Strings Orchestration Flashcards

Bow
Terms Definitions
Tuning of the Four Violin Strings
G D A E
Tuning of the Four Viola Strings
C G D A
Tuning of the Four Cello Strings
C G D A
Tuning of the Four Double Bass Strings
(C) E A D G
non div.
Players perform double/triple/quadruple stops.
divisi/div.
Right player on top, left player on bottom.
da leggiipar pupitrespultweise
Divide by stand.
la metala moitiedie halfte
Only players on the right side of the stand should play (the other half should not).
tuttitousalle
All play.
senza vibratonon vibrato
Without vibrato.
sur Sol
To be played on one string.
portamento vs. glissando
Portamento is a minimal slide, glissando is a slide at full volume.
fingered glissando
Written-out glissando -- every pitch is notated. Sounds like a blurred glissando.
Non legato
No slurs.
Detache
One note per bow used, clearly articulated. Played in the middle of the bow.
al talloneau talonam frosch
Played at the frog.
LourePortato
Slightly separated notes as the bow is drawn across the string. Notated by dashes.
Separate Bow Staccato
Notes are played separated and with separate bows for each note.
Slurred StaccatoHooked Bows
Separation of a series of short notes on one bow.
MarteleMartellatoMarcato
Fast, well-articulated, heavy, separate stroke, resembling a sforzando.
Conscious Spiccato
In a slow or moderate tempo, the bow bounces lightly off the strings.
Spontaneous SpiccatoSaltando
At a fast tempo, the bow bounces off the strings.
Slurred Spiccato
The bow bounces of the string, causing notes to be played in a single bow.
JeteRicochet
The upper third of the bow is thrown on the string so that it will bounce, producing rapid pitches.
Arpeggiando
A natural bounced arpeggio at a fast tempo.
Trill
Executed by holding down the string of the pitch printed in the score with the appropriate finger and playing and releasing the next higher note with the adjacent upper finger as rapidly as possible for the entire value of the printed note.
Bowed Tremolo
A single pitch repeated as often as possible during the length of the written note.
Fingered Tremolo
An interval of a second or larger is quickly repeated.
Sul tastoSur la toucheAm griffbrett
Bow played on fingerboard, producing a soft and hazy tone.
Sul ponticelloAu chevaletAm steg
Playing very near the bridge, producing a metallic, eerie sound. Usually combined with tremolo.
Col legno trattoAvec le bois
Wooden stick dragged across string, creating a wispy sound.
NormaleNaturaleIn modo ordinado
Resume normal bowing.
Pizzicato, pizz.
Plucking of the strings with the fingers.
Arco
Resume playing with the bow after pizzicato.
Left-hand Pizzicato
When a cross (+) appears above a note, the string is plucked with one of the fingers of the left hands. Often, these are open strings.
Snap PizzicatoFingernail PizzicatoBartok Pizzicato
Snapping the string against the fingerboard.
Con sordinoAvec sourdineMit dampfer
A mute is placed on the bridge to suppress harmonics.
Senza sordinoSans sourdineOhne dampfer
Take the mute off.
Scordatura
Open strings altered in pitch.
Accordatura/Accord
Back to original tuning.
Natural Harmonics
Pitches produced by touching a string lightly at various points called nodes. Harmonics/partials result.Violin example:I-sul G II-sul D III-sul A IV-sul E
Touch Fourth Harmonics
Pitch produced is two octaves above stopped note.
Battute
Strike the tailpiece with the wood of the bow.
Touch Minor Third Harmonics
Pitch produced is two octaves and a fifth above the stopped note.
Ranges
Violin: G3 to B7Viola: C3 to B6Cello: C2 to E6Bass: C1/E1 to G4
Touch Major Third Harmonics
Pitch produced is two octaves and a major third above the stopped note.
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