Chapter 8 & The War Room Flashcards

President of the United States
Terms Definitions
_________________________ elections produce the largest voter turnout.
Presidential
__________________________ issues have increased in importance in campaigns in recent years.
Valence
A __________________________ issue is one in which the rival candidates have opposing views on a question that also divides the voters.
position
A _____________________________ issue is one in which a candidate fully supports the public’s view on a matter about which nearly everybody is in agreement.
valence
A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns is that congressional incumbents can do what?
take credit for grants/earmarks, frank
A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns is that ____________________________ campaigns are generally more competitive.
presidential
About ________ percent of promises made in political parties’ platforms between 1944 and 1964 were kept.
74
An election that brought about a significant reduction in taxes, spending, and regulatory practices was that in __________.
1980
An example of a _________________________ issue was when Jimmy Carter seemed more likely to favor honesty in government than did his opponent in 1976.
valence
Assume you are running for office on the Greenbelt ticket and need to reach all of the environmentalists in your area. Your best bet is to rely on what?
direct mail
Candidates are most at risk of verbal slips when?
debating
Compared with paid television advertising, television visuals such as an appearance by a candidate on the nightly news are probably less _________________________ but more ____________________ with voters.
informative; credible
Current finance rules for campaigns give a major financial advantage to whom?
incumbents
David Broder suggested that the first task facing anyone who wishes to become president is what?
getting mentioned
For a presidential primary candidate to be eligible for federal matching funds, he or she must first do what?
raise $20,000 in each of 5 states in contributions of $250 or less
Fundamental realignments of the major parties seem to have occurred in which elections?
1860, 1896, and 1932
Funding of congressional elections comes from what sources?
individuals, PACs, & parties
How effective are television spot ads?
zero
In numbers rather than percentages, the smallest contribution to Democratic vote totals is made by what group?
Jews
In the 1980 presidential election, many voters voted for Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter as a vote against Carter, not out of loyalty to Reagan. Such a vote is referred to as what?
clothespin
In the 2000 election George W. Bush wanted to let people put some of their Social Security money into private savings accounts; Al Gore opposed this. This is an example of a _________________________ issue.
position
Many scholars argue that the foremost factor in determining how people vote is what?
party identification
One advantage that Congressional incumbents always have over challengers is what?
franking privilege
One effect of the way that federal matching funds are made available to candidates for presidential campaigns is to give candidates an incentive to do what?
raise money from small contributions
One reason why the approach used by a candidate in a general election may not work in a primary is that a primary candidate must do what?
appeals to the more ideologically strident activists
One way for a candidate to avoid embarrassing slips of the tongue during campaigning is to do what?
rely on stock speeches
Party realignment seems to have been most closely related to what?
new and important issues
Party realignments most often occur as a result of strong disagreements over real issues. An example of an issue that caused a realignment is ___________________ in 1860, which split the _____________________________ party in half.
slavery; Democratic
Prospective voting involves voting according to what?
future expectations
Retrospective voting generally helps an incumbent except when what has happened?
the economy has worsened
Retrospective voting involves basing your vote on what?
past performance
Ronald Reagan made a dozen speeches a day to audiences all over the country while he was doing what?
spokesman for General Electric
Ronald Reagan won in 1984 primarily because of what?
voters were pleased with the economic climate
Split-ticket voting was not possible in the United States until what was adopted?
Australian ballet
The term sleeping giant can best be applied to the vote of which group?
Latinos
The costs of a general election for each major party are covered by whom?
taxpayers (except for Obama)
The Democrats have lost their once-strong hold on what three groups?
Catholics, southerners, union members
The government contributes matching funds to presidential candidates. These funds match which contributions?
up to $250
The Hoboken Democratic party raises thousands of dollars from local corporations, without regard to FEC limits, for a campaign to register voters. Has the party broken the law?
no – soft money
The kind of campaign activity most notably on the increase in recent elections is what?
broadcasting
The legal limit on what a congressional candidate may spend is what?
nonexistent
The limit set on the amount any person can contribute to a single candidate (in a single election) by the 1974 campaign-finance reform law was $_______________________.
$1,000 (now changed to $2,300)
The positive effect of television is best illustrated by the 1992 campaign of which presidential candidate?
Perot
The text argues that the U.S. constitutional system was designed to make the adoption of radical departures in policy what?
difficult
To win the presidential nomination, as opposed to the general election, candidates generally present themselves as more ____________________________ if a Democrat or more ____________________________ if a Republican.
liberal; conservative
Until the early nineteenth century, parties chose their presidential nominees by __________________________________ _________________________________.
party caucuses
Usually the first crucial test of strength in a presidential campaign comes in what state?
Iowa
What are the two crucial phases in winning an election?
getting nominated and getting elected
What groups are truly essential to a presidential campaign organization?
paid staff, volunteers, advisors
What is the value of presidential coattails to congressional candidates of the same party?
it is becoming less significant
What was the 1992 Clinton campaign’s internal slogan?
speed kills
What was the name of the command center of the 1992 Clinton campaign?
the war room
When a voter votes for the candidate whom he or she considers more likely to do a better job in office, the voting is referred to as what?
prospective
Which 1992 presidential candidate first dropped out of the race and later re-entered?
Perot
Which party tends to be more loyal to its candidate in presidential elections?
Republicans
Which party tends to do better in competing for the vote of self-described independents?
Republicans
Who served as campaign manager for President Clinton in the 1992 campaign?
James Carville
Who won the New Hampshire Democratic Primary in 1992? __________________________________ Who finished second? ___________________________________________
Paul Tsongas; Bill Clinton
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