjects in Sweeden and the USA were given a set of slides of what a person might see when leaving home and walking to work, Christianson and Loftus (1991) found that
subjects who say the emotional version tended to remeber the central details of the women better than those who saw the neutral version
According to the textbook, when a modd derived from one context has spilled into another to which it does not belong, we can assume a case of
misattribution
Ainsworth's famous experimental procedure designed to measure styles of attachment is called
The Strange Situation Procedure
According to the book, adults who are classified as preoccupied via the Adult Attachment Interview are likely to have shown
ambivalent attachment
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the
DSM-IV
Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate
depression
Indira, a third grade teacher, frequently suffers from diziness, heart palpitations, muscular tension and fatigue. She is also contunually agitated and unable to relax, but she cannot pinpoint the cause of her problems. She probably has
generalized anxiety disorder
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left. Her experience is most symptomatic of
obsessive-compulsive disorder
In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hoplessness and wild overexcitement?
Bipolar disorder
Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
depression
Psychologists are least likely to suggest that __ contributes to the development of schizophrenia
neglectful child-rearing practices
One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
loud and meaningless talking
Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for:
dopamine
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, called __, recovery is __
process/ unlikely
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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