CH 5 - Foundations of Employee Motivation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.
Motivated Employees
willing to exert a particular:level of effort (intensity)amount of time (persistence)towards a particular goal (direction)Motivation i one of the four essential drivers of individual behavior - MARS (motivation, ability, role perceptions and situational factors)
Employee Engagement
The employee's emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, perceived clarity of the organization's vision and his or her specific role in that vision, and belief that he or she has the resources to get the job done. Improves organizational effectiveness, associated with higher organizational citizenship and lower turnover intentions.
Highest levels of engagement = Mexico and BrazilLowest Levels of Engagement = Japan, China, South Korea, Italy, Netherlands, and France
Hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals. "Primary movers" of behavior because they generate emotions, which put people in a state of readiness to act on their environment.Emotions play a central role in motivation.Emotion, motivation, Latin movere 'to move'1. Social interaction2. Understanding of the environment3. Competence or status4. Defense of oneself against physiological and psychological harm
Goal-directed forces that people experience.Motivate us to do something that will increase our connectedness o and acceptance by other people. Drives produce emotions, and needs are essentially the emotional experience channeled toward goals believed to address the source of emotion.
Self-Concept + Social Norms + Past Experience
Influence:Drives (primary needs) and emotionsNeeds (secondary)Decisions and behavior
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory
A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified. People regulate their goals and behavior on the basis of social and cultural norms, and their self-concept and reinforcement in previous situations. 1. Physiological2. Safety3. Belongingness4. Esteem5. Self-Actualization
Not Included in Maslow
Desire of Knowledge & Beauty List represents primary needs / drives that are universal and innate.
Deficiency Needs
1 - 4 Maslow, activated when unfulfilled.
Growth Need
5 Self-Actualization continues to develop even when fulfilled.
Limitations and Contributions
Maslow = humanistic perspective on motivationsFirst to recognize that human thoughts (self-concept, social norms, and past experience) play a role in motivation. Need gratification rather than need deprivation.Self-Actualization suggesting that people are naturally motivated to reach their potential and that organizations and societies need to be structured to help people to continue and develop this motivation.Positive Organizational Behavior - approach advocates building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on trying to fix what might be wrong with them.
ERG Theory
A needs hierarchy theory consisting of three fundamental needs - existence, relatedness, and growth. Describes how people regress down the hierarchy when they fail to fulfill higher needs.
Need of Achievement (nAch)
A need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals and desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success. Individual characteristics influence the strenth of higher-order needs, need strength can be altered through social influences, reinforcement, learning, and social conditions. McClelland hree learned needs:1. Achievement2. Power3. Affiliation
Need of Affiliation (nAff)
A need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation.
Need for Power (nPow)
A need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power).
Four-Drive Theory
A motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend and that incorporates both emotions and rationality.
Drive to Acquire
foundation of competition and the basis for our need for esteem, insatiable because the purpose of human motivation is to achieve a higher position than others.
Drive to Bond
fundamental ingredient in the success of organizations and the development of societies, drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others, social identities aligning self-concept
Drive to Learn
related to the higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization, satisfy our curiosity, to know and understand ourselves and the environment around us
Drive to Defend
to protect ourselves physically and psychologically and socially, "fight or flight"
Four Drives are Innate and Universal
Acquire, Bond, and Learn are proactive, regularly attempted to be fulfilled.Defend is reactive, triggered by threat. Any notion of fulfilling drives is temporary.
How Drives Influence Employee Motivation
Our mental skill set relies on social norms, past experience, and personal values to direct the motivational force of our emotions to useful and acceptable goals that address the source of those emotions. The emotions generated by the four drives motivate us to act, and our mental skill set chooses courses of action that are acceptable to society and our own moral compass.
Evaluation of the Four-Drive Theory
Both holistic (relates to all drives, not just one or two) and humanistic (acknowledges the role of human thought and social influences, not just instinct)
Partial Implication to the Four-Drive Theory
the workplace should offer enough opportunity to keep all four drives in balance, ensure that individual jobs and workplaces provide a balanced opportunity to fulfill the drives to acuire, bond, learn and defend. 1. Help fulfill all four drives2. Fulfillment in balance
Expectancy Theory
A motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes. States that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes, we are motivated to achieve the goals with the highest expected payoff, an individual's effort level depends on three factors: effort to perform expectancy, performance to outcome expectancy, and outcome valences.
E-to-P Expectancy
individual's perception that effort will result in a particular level or performance
P-to-O Expectancy
perceived probability that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to a particular outcome
Outcome Valences
a valence is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome, represents a persons anticipated satisfaction with the outcome, positive or negative in relation to satisfaction of needs
Goal Setting
The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role-perceptions by establishing performance objectives.
"SMART Goals"
Specific, Relevant, Challenging, Goal Commitment, Goal Participation and Goal Feedback
Specific Goals
employees put more effort into a task when they work toward specific goals rather than "do your best" targets
Relevant Goals
goals must be relevant to the individual's job and be within his or her control
Challenging Goals
cause people to raise the intensity and persistence of their work effort and to think through information more actively, fulfill a persons achievement or growth needs when the goal is achieved, "stretch" goals are hen people do not even know how to reach them, stretches abilities and motivation, need creativity to achieve
Goal Commitment
goals should be challenging without being so difficult that employees lose their motivation to achieve them
Goal participation
goal setting is usually more effective when employees participate in setting the goals, higher level of goal commitment, improve goal quality
Goal feedback
feedback is another necessary condition for effective goal setting, any information that lets us know whether we have achieved the goal or are properly directing our effort toward it.
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
A goal-setting and reward system that translates the organization's vision and mission into specific, measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal, and learning/growth (human capital) processes.
Effective Feedback
Communication is Keyalong with clarifying role perceptions and improving employee skills and knowledge, feedback motivates when it is constructive and when employees have strong self-efficacy, as with goal setting, feedback should be specific and relevant. sufficiently frequent to keep on track, credible and trustworthy
Strength-Based Coaching
A positive organizational behavior approach to coaching and feedback that focuses on building and leveraging the employee's strengths rather than trying to correct his or her weaknesses.
Multi-score (360 degree) Feedback
Information about an employee's performance collected from a full circle of people, including subordinates, peers, supervisors, and customers.
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness in the individual's ratio of outcomes to contributions compared with a comparison other's ratio of outcomes to contributions.
Procedural Justice
Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources.
Equity Theory
A theory explaining how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distributions and exchange of resources
Inequity and Employee Motivation
Emotions are the engines of motivationMost common responses to feels of underreward inequity:1. Reduce our inputs2. Increase our outcomes3. Increase the comparison other's outputs4. Reduce the comparison other's outcomes5. Change our perceptions6. Change the comparison other7. Leave the fieldAlthough the seven responses to inequity remain the same, people who feel overreward inequity would, of course, act differently.
Equity Sensitivity
An individual's outcome/input preferences and reaction to various outcome/input ratios
Consequences of Procedural Injustice
Procedural justice has a strong influence on a person's emotions and motivation. Being treated unfairly threatens our self-concept and social status, employees retaliate to restore their self-concept and reinstate their status and power in the relationship with the perpetrator of the injustice. Engage in counterproductive behaviors to educate the decision maker, minimize the likelihood of future injustices.
Chapter Summary of Foundations of Employee Motivation
Chapter 5 - Page 156
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