BIO 112 Lab Practical II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Moss facts
Plantae->BryophytaNontracheophyte (non-vascular)
Liverwort facts
PlantaeHepaticophytaNontracheophyte
Hornwort facts
Plantae->AnthocerophytaNontracheophyte (non-vascular)
What is a gametophyte(regarding moss)?
Leafy green plant of the haploid generation
What are "leaves"(regarding moss)?
Bladelike structures spirally or alternately arranged around the axis of the moss gemetophyte
What are rhizoids(regarding moss)?
Rootlike structures anchoring the gametophyte
What is the protonema(regarding moss)?
Haploid structure produced by the germinating spore, which gives rise to the gametophyte
What is a sporophyte(regarding moss)?
The body of the diploid generation, consisting of a foot, stalk (seta), and capsule
What is a sporangium or capsule(regarding moss)?
The top portion of the moss sporophyte within which spores are produced
What are spores (regarding moss)?
Haploid reproductive structures responsible for the asexual portion of the moss lifecycle
What is an antheridium (regarding moss)?
The male reproductive organ in which sperm develop
What is sperm (regarding moss)?
The motile (flagellated) male gamete produced in an antheridium
What is an archegonium (regarding moss)?
Female gametangium in which the egg develops
What is an egg (regarding moss)?
Nonmotile female gamete produced in an archegonium
What is Mnium?
A type of mossKingdom: PlantaePhylum: BryophytaPhylogenetic Line: Nontracheophyte
What is Marchantia?
A leafy liverwortKingdom: PlantaePhylum: HepaticophytaPhylogenetic Line: Nontracheophyte
What is a thallus?
A plant structure not differentiated into roots, steams, or leaves
What are the two forms of liverworts?
Thallose- the thallus is flat, ribbonlike, and dichotomously branchedLeafy- the thallus is lobed and leaflike
What is the dominant generation of a nontracheophyte?
Gametophyte, though sporophytes are visible to the naked eye
What are cupules (regarding liverworts)?
Cups containing gemmae cups, or splash cups, which are used for reproductive purposes
What does homosporous mean?
Only one type of spore is produced
What does heterosporous mean?
Two different types of spores are produced: megaspores (female) and microspores (male)
What are tracheophytes?
Vascular land plants
Which phyla are included in tracheophytes?
Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycophyta (club mosses), Sphenophyta (horsetails), and Pterophyta (ferns)
Which phyla are included in nontracheophytes?
Bryophyta (mosses), Hepaticophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
What is a rhizome?
"root" "body"- A horizontal, usually underground stem that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
What is Lycopodium?
Kingdom: PlantaePhylum: LycophytaKnown as: Pine or club mossTracheophyteEntire patch may be connected by a single rhizome
What is a strobilus?
"whirling" A conelike structure, such as a cone of a club moss, that consists of overlapping sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis.
What is Selaginella?
Kingdom: PlantaePhylum: LycophytaKnown as: Resurrection plantTracheophyte
What is a sporophyll?
A leaf or leaflike organ that bears spores.
What are microphyllous leaves?
Sporophylls
What is Equisetum?
Kingdom:PlantaePhylum: SphenophytaKnown as: Horsetail or scouring rushesPhylogenetic Line: TracheophyteHomosporousContains silica
What is the dominant generation in tracheophytes?
Sporophyte
What are the primitive conducting tissues of Plantae?
Vascular tissues consisting of phloem and xylem
The large green leaves of ferns that we recognize are which generation?
Sporophyte
Which generation is diploid?
Sporophyte
Which generation is haploid?
Gametophyte
What are the two types of sori?
Bare- with spores exposedNot bare- located on the margins and rolled back
What are sori?
Clusters of sporangia produce found on the underside of fern fronds that will produce haploid spores by meiosis
What is the heart-shaped haploid gametophyte of a fern called?
Prothallus
What structures of Pterophyta hold the eggs and which hold the sperm?
Archegonia- eggsAntheridia- sperm
What is necessary for fern eggs' fertilization?
Water, since the sperm are flagellated
What are adventitious roots?
Roots extending from the rhizome
What are gynosperms?
Plants with "naked", or unprotected, seeds
What is the dominant generation in angiosperms and gymnosperms?
Sporophyte
As a rule, how many archegonia are found in the megagametophyte?
Two
What is the nucellus?
The megasporangium
When a pollen grain, dispersed by the wind, settles onto an ovule, what happens next?
The pollen grain produces a special structure called a pollen tube, that transports the sperm into the vicinity of the egg (no water required!)
What is the generalized lifecycle of the vascular plants?
FERTILIZATION ->Zygote ->Embryo ->Mature sporophyte-> mega/microsporophyll ->mega/microsporangium (2n) ->MEIOSIS ->mega/microspore (1n) ->mega/microgametophyte ->egg or sperm
The egg, remaining inside the famale megasporangium, is often bourn on what?
A leaflike megasporophyll of the sporophyte plant
What is the function of integuments?
A protective tissue that covers the young plant embryo
What is the entire structure consisting of the megaspore in the megasporangium covered by integuments as seed coats called?
Ovule
What are the four phyla of existant gynmnosperms?
Coniferophyta (conifers), Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (ginkgos), and Gnetophyta (gnetophytes)
What does angiosperm mean?
Covered seed
What are seeds covered with and where are they located in angiosperms?
Covered by an ovuleLocated in the flower, later becoming a fruit
What are the two classes angiosperms are divided into?
Dicots (dicotyledons) and monocots (monocotyledons); These refer to the embryo having two seed leaves (dicots) or one (monocots)
How can flower parts help distinguish between monocots and dicots?
Dicots usually have flower parts arranged in fours or fivesMonocots usually have flower parts arranged in multiples of threes
What is the peduncle?
A narrow stalk that bears a flower or group of flowers
What is inflorescence?
A group of flowers
What is a pedicel?
The stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence
What is a receptacle?
The part of the flower stalk to which floral parts are attached
What are sepals?
The outer leafy parts of the flower that enclose the outer flower parts, protect the bud, and surround the ovary
What is the calyx?
The collective outer leafy parts
What are petals?
Conspicuous inner whorl of flower parts that are often brightly colored
What is the corolla?
The collective petals
What is a stamen?
The male reproductive part of the flower made of microsporophylls, consisting of a filament and two-lobed anther, which produce pollen grains (male gametophytes) after pollination
What is a carpel?
Free (individual) or fused, it is the female reproductive part of the flower
What is a pistil?
Composed of carpels, it is differentiated into a lower part, ovary, and upper part, stigma
What is the function of a style?
The style connects the ovary to the stigma
What is the placenta?
The portion of the ovary to which the ovules are attached
What is double fertilization?
When one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg cell (forming a 2n zygote) and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei (forming a polyploid 3n or 5n endosperm)
What are metazoans?
Multicellular organisms considered to be animals
What are parazoans?
Metazoans with poorly defined tissues and no internal organs, such as sponges
What are the two phyla that are parazoan?
Porifera and Placozoa
What are eumetazoans?
Metazoans with internal organs, and a digestive cavity with at least one opening, the mouth
What is a spongocoel?
The central cavity of a sponge
What is the osculum?
The excurrent opening of a sponge
What are ostia?
The tiny pores of the sponge through which water is taken in
What are choanocytes?
Flagellated collar cells on the inner surface which strain small particles from the water and thus serve in filter-feeding
What are amoebocytes?
In the middle jellylike layer of the sponge, these tiny organisms secrete a skeleton of calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, or spongin
What is spongin?
A protein secretion of amoebocytes
What are spicules?
Tiny rodlike skeletal elements that make sponges hard
Most sponges are hermaphroditic. What does that mean?
Each individual has both male and femals gonads
As an adult, sponges are sessile. What does this mean?
They are non-mobile, being attached to a substrate
What does a sponge zygote develop into?
A flagellated, free-swimming, hollow-balled larva
What are epithelial cells of a sponge?
Flattened cells on the outer surface making up the pinacoderm
What kind of symmetry does cnidaria generally have?
Radial symmetry
What types of tissue layers are cnidaria composed of?
Two (diploblastic): the outer epidermis and the inner gastrodermis, separated by a gelatinous matrix called the mesoglea
What are cnidarians named after?
Cnidocytes, which contain stinging organelles called nematocysts
What are the two body forms found among cnidarians?
Polyp and medusa
What is a colonial cnidarian?
Where polyps and medusae share the functions of gathering food
What is a gastrovascular cavity?
A digestive cavity with a single opening
What is a hydrostatic skeleton?
A structural support system made by the water-filled gastrovascular cavity and longitudinal epidermal fibers
How do cnidarians reproduce?
Asexually- through fragmentation and buddingSexually- with eggs and sperm
What are planula larvae?
Free-swimming ciliated larvae characteristic of most cnidarians
What is Ctenophora?
A phylum containing organisms that are:DiploblasticBiradially symmetricalMedusoid body with fibers, amoebocytes, and muscle cellsNo nematocystsContains comb jellies
What does diploblastic mean?
Having two tissues
What are anthozoans?
Flowering animals, such as the sea anemone
What does triploblatic mean?
Possessing three embyonic tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
What are the four worm phyla?
Platyhelminthes (flatworms), Rhynchocoela (ribbon or proboscis worms), Nematoda (roundworms), Annelida (segmented worms)
What are the three classes of Platyhelminthes, and which are parasitic?
Turbellaria (planarians), Trematoda (flukes), and Cestoda (tapeworms)Trematoda and Cestoda are parasitic
What kind of symmetry do all worms possess at some time in their lives?
Bilateral
Platyhelminthes are acoelomate. What does that mean?
Their organs are embedded in their mesodermal tissue because they have no coelom
What phyla exhibits the first extensive organ-system level of development?
Platyhelminthes
What is the locomotion of freeliving Platyhelminthes?
Cilia
What does the nervous system of freeliving Platyhelminthes (turbellarians) consist of?
A small anterior ganglionic 'brain' and longitudinal nerve cords
What are ocelli?
Photoreceptive neurons (which are shaded by eyespots of pigment concentrations
What is the turbellarian digestive tract?
A blind sac without an anus, thus the mouth is used both for ingestion and egestion
What are protonephridia?
Primitive osmoregulatory structures
What can be said of flatworm reproduction?
They are hermaphroditic
Which class of Platyhelminthes has free-swimming larvae?
Turbellians
What is Taenia?
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: PlatyhelminthesClass: CestodaKnown as: Tapeworm
What is the scolex?
The knoblike anterior end of a tapeworm, having suckers or hooklike parts that in the adult stage serve as organs of attachment to the host on which the tapeworm is parasitic.
What are proglottids?
Segmentlike reproductive structures of tapeworms formed by budding in the neck region behind the scolex
What is the phylum Rhynchocoela also known as?
Nemertea (nemertines), (ribbon worms or proboscis worms)
What is a proboscis?
A long tube coiled in a body cavity, the rhyncocoel
What makes ribbon worms more evolved than flatworms?
They have two digestive openings (mouth and anus), a closed circulatory system, and the protonephridia works in an excretory function instead of just osmoregularity
What is included in the closed circulatory system of ribbon worms?
A dorsal nerve cord, two lateral nerve cords, two lateral vessels connected anteriorly and posteriorly
What makes proboscis worms different reproductively than flatworms?
Sexes are separate in most nemertines and fertilization is external
What is the function of a proboscis?
When rapidly extended by hydrostatic pressure, it impales prey with the stylet or entangles it
What can be said of the reproduction of nematodes?
Sexes are separate
List three characteristics of nematodes and an example.
Can be freeliving or parasiticUnsegmentedHas a pseudocoelomHas a true gut with two digestive openingsIncludes hookworms, intestinal roundworms, and pinworms
What is a true coelom?
It is a second body cavity completely lined with mesoderm
What is a pseudocoelom?
A secondary body cavity partially lined with mesoderm
What is the difference between dioecious and monoecious?
Dioecious is where the sexes are separated and monoecious is where sexes are in the same organism
What is trichinosis caused by?
Roundworms (specifically Trichinella) are ingested
List two characteristics of annelids
Most are freelivingHave true coeloms
What does schizocoelous mean?
A split in the coelom's mesoderm
What does enterocoelous mean?
A type of coelom formed by evagination of the enteron (primitive gut)
What are septa?
Segments
What are three classes of Annelida?
Polychaetes (sand worms)Oligochaetes (freshwater annelids and earthworms)Hirudinea (leeches)
What are parapodia, and who has them?
Fleshy appendages on the body segmentsPolychaetes
What is the exception to all Annelids having setae?
Hirudinea (leeches)
What is the prostomium?
The first part of the worm above and anterior to the mouth
What is the pygidium?
The last end of the worm, bearing the anus
What is the cuticle?
A delicate, iridescent, nonliving membrane secreted by the epidermis with numerous pores
What two phylogenetic lines are invertebrates divided into?
Deuterostomes and protostomes
What characterizes a protostome ("first mouth")?
Determinate cell divisionSpiral cleavageBlastopore becomes the mouthCoelom develops as a schizocoel
What characterizes a deuterostome ("second mouth")?
Indeterminate cell divisionRadial cleavageBlastopore becomes posterior opening of the gut and mouth forms laterCoelom develops as an enterocoel (evagination of the enteron)
What are the three regions of the general body plan of a mollusc?
The head-foot (used in locomotion and food capture)The visceral hump or mass (contains major organ systems)The mantle (soft tissue secreting the calcium-containing shell present in many molluscs)
List three characteristics of a mollusc.
Bilaterally symmetricalCoelomateApparently unsegmented
What kind of circulatory system do molluscs have?
Open, with a chambered heart (one ventricle and two atria)
What do molluscs use to drain the relatively small ceoelom surrounding the heart and intestine?
The metanephridia
Where are gills present in molluscs?
The mantle cavity
Give info on a chiton.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: MolluscaClass: PolyplacophoraPhylogenetic Line: ProtostomaSegmented shell, but unsegmented internal structure
Give info on a clam.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: MolluscaClass: BivalviaPhylogenetic Line: ProtostomeShell contains three layers: outer horny layer, middle prismatic layer, inner pearly layer
Give info on a snail.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: MolluscaClass: GastropodaDirection of coil in the shell is determined as early as the 8-cell stage
What does mollusc blood contain?
Hemocyanin, an oxygen-carrying respiratory pigment
When you poke a snail and it retreats into the shell, what covers the opening of the shell?
The operculum, a disk-shaped plate
Give info on a squid.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: MolluscaClass: CephalopodaPhylogenetic Line: Protostoma
What are the three main parts of a segmented arthropod body?
Head, thorax, and abdomen
What is the arthropod exoskeleton composed of?
Chitin
What is molting?
The process of shedding the chitinous exoskeleton
Give info on a scorpion or tarantula.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaSubphylum: ChelicerataClass: ArachnidaPhylogenetic Line: Protostoma
Give info on a crayfish.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaSubphylum: CrustaceaClass: MalacostracaPhylogenetic line: Protostoma
What are chelicerae?
The first pair of appendages in the form of pincers or fangs, such as in spiders
What characterizes mandibulates?
Biramous (two-branched) appendages, two pairs of antennae, mandibles (jaws), and a pair of compound eyes
What characterizes uniramia?
Uniramous (unbranched) appendages and one pair of antennae
Give info on sand dollars.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: EchinodermataClass: EchinoideaPhylogenetic line: Deuterostoma
List four characteristics of echinoderms.
Spiny protective skinFive-part structureNumerous small appendagesTube feet
What are the major classes of the phylum Echinodermata?
Stelleroidea (starfish and brittlestars)Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins)Crinoidea (sea lilies)Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
What is the function of the coelom in echinoderms?
Carries out circulatory, respiratory, and excretory functions
What is exceptional about the skeleton of echinoderms?
They have internal skeletons made of flattened calcareous plates called ossicles
What are ambulacrae?
The pattern of "arms" on a sand dollar which are edged with tiny perforations through which tube feet project
What is a madreporite?
A small round perforated plate palced somewhat off-center on the central disk that guards the opening through which water enters the water vascular system
What is a peristome?
A membrane-covered open ring at the center of the oral surface containing the gills
Give info on Grantia.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: PoriferaKnown as: Sponge
Give info on Obelia.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: CnidariaKnown as: Hydrozoan colonial cnidarian
Give info on Ascaris.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: NematodaKnown as: Intestinal roundworm
Give info on Lumbricus.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: AnnelidaKnown as: Earthworm
Give info on Amphioxus.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataSubphylum: CephalochordataKnown as: Sea lancet
What are the four characteristics of chordates?
Pharangeal gill slits or pouches, post anal tail, dorsal tubular nerve cord, notochord
What is a notocord?
A flexible incompressible supporting skeletal rod
What is a dorsal tubular nerve cord?
A nerve cord lying above the notocord
Where are pharangeal gill slits located?
Aka visceral or gill pouches, they are located in the pharynx, the anterior region of the gut
Give info on perch.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Osteichthyes
Give info on dogfish.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Chondrichthyes
Give info on frogs.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Amphibia
Give info on birds.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Aves
Give info on pigs.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Mammalia
Give info on reptiles.
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Reptilia
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